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The mysterious world of fungi is once again unearthed in this expansive second edition. This textbook provides readers with an all-embracing view of the kingdom Fungi, ranging in scope from ecology and evolution, diversity and taxonomy, cell biology and biochemistry, to genetics and genomics, biotechnology and bioinformatics. Adopting a unique systems biology approach - and using explanatory figures and colour illustrations - the authors emphasise the diverse interactions between fungi and other organisms. They outline how recent advances in molecular techniques and computational biology have fundamentally changed our understanding of fungal biology, and have updated chapters and references throughout the book in light of this. This is a fascinating and accessible guide, which will appeal to a broad readership - from aspiring mycologists at undergraduate and graduate level to those studying related disciplines. Online resources are hosted on a complementary website.
Methamphetamine (MA) dependence contributes to neurotoxicity and neurocognitive deficits. Although combined alcohol and MA misuse is common, how alcohol consumption relates to neurocognitive performance among MA users remains unclear. We hypothesized that alcohol and MA use would synergistically diminish neurocognitive functioning, such that greater reported alcohol consumption would exert larger negative effects on neurocognition among MA-dependent individuals compared to MA-nonusing persons.
Eighty-seven MA-dependent (MA+) and 114 MA-nonusing (MA−) adults underwent neuropsychological and substance use assessments. Linear and logistic regressions examined the interaction between MA status and lifetime average drinks per drinking day on demographically corrected global neurocognitive T scores and impairment rates, controlling for recent alcohol use, lifetime cannabis use, WRAT reading performance, and lifetime depression.
MA+ displayed moderately higher rates of impairment and lower T scores compared to MA−. Lifetime alcohol use significantly interacted with MA status to predict global impairment (ORR = 0.70, p = .003) such that greater lifetime alcohol use increased likelihood of impairment in MA−, but decreased likelihood of impairment in MA+. Greater lifetime alcohol use predicted poorer global T scores among MA− (b = −0.44, p = .030) but not MA+ (b = 0.08, p = .586).
Contrary to expectations, greater lifetime alcohol use related to reduced risk of neurocognitive impairment among MA users. Findings are supported by prior research identifying neurobiological mechanisms by which alcohol may attenuate stimulant-driven vasoconstriction and brain thermotoxicity. Replication and examination of neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying alcohol use in the context of MA dependence are warranted to elucidate whether alcohol confers a degree of neuroprotection.
Objectives: Studies of neurocognitively elite older adults, termed SuperAgers, have identified clinical predictors and neurobiological indicators of resilience against age-related neurocognitive decline. Despite rising rates of older persons living with HIV (PLWH), SuperAging (SA) in PLWH remains undefined. We aimed to establish neuropsychological criteria for SA in PLWH and examined clinically relevant correlates of SA. Methods: 734 PLWH and 123 HIV-uninfected participants between 50 and 64 years of age underwent neuropsychological and neuromedical evaluations. SA was defined as demographically corrected (i.e., sex, race/ethnicity, education) global neurocognitive performance within normal range for 25-year-olds. Remaining participants were labeled cognitively normal (CN) or impaired (CI) based on actual age. Chi-square and analysis of variance tests examined HIV group differences on neurocognitive status and demographics. Within PLWH, neurocognitive status differences were tested on HIV disease characteristics, medical comorbidities, and everyday functioning. Multinomial logistic regression explored independent predictors of neurocognitive status. Results: Neurocognitive status rates and demographic characteristics differed between PLWH (SA=17%; CN=38%; CI=45%) and HIV-uninfected participants (SA=35%; CN=55%; CI=11%). In PLWH, neurocognitive groups were comparable on demographic and HIV disease characteristics. Younger age, higher verbal IQ, absence of diabetes, fewer depressive symptoms, and lifetime cannabis use disorder increased likelihood of SA. SA reported increased independence in everyday functioning, employment, and health-related quality of life than non-SA. Conclusions: Despite combined neurological risk of aging and HIV, youthful neurocognitive performance is possible for older PLWH. SA relates to improved real-world functioning and may be better explained by cognitive reserve and maintenance of cardiometabolic and mental health than HIV disease severity. Future research investigating biomarker and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity) correlates of SA may help identify modifiable neuroprotective factors against HIV-related neurobiological aging. (JINS, 2019, 25, 507–519)
From 1565 to 1570, Spain established no fewer than three networks of presidios (fortified military settlements) across portions of its frontier territories in La Florida and New Spain. Juan Pardo's network of six forts, extending from the Atlantic coast over the Appalachian Mountains, was the least successful of these presidio systems, lasting only from late 1566 to early 1568. The failure of Pardo's defensive network has long been attributed to poor planning and an insufficient investment of resources. Yet recent archaeological discoveries at the Berry site in western North Carolina—the location of both the Native American town of Joara and Pardo's first garrison, Fort San Juan—warrants a reappraisal of this interpretation. While previous archaeological research at Berry concentrated on the domestic compound where Pardo's soldiers resided, the location of the fort itself remained unknown. In 2013, the remains of Fort San Juan were finally identified south of the compound, the first of Pardo's interior forts to be discovered by archaeologists. Data from excavations and geophysical surveys suggest that it was a substantial defensive construction. We attribute the failure of Pardo's network to the social geography of the Native South rather than to an insufficient investment of resources.
Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos in the United States, yet little is known about neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in this group. We compared the rates of NCI in large well-characterized samples of HIV-infected (HIV+) Latinos and (non-Latino) Whites, and examined HIV-associated NCI among subgroups of Latinos. Methods: Participants included English-speaking HIV+ adults assessed at six U.S. medical centers (194 Latinos, 600 Whites). For overall group, age: M=42.65 years, SD=8.93; 86% male; education: M=13.17, SD=2.73; 54% had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. NCI was assessed with a comprehensive test battery with normative corrections for age, education and gender. Covariates examined included HIV-disease characteristics, comorbidities, and genetic ancestry. Results: Compared with Whites, Latinos had higher rates of global NCI (42% vs. 54%), and domain NCI in executive function, learning, recall, working memory, and processing speed. Latinos also fared worse than Whites on current and historical HIV-disease characteristics, and nadir CD4 partially mediated ethnic differences in NCI. Yet, Latinos continued to have more global NCI [odds ratio (OR)=1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13–2.23; p<.01] after adjusting for significant covariates. Higher rates of global NCI were observed with Puerto Rican (n=60; 71%) versus Mexican (n=79, 44%) origin/descent; this disparity persisted in models adjusting for significant covariates (OR=2.40; CI=1.11–5.29; p=.03). Conclusions: HIV+ Latinos, especially of Puerto Rican (vs. Mexican) origin/descent had increased rates of NCI compared with Whites. Differences in rates of NCI were not completely explained by worse HIV-disease characteristics, neurocognitive comorbidities, or genetic ancestry. Future studies should explore culturally relevant psychosocial, biomedical, and genetic factors that might explain these disparities and inform the development of targeted interventions. (JINS, 2018, 24, 163–175)
The strong self-damped Lyman α absorption systems present in the spectra of high redshift QSOs represent a unique population of absorber which has recently been associated with the precursors of current disk galaxies. In a low resolution survey for what we have come to call “Lyman α disk systems” performed at Lick Observatory (Wolfe, et al. 1986, Ap. J. Suppl. 61, 249) approximately 18 systems with confirmed damped Lyman α profiles and rest frame equivalent widths greater than 5 Å were detected in a sample of 68 high redshift QSOs (Smith, Cohen and Bradley 1986, Ap. J. 310, 583). Subsequent higher resolution study has shown these systems to have the following properties (Turnshek, et al. 1988, Ap. J., in press):
2.Low-mixed ionization state. Typically the low ionization states dominate the high ionization states (e.g. CII ≫ CIV). Some enrichment has occurred, −2≲[X/H]⊙ ≲0.
3.Gas density, n ≲ 1 cm−3.
4.The gas shows two components, a quiescent (disk) component, σν ≲ 10 km s−1, and a turbulent (halo) component, σν ≲ 20 km s−1. Some systems show only the low velocity dispersion component.
5.At least one system intervening toward a radio QSO (Pks 0458-020) shows 21-cm absorption. The system shows multiple cloud structure with σν ≈ 6 km s−1, Ts ≈ 100 K, and structure extended over several kpc on the sky.
6.There is evidence that these systems may be self gravitating with scale height of the order of 300 pc.
7.These systems represent a unique population of absorber (distinct from the ‘Lyman a forest’ and heavy element systems) covering approximately 20% of the sky to z ≈ 3 and accounting for all of the baryonic matter at that redshift.
Accurate discrimination of two morphologically similar species of Patella limpets has been facilitated by using qPCR amplification of species-specific mitochondrial genomic regions. Cost-effective and non-destructive sampling is achieved using a mucus swab and simple sample lysis and dilution to create a PCR template. Results show 100% concurrence with dissection and microscopic analysis, and the technique has been employed successfully in field studies. The use of highly sensitive DNA barcoding techniques such as this hold great potential for improving previously challenging field assessments of species abundance.
We have built an imaging polarimeter for use at mid-infrared wavelengths (i.e. N band or 8–13 μm). The detecting element is a 128 × 128 element Si:Ga Focal Plane Array, supplied by Amber Engineering, USA. The polarimeter itself provides diffraction limited images on a 4-m class telescope and has a field of view of about 32 arcsec of sky with 0·25 arcsec pixels. We describe the optical design, control electronics, observing modes and detector sensitivities. Also presented are some observational results to demonstrate the power of this new imaging polarimetric system.
Beginning with Kathleen Deagan’s description of the St. Augustine Pattern, in which domestic relations between Spanish men and Native American women contributed to a pattern of mestizaje in Spanish colonies, gender has assumed a central role in archaeological perspectives on colonial encounters. This is especially true for those encounters that accompanied colonialism in the Americas during the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries. Gender relations were essential to the creation of new cultural identities during this time, as indigenous communities encountered immigrant, European settler groups often comprised mostly or entirely of adult men. Yet as significant as gender is for understanding how an encounter unfolded in time and space, it can be a challenge to identify and evaluate the archaeological correlates of such relations through material culture patterns. In this article, we use the related domains of food and foodways, particularly in the social context of provisioning, to evaluate how gender relations changed during the occupation of Fort San Juan de Joara (1566–1568), located at the Berry site in western North Carolina. Our research contributes to reappraisals of the St. Augustine Pattern, which posits well-defined roles for Native American women and Spanish men, by likewise situating the agency of Native American men.
Congenital abnormalities of the coronary arteries in the absence of structural heart disease account for a small but interesting percentage of cardiac lesions in children. Their presentation may vary from incidental identification to aborted/sudden cardiac death. Patients with aborted sudden death episodes will require significant support if they develop extensive ischaemic myocardial injury. Ultimately, surgical repair should be carried out as soon as haemodynamic stability is attained and the neurological status is evaluated. The aims of this article were to provide a review of congenital abnormalities of the coronary arteries most commonly seen in children in the ICU as well as to review the current critical-care management thereof.
Stroke usually occurs in the latter years of life, is sudden and all too often unexpected and unforgiving. When non-fatal, stroke, the second leading cause of disability after dementia, is nearly always disabling (World Health Organization (WHO), 2011). Due to common ensuing physical and cognitive impairments, many stroke survivors are unable to care for themselves in the following weeks, months, and possibly years (Lutz et al., 2011). Thus, the caregiver role is instant and often long-term with no or very little time to adapt to the many, varied and immediate challenges.
This investigation examined the relationship between teachers’ beliefs and their preferences for classroom interventions for behaviours consistent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Teacher ratings of intervention acceptability, effectiveness, and rate of change were compared across United States and New Zealand samples. Beliefs examined were personal teaching efficacy, general teaching efficacy, and pupil control ideology (PCI). Samples were compared regarding their preferences for the daily report card, response cost technique, classroom lottery, and medication as classroom strategies for managing ADHD-related behavioural concerns. Data were analysed using general linear modelling techniques, and an interaction was demonstrated between ADHD intervention x PCI x nationality. Differences were observed for ADHD interventions across samples based upon pupil control orientations. Implications for educators and their classroom practices are discussed.