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Organismal metabolic rates reflect the interaction of environmental and physiological factors. Thus, calcifying organisms that record growth history can provide insight into both the ancient environments in which they lived and their own physiology and life history. However, interpreting them requires understanding which environmental factors have the greatest influence on growth rate and the extent to which evolutionary history constrains growth rates across lineages. We integrated satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration with a database of growth coefficients, body sizes, and life spans for 692 populations of living marine bivalves in 195 species, set within the context of a new maximum-likelihood phylogeny of bivalves. We find that environmental predictors overall explain only a small proportion of variation in growth coefficient across all species; temperature is a better predictor of growth coefficient than food supply, and growth coefficient is somewhat more variable at higher summer temperatures. Growth coefficients exhibit moderate phylogenetic signal, and taxonomic membership is a stronger predictor of growth coefficient than any environmental predictor, but phylogenetic inertia cannot fully explain the disjunction between our findings and the extensive body of work demonstrating strong environmental control on growth rates within taxa. Accounting for evolutionary history is critical when considering shells as historical archives. The weak relationship between variation in food supply and variation in growth coefficient in our data set is inconsistent with the hypothesis that the increase in mean body size through the Phanerozoic was driven by increasing productivity enabling faster growth rates.
Childhood maltreatment is one of the strongest predictors of adulthood depression and alterations to circulating levels of inflammatory markers is one putative mechanism mediating risk or resilience.
To determine the effects of childhood maltreatment on circulating levels of 41 inflammatory markers in healthy individuals and those with a major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis.
We investigated the association of childhood maltreatment with levels of 41 inflammatory markers in two groups, 164 patients with MDD and 301 controls, using multiplex electrochemiluminescence methods applied to blood serum.
Childhood maltreatment was not associated with altered inflammatory markers in either group after multiple testing correction. Body mass index (BMI) exerted strong effects on interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels in those with MDD.
Childhood maltreatment did not exert effects on inflammatory marker levels in either the participants with MDD or the control group in our study. Our results instead highlight the more pertinent influence of BMI.
Declaration of interest
D.A.C. and H.W. work for Eli Lilly Inc. R.N. has received speaker fees from Sunovion, Jansen and Lundbeck. G.B. has received consultancy fees and funding from Eli Lilly. R.H.M.-W. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Ferrer, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, MyTomorrows, Otsuka, Pfizer, Pulse, Roche, Servier, SPIMACO and Sunovian. I.M.A. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with Alkermes, Lundbeck, Lundbeck/Otsuka, and Servier. S.W. has sat on an advisory board for Sunovion, Allergan and has received speaker fees from Astra Zeneca. A.H.Y. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, Lundbeck, Eli Lilly, Sunovion; honoraria for consulting from Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck, Sunovion, Janssen; and research grant support from Janssen. A.J.C. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, honoraria for consulting with Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck and research grant support from Lundbeck.
Little is known about the prevalence of mental health outcomes in UK personnel at the end of the British involvement in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts.
We examined the prevalence of mental disorders and alcohol misuse, whether this differed between serving and ex-serving regular personnel and by deployment status.
This is the third phase of a military cohort study (2014–2016; n = 8093). The sample was based on participants from previous phases (2004–2006 and 2007–2009) and a new randomly selected sample of those who had joined the UK armed forces since 2009.
The prevalence was 6.2% for probable post-traumatic stress disorder, 21.9% for common mental disorders and 10.0% for alcohol misuse. Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan and a combat role during deployment were associated with significantly worse mental health outcomes and alcohol misuse in ex-serving regular personnel but not in currently serving regular personnel.
The findings highlight an increasing prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder and a lowering prevalence of alcohol misuse compared with our previous findings and stresses the importance of continued surveillance during service and beyond.
Declaration of interest:
All authors are based at King's College London which, for the purpose of this study and other military-related studies, receives funding from the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD). S.A.M.S., M.J., L.H., D.P., S.M. and R.J.R. salaries were totally or partially paid by the UK MoD. The UK MoD provides support to the Academic Department of Military Mental Health, and the salaries of N.J., N.G. and N.T.F. are covered totally or partly by this contribution. D.Mu. is employed by Combat Stress, a national UK charity that provides clinical mental health services to veterans. D.MacM. is the lead consultant for an NHS Veteran Mental Health Service. N.G. is the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Lead for Military and Veterans’ Health, a trustee of Walking with the Wounded, and an independent director at the Forces in Mind Trust; however, he was not directed by these organisations in any way in relation to his contribution to this paper. N.J. is a full-time member of the armed forces seconded to King's College London. N.T.F. reports grants from the US Department of Defense and the UK MoD, is a trustee (unpaid) of The Warrior Programme and an independent advisor to the Independent Group Advising on the Release of Data (IGARD). S.W. is a trustee (unpaid) of Combat Stress and Honorary Civilian Consultant Advisor in Psychiatry for the British Army (unpaid). S.W. is affiliated to the National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Emergency Preparedness and Response at King's College London in partnership with Public Health England, in collaboration with the University of East Anglia and Newcastle University. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the National Health Service, the NIHR, the Department of Health, Public Health England or the UK MoD.
We agree with Rotolo et al.’s (2018) assertion that talent management is a space where the academic–practice gap in industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology is quite cavernous and where the vulnerabilities to anti-I-O (AIO) are high. As researchers who began a journey a few years ago to explore the high potential (HiPo) identification process from the science perspective (largely inspired by Silzer & Church, 2009), we echo the frustration that the current focal authors express with the science-side lag in this area. For us, what started as a question from a senior officer in the Army turned into the development of a theoretical model and the start of multilocation research lab designed to further the understanding and success of the HiPo identification process. Our objective is to share a bit of our journey that got us to this point and some lessons for others inspired by this focal article to become anti-anti-I-O (AAIO) warriors.
It is no surprise that development institutions and actors have taken to indicators with such enthusiasm. Where indicators are both a form of knowledge production and simultaneously a technology of governance, they are a form of soft powers that allow such actors to set the standards for what it is to be developed in the twenty-first century. Such measures of civilisation have been dominant throughout a history of Global North–South encounters: measurement was central to the many forms of colonial control, from map-making to craniometry, to the global ‘discovery’ of poverty in the 1940s. This paper seeks to place development indicators in this colonial context by focusing on the issue of comparability or the global claim that underpins global development indicators.
Network meta-analysis (NMA) is a statistical technique for making direct and indirect comparisons between different treatment and control groups. Despite its many advantages, NMA may be misleading when evaluating networks that are disconnected, inconsistent or of low reliability and validity. We review how well the analysis of trials of adjunctive psychosocial treatment in bipolar disorder is served by NMA. We conclude with recommendations for future treatment trials in bipolar disorder and guidelines for NMAs.
Life has been described as information flowing in molecular streams (Dawkins, 1996).Our growing understanding of the impact of horizontal gene transfer on evolutionary dynamics reinforces this fluid-like flow of molecular information (Joyce, 2002). The diversity of nucleic acid sequences, those known and yet to be characterized across Earth's varied environments, along with the vast repertoire of catalytic and structural proteins, presents as more of a dynamic molecular river than a tree of life. These informational biopolymers function as a mutualistic union so universal as to have been termed the Central Dogma (Crick, 1958). It is the distinct folding dynamics-the digital-like base pairing dominating nucleic acids, and the environmentally responsive and diverse range of analog-like interactions dictating protein folding (Goodwin et al., 2012)-that provides the basis for the mutualism. The intertwined functioning of these analog and digital forms of information (Goodwin et al., 2012) unified within diverse chemical networks is heralded as the Darwinian threshold of cellular life (Woese, 2002).
The discovery of prion diseases (Chien et al., 2004; Jablonka and Raz, 2009; Paravastu et al., 2008) introduced the paradigm of protein templates that propagate conformational information, suggesting a new context for Darwinian evolution. When taking both protein and nucleic acid moelcular evolution into consideration (Cairns- Smith, 1966; Joyce, 2002), the conceptual framework for chemical evolution can be generalized into three orthogonal dimensions as shown in Figure 5.1 (Goodwin et al., 2014). The 1st dimension manifests structural order through covalent polymerization reactions and includes chain length, sequence, and linkage chemistry inherent to a dynamic chemical network. The 2nd dimension extends the order in dynamic conformational networks through noncovalent interactions of the polymers. This dimension includes intramolecular and intermolecular forces, from macromolecular folding to supramolecular assembly to multicomponent quaternary structure. Folding in this 2nd dimension certainly depends on the primary polymer sequence, and the folding/assembly diversity yields an additional set of environmentally constrained supramolecular folding codes. For example, double-stranded DNA assemblies are dominated by the rules of complementary base pairing, while the self-propagating conformations of prions are based on additional noncovalent, environmentally-dependent interactions.
Despite strong evidence in the wider study of electoral behaviour that party campaigning can have important effects on performance, and a large pan-European literature on populist radical right and extreme right campaigns, we know very little about the impact of the latter on electoral performance. Drawing on a range of innovative campaign-related data at the aggregate and individual level, we examine the electoral impact of the British National Party (BNP) at the 2010 British general election. Our analysis reveals that whereas the extreme right polled strongest in working class manufacturing areas, support for the extreme right was significantly higher in areas where it ran intensive local campaigns, recruited larger numbers of members, has achieved local electoral success, and where local politics has historically been dominated by the centre-left. However, we find little evidence that the extreme right has benefited electorally in areas where the English Defence League social movement had previously demonstrated. Our aggregate level findings are also confirmed at the individual level after controlling for a battery of established attitudinal predictors of extreme right voting. Those contacted by the BNP campaign were significantly more likely to vote for the party, while campaigning by all other political parties was ineffective in reducing the probability of voting BNP.
This article looks at ways in which communal area right holders in Zimbabwe attempt to add security to their land rights when faced with altered circumstances. Apart from quasi-legal means such as ad hoc diagrams, which were beyond the scope of this article, two principal strands were found by which land right security is bolstered. First, investment in interpersonal ties (both with the living and the dead), and second, ceremonies for forging and maintaining links with land. For both, it was found that traditional practices have been bent and adapted pragmatically to suit contemporary contexts. Increased mobility and remoteness from rural homes have also given rise to a degree of abstraction (for example, the symbolic use in urban settings of soil or grain brought from communal areas). Where both custom and formal law coexist pluralistically, custom has proved the more flexible of the two and, unless demonstrably better security is offered, it seems likely that custom will continue to be invoked and modified to provide security for new circumstances.
Monte Carlo simulations of hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) gas ambients indicate different flux ratios (SiH3/Si and H/SiHx) under conditions for amorphous or polycrystalline silicon growth. Gas-phase reactions of Si with ambient SiH4 studied using abinitio methods reveals that collisional stabilization of the adduct (H3SiSiH) is unlikely under typical HWCVD growth pressures, but an energetically favorable, low-pressure pathway has been identified that leads to the formation of Si2H2 and H2. Threshold ionization mass spectrometry has revealed significant quantities of the radical SiH2 at HWCVD growth pressures, indicative of heterogeneous pyrolysis. Mass spectrometry at low pressures suggests that incident silane dissociatively adsorbs at the wire and undergoes sequential H elimination to produce subhydrides. Disilicon species were not detected in significant quantities at HWCVD growth pressures. Finally, hot wire operation in a pure H2 ambient yields SiH4 as the dominant etching product from the silicon-coated walls of the growth chamber.
We systematically explore the relationship between gas-phase kinetics and film microstructure in the hot-wire CVD technique using diluted silane (1% in He) and additional hydrogen. Using a wire temperature of 2000°C, films were grown on Si (100) at 300°C using 1 mTorr SiH4 and 99 mTorr He at hydrogen pressures from 0-100 mTorr. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements indicated that continuous microcrystalline films had a columnar grain structure and that grain size increased from 40 nm using SiH4/He to 85 nm using SiH4/He/H2 with 20:1 H2:SiH4 ratio due to the etching of silicon by hydrogen. Etching rate measurements using a quartz deposition monitor show that, under the current deposition conditions, a transition from net film growth (0.17 nm/s using only SiH4) to net etching occurs at a H2:SiH4 ration of 80:1. The effect of atomic H on the nucleation density during the initial stages of growth has also been investigated, revealing a sublinear dependence of nucleation density with time and a decrease in nucleation density with increasing H2 dilution. High deposition rate growth with no H2 dilution has been achieved on a low-density array of seed nuclei produced using high H2 dilution.
Gas phase chemistry is believed to play an important role in hot-wire CVD of amorphous silicon, serving to convert the highly-reactive atomic Si produced at the wire into a less-reactive species by reaction with ambient SiH4. In this paper, we use quantum chemistry computations (B3LYP/cc-pvTZ) to examine the energetics and rates of possible gas-phase reactions between Si and SiH4. The results indicate that formation of disilyne (Si2H2) is energetically favorable. Unlike other products of this reaction, Si2H2 does not require collisional stabilization, and thus this species is the most likely candidate for a benevolent precursor that participates in the growth of high-quality Si films.
Activation energies for the migrations of H, F, and Cl on the diamond C(110) surface are calculated by quantum chemical methods using hydrocarbon cluster Models. The calculations include extensive basis sets with Many-body effects at the level of single and double excitations from Hartree-Fock and Complete-Active-Space wavefunctions. The calculated activation barriers for the (1,2) and (1,3) Migrations indicate that such migrations are too slow to compete with gas-surface reactions during chemical-vapor deposition of diamond. However, the (1,4) migrations of both H and Cl are calculated to be sufficiently fast to compete with gas-surface reactions under typical diamond growth conditions.