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Carers of people experiencing a first episode of psychosis are at an increased risk of developing their own physical and mental health problems. Psychoeducation has been found to improve carer wellbeing and reduce distress. However, few psychoeducation interventions have considered the resource constraints on mental health services and the impact that these can have on the implementation of any such interventions. The present service evaluation aimed to evaluate an abbreviated version (sole session) of a previously tested psychoeducation intervention (three sessions) that targets less adaptive illness beliefs (n = 17). Pre–post effect sizes reveal that all of the carers’ illness beliefs changed in the desired direction, with four out of the 10 illness beliefs associated with large to moderate improvements. When compared with the outcomes obtained in our evaluation of the more intensive, three-session version of the intervention, the between-group effects largely favoured the three-session version but were mostly small. Moderate to large effects in favour of the three-session version were found for two of the 10 illness beliefs. These findings support the further investigation of the sole session psychoeducation intervention as part of a randomised controlled trial.
Key learning aims
(1) To evaluate the impact of a sole-session psychoeducation intervention on illness beliefs.
(2) To compare the outcomes of the sole-session psychoeducation intervention to the previous, more intensive (three-session) version of the same intervention.
(3) To consider the value of research approaches to evaluating psychoeducation interventions for carers of people with psychosis.
We present Phantom, a fast, parallel, modular, and low-memory smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code developed over the last decade for astrophysical applications in three dimensions. The code has been developed with a focus on stellar, galactic, planetary, and high energy astrophysics, and has already been used widely for studies of accretion discs and turbulence, from the birth of planets to how black holes accrete. Here we describe and test the core algorithms as well as modules for magnetohydrodynamics, self-gravity, sink particles, dust–gas mixtures, H2 chemistry, physical viscosity, external forces including numerous galactic potentials, Lense–Thirring precession, Poynting–Robertson drag, and stochastic turbulent driving. Phantom is hereby made publicly available.
It has been suggested that offspring of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), but the specificity of this association has not been established.
We examined the specificity of DMDD to family history by comparing offspring of parents with (a) bipolar disorder, (b) major depressive disorder and (c) a control group with no mood disorders.
We established lifetime diagnosis of DMDD using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children for DSM-5 in 180 youth aged 6–18 years, including 58 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder, 82 offspring of parents with major depressive disorder and 40 control offspring.
Diagnostic criteria for DMDD were met in none of the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder, 6 of the offspring of parents with major depressive disorder and none of the control offspring. DMDD diagnosis was significantly associated with family history of major depressive disorder.
Our results suggest that DMDD is not specifically associated with a family history of bipolar disorder and may be associated with parental depression.
Medications, particularly antipsychotics, are commonly used to manage challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. When the behaviour does not arise from an underlying mental illness, this is commonly off-licence and evidence of efficacy is lacking. A national audit programme would be one way to address the concerns this raises.
Advances in DNA sequencing, based on fluorescent microscopy, have transformed many areas of biological research. However, only relatively short molecules can be sequenced by these technologies. Dramatic improvements in genomic research will require accurate sequencing of long (>10,000 base-pairs), intact DNA molecules. Our approach directly visualizes the sequence of DNA molecules using electron microscopy. This report represents the first identification of DNA base pairs within intact DNA molecules by electron microscopy. By enzymatically incorporating modified bases, which contain atoms of increased atomic number, direct visualization and identification of individually labeled bases within a synthetic 3,272 base-pair DNA molecule and a 7,249 base-pair viral genome have been accomplished. This proof of principle is made possible by the use of a dUTP nucleotide, substituted with a single mercury atom attached to the nitrogenous base. One of these contrast-enhanced, heavy-atom-labeled bases is paired with each adenosine base in the template molecule and then built into a double-stranded DNA molecule by a template-directed DNA polymerase enzyme. This modification is small enough to allow very long molecules with labels at each A-U position. Image contrast is further enhanced by using annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM). Further refinements to identify additional base types and more precisely determine the location of identified bases would allow full sequencing of long, intact DNA molecules, significantly improving the pace of complex genomic discoveries.
The 1905 Aliens Act was the first modern law to restrict immigration to British shores. In this book, David Glover asks how it was possible for Britain, a nation that had prided itself on offering asylum to refugees, to pass such legislation. Tracing the ways that the legal notion of the 'alien' became a national-racist epithet indistinguishable from the figure of 'the Jew', Glover argues that the literary and popular entertainments of fin de siècle Britain perpetuated a culture of xenophobia. Reconstructing the complex socio-political field known as 'the alien question', Glover examines the work of George Eliot, Israel Zangwill, Rudyard Kipling and Joseph Conrad, together with forgotten writers like Margaret Harkness, Edgar Wallace and James Blyth. By linking them to the beliefs and ideologies that circulated via newspapers, periodicals, political meetings, Royal Commissions, patriotic melodramas and social surveys, Glover sheds new light on dilemmas about nationality, borders and citizenship.