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To assess relationships between mothers’ feeding practices (food as a reward, food for emotion regulation, modelling of healthy eating) and mothers’ willingness to purchase child-marketed foods and fruits/vegetables (F&V) requested by their children during grocery co-shopping.
Cross-sectional. Mothers completed an online survey that included questions about feeding practices and willingness (i.e. intentions) to purchase child-requested foods during grocery co-shopping. Feeding practices scores were dichotomized at the median. Foods were grouped as nutrient-poor or nutrient-dense (F&V) based on national nutrition guidelines. Regression models compared mothers with above-the-median v. at-or-below-the-median feeding practices scores on their willingness to purchase child-requested food groupings, adjusting for demographic covariates.
Participants completed an online survey generated at a public university in the USA.
Mothers (n 318) of 2- to 7-year-old children.
Mothers who scored above-the-median on using food as a reward were more willing to purchase nutrient-poor foods (β=0·60, P<0·0001), mothers who scored above-the-median on use of food for emotion regulation were more willing to purchase nutrient-poor foods (β=0·29, P<0·0031) and mothers who scored above-the-median on modelling of healthy eating were more willing to purchase nutrient-dense foods (β=0·22, P<0·001) than were mothers with at-or-below-the-median scores, adjusting for demographic covariates.
Mothers who reported using food to control children’s behaviour were more willing to purchase child-requested, nutrient-poor foods. Parental feeding practices may facilitate or limit children’s foods requested in grocery stores. Parent–child food consumer behaviours should be investigated as a route that may contribute to children’s eating patterns.
The APM QSO survey is a quantitative survey aimed at finding a large sample (∼ 1000) of QSOs using broadly-based selection criteria applied to machine-scanned UK Schmidt Telescope direct and objective-prism plates. The survey is currently entering its third year and, as of August 1988, the sample consists of ∼ 700 QSOs with mJ ≥ 18.75 in the range 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 3.3. Preliminary analysis suggests that the sample is relatively free of the selection effects endemic to most QSO surveys based on slitless spectroscopy.
To evaluate the efficacy of a Belly Board immobilisation device for rectal cancer patients.
Materials and methods
A randomised trial in patients receiving neo-adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal carcinoma was established. Patients were treated, prone with control arm, according to standard departmental protocol and experimental arm with the use of a Belly Board. All treatments were planned using a three-field technique. The primary endpoints were reproducibility and irradiated small bowel volume. Questionnaires were used to assess secondary endpoints of patient comfort, ease of set-up and acute toxicities.
Pre-planned interim analysis was performed after recruiting 30 patients. In all, 348 portal images were analysed retrospectively. Around 8 out of 12 parameters measuring set-up reproducibility were in favour of the Belly Board arm. Random error in the anterior–posterior direction was improved and statistically significant in the experimental arm (95% CI; p≤0·05). Small bowel V15 was significantly lower in the Belly Board position (mean V15=14·5%) compared with the standard position (mean V15=21·4%), paired t-test 95% CI; p=0·035. Also, patients’ comfort satisfaction was greater in the Belly Board arm.
Set-up reproducibility, small bowel V15, patient comfort and satisfaction were all significantly improved by the use of the Belly Board.
Samples with the stoichiometry (CaxY1−x)Ba2Cu4O8, x = 0, 0.1 were synthesized at P(O2) = 25 and 200 bar. High Resolution TEM images for the samples synthesized at 25 bar show a high density of planar defects as compared to almost defect free microstructure of Ca0.1Y0.9Ba2Cu4O8 synthesized at 200 bar. The intragrain critical current density of the high defect density samples is however about 100 times lower that that of Ca0.1Y0.9Ba2Cu4O8 synthesized at P(O2) = 200 bar.
The primary use of reticulated ceramics is in molten metal filtration. However, other applications have emerged which utilize the porous nature of these materials, including low mass kiln furniture, low NOx. infrared burners, gas diffusers, hot gas filters, sensors and catalyst supports. In this paper, the use of reticulated ceramics as catalyst supports will be reviewed with emphasis on the manufacture, structure and properties.
Iron aluminides show many interesting properties, but still show relatively poor ductility at room temperature and only moderate creep resistance at temperatures above about 600ºC. Processes of severe plastic deformation have been investigated for a wide range of ductile alloys over the past decade, but have hardly been considered for intermetallics. This presentation discusses two studies aimed at refining microstructure by the use of severe plastic deformation of iron aluminides. The first considers processing Fe3Al by heavy cold rolling, followed by annealing for recovery or recrystallization, with an objective of refining grain size to improve strength at the same time as ductility. The high strength and poor ductility of the work hardened material leads to a danger of cracking during rolling, which is a problem for manufacturing large quantities of healthy material. Suitable rolling and recovery treatments can, nevertheless, lead to strong materials with some plastic ductility. A different technique of multidirectional, high-strain and high-temperature forging applied to a boride-containing Fe3Al alloy produces a material with large grain size and refined dispersion of boride particles. These particles lead to a considerable increase in creep strength under conditions of moderate stresses at temperatures around 700ºC. This high-strain forging technique can be seen as an intermediate processing method between conventional wrought metallurgy and mechanical-alloying powder metallurgy. This technique offers the possibility to improve high temperature behaviour of such intermetallics containing second-phase dispersions, and can be scaled to produce large quantities of high-quality material.
It is largely through the work of David Lewis-Williams that San rock art has come to be understood so well, as a complex symbolic and metaphoric representation of San religious beliefs and practices. The purpose of this volume is to demonstrate the depth and wide geographical impact of Lewis-Williams’ contribution, with particular emphasis on the use of theory and methodology drawn from ethnography that he has used with inspirational effect in understanding the meaning and context of rock art in various parts of the world. Seeing and Knowing explores how to understand and learn from rock art with and without ethnography. Because many of the chapters are based on solid fieldwork and ethnographic research, they offer a new body of work that provides the evidence for differentiation between knowing and simply seeing. This volume is unique in that it focuses exclusively on rock art and ethnography, and covers such a wide geographic range of examples on this topic, from southern Africa, to Scandinavia, to the United States. Many of the chapters explore studies in rock art regions of the world where variation and constancy can be observed and explored across distances both in space and in time. The editors have entitled the book Seeing and Knowing to echo Lewis-Williams’ Believing and Seeing published almost thirty years ago; they say ‘seeing’ again because looking at rock art is and will always be central, and then what is seen when human eyes and minds look; they say ‘knowing’ in recognition that, by his work and by his example, archaeologists now know a little more than they knew before. Even so, as Lewis-Williams will be the first to say, we still know only a fraction.