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Individuals with epilepsy, and their family and friends, are impacted by system-based barriers arising from public policies, affecting their quality of lives. Policies on driving, education, employment, ethics, and research are widespread, and often lead to unwarranted complications.
The mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed on peacekeeping
missions have been relatively neglected in the military mental health
To assess the mental health impacts of peacekeeping deployments.
In total, 1025 Australian peacekeepers were assessed for current and
lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, service history and exposure to
potentially traumatic events (PTEs). A matched Australian community
sample was used as a comparator. Univariate and regression analyses were
conducted to explore predictors of psychiatric diagnosis.
Peacekeepers had significantly higher 12-month prevalence of
post-traumatic stress disorder (16.8%), major depressive episode (7%),
generalised anxiety disorder (4.7%), alcohol misuse (12%), alcohol
dependence (11.3%) and suicidal ideation (10.7%) when compared with the
civilian comparator. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was most
strongly and consistently associated with exposure to PTEs.
Veteran peacekeepers had significant levels of psychiatric morbidity.
Their needs, alongside those of combat veterans, should be recognised
within military mental health initiatives.
Consider a product system over the positive cone of a quasi-lattice ordered group. We construct a Fell bundle over an associated groupoid so that the cross-sectional algebra of the bundle is isomorphic to the Nica–Toeplitz algebra of the product system. Under the additional hypothesis that the left actions in the product system are implemented by injective homomorphisms, we show that the cross-sectional algebra of the restriction of the bundle to a natural boundary subgroupoid coincides with the Cuntz–Nica–Pimsner algebra of the product system. We apply these results to improve on existing sufficient conditions for nuclearity of the Nica–Toeplitz algebra and the Cuntz–Nica–Pimsner algebra, and for the Cuntz–Nica–Pimsner algebra to coincide with its co-universal quotient.
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is associated with early childhood
maltreatment and has unknown population prevalence beyond infancy.
To estimate RAD prevalence in a deprived population of children.
All 1646 children aged 6-8 years old in a deprived sector of an urban UK
centre were screened for RAD symptoms. Parents of high and low scorers
were interviewed using semi-structured interviews probing for
psychopathology and individuals likely to have RAD were offered
Questionnaire data were available from 92.8% of teachers and 65.8% of
parents. Assessments were conducted with 50% of those invited and missing
data were imputed - based on the baseline data - for the rest. We
calculated that there would be 23 children with definite RAD diagnoses,
suggesting that the prevalence of RAD in this population was 1.40% (95%
In this deprived general population, RAD was not rare.
As it was originally proposed, the extended phenotype comprised ‘all effects of a gene upon the world’ (Dawkins, 1989) and portrayed how the effects of a gene borne by an organism influenced its biotic and abiotic environments. The consideration of indirect genetic effects, in which an organism’s phenotype becomes part of the selective environment of conspecifics (Wolf et al., 1998), was developed rigorously in the population genetics context and the concept subsequently extended to include effects on heterospecifics (Whitham et al., 2003). The extended phenotype concept has been adopted as a framework by some evolutionary biologists and ecologists to study the roles of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) since Whitham et al. (2003) used heritable variation in tissue tannin concentrations among Populus species and hybrids to develop the concept of community and ecosystem genetics (Antonovics, 1992).
Many studies of how genetically determined variation in plant traits, including PSMs, drive associated community phenotypes and processes, have been based on differences between hybrids (Dungey et al., 2000; Hochwender & Fritz, 2004; Bailey et al., Chapter 14). Fewer studies have investigated the effects on extended phenotypes of continuously varying PSMs or between known genotypes within a species (Whitham et al., 2006; Schweitzer et al., 2008; Barbour et al., 2009; O’Reilly-Wapstra et al., Chapter 2). A convenient approach to identification and utilisation of genotypic variation for the study of multiple effects of PSMs is provided by the use of genetic polymorphisms. A polymorphism can be defined as occurring when a trait such as a morphological or biochemical character exists in two or more distinct forms in a randomly mating population within a species (Ford, 1975). The approach is particularly useful in species that cannot be readily cloned. Here, we review examples of how intra-specific variation in a particular group of PSMs, the monoterpenes, has informed our understanding of how PSMs can play multiple ecological roles and mediate the extended phenotype of plants. The monoterpenes are a group of low-molecular-weight, volatile terpenoids which form a very diverse group in terms of number of compounds, structure and function (Gershenzon & Dudareva, 2007). We use variation within species which are polymorphic for concentrations or presence of monoterpenes to provide an insight into their ecological ramifications and larger-scale consequences, against the background of intra-specific variation in other traits.
To achieve higher renewable energy (RE) shares than the low levels typically found in present energy supply systems will require additional integration efforts starting now and continuing over the longer term. These include improved understanding of the RE resource characteristics and availability, investments in enabling infrastructure and research, development and demonstrations (RD&D), modifications to institutional and governance frameworks, innovative thinking, attention to social aspects, markets and planning, and capacity building in anticipation of RE growth.
In many countries, sufficient RE resources are available for system integration to meet a major share of energy demands, either by direct input to end-use sectors or indirectly through present and future energy supply systems and energy carriers, whether for large or small communities in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) or non-OECD countries. At the same time, the characteristics of many RE resources that distinguish them from fossil fuels and nuclear systems include their natural unpredictability and variability over time scales ranging from seconds to years. These can constrain the ease of integration and result in additional system costs, particularly when reaching higher RE shares of electricity, heat or gaseous and liquid fuels.
Existing energy infrastructure, markets and other institutional arrangements may need adapting, but there are few, if any, technical limits to the planned system integration of RE technologies across the very broad range of present energy supply systems worldwide, though other barriers (e.g., economic barriers) may exist. Improved overall system efficiency and higher RE shares can be achieved by the increased integration of a portfolio of RE resources and technologies.
Most scholars acknowledge Matthew's debt to Mark in the composition of his own Gospel, and they are fully aware of his extensive redaction and expansion of this major source. Yet few scholars pose what is an obvious question that arises from these points: What was Matthew's intention for Mark once he had composed and circulated his own revised and enlarged account of Jesus' mission? Did he intend to supplement Mark, in which case he wished his readers to continue to consult Mark as well as his own narrative, or was it his intention to replace the earlier Gospel? It is argued in this study that the evidence suggests that Matthew viewed Mark as seriously flawed, and that he wrote his own Gospel to replace the inadequate Marcan account.
Of all the Celtic countries, Scotland has lacked the kind of scholarly attention that has been lavished fruitfully on Wales, Ireland, Cornwall and Brittany. And yet of all of them, Scotland offers the widest range of interfaces with broader work on the cult of saints. The papers presented here cover this territory very effectively.... [the book] brings together excellent studies that successfully explore the wide ramifications of the topic. Anyone with an interest in saints' cults will want this book. DAUVIT BROUN, Professor of Scottish History, University of Glasgow. This volume examines the phenomena of the cult of saints and Marian devotion as they were manifested in Scotland, ranging from the early medieval period to the sixteenth century. It combines general surveys of the development of the study of saints in the early and later middle ages with more focused articles on particular subjects, including St Waltheof of Melrose, the obscure early medieval origins of the cult of St Munnu, the short-lived martyr cult of David, duke of Rothsay, and the Scottish saints included in the greatest liturgical compendium produced in late medieval Scotland, the Aberdeen breviary. The way in which Marian devotion permeated late medieval Scottish society is discussed in terms of the church dedications of the twelfth and thirteenth-century aristocracy, the ecclesiastical landscape of Perth, the depiction of Mary in Gaelic poetry, and the pervasive influence of the familial bond between holy mother and son in representations of the Scottish royal family. Dr Steve Boardman is Reader in History, University of Edinburgh; Eila Williamson gained her PhD from the University of Glasgow. Contributors: Helen Birkett, Steve Boardman, Rachel Butter, Thomas Owen Clancy, David Ditchburn, Audrey-Beth Fitch, Mark A. Hall, Matthew H. Hammond, Sim Innes, Alan Macquarrie
In this chapter, the focus is primarily on the problems that beset investigating saints' cults in the early medieval period, something approached also in Rachel Butter's incisive case-study of St Munnu. The Survey of Dedications to Saints in Medieval Scotland is one of the most welcome developments in such investigations. First, it will help us understand the dynamism and evolution of saints' cults during the later medieval period, a period for which there remains a great deal of work to do, and much headway to be gained in refining and opening out our understanding of medieval Scottish piety and the nexus between society and religion. Second, and more importantly for this contribution, it will help to clarify for us what we do and do not know about the later medieval position of the cult of those saints already present in the Scottish landscape in the period before the twelfth century. It has become increasingly apparent in recent studies that no real progress can be made in our understanding of early medieval saints' cults without a firm grasp of the nature of the later medieval evidence for those cults. This is especially so, given the paucity of clear documentation cited for the likes of church dedications or fair days by key secondary sources like Mackinlay's Ancient Church Dedications and Watson's Celtic Place-Names of Scotland. This chapter primarily addresses the evidence provided by one source which has had to remain largely outwith the remit of the Survey: place-name evidence.
In 1968 The Innes Review published an article by David McRoberts which was (to use a word often overused in recent years) seminal. Its influence is visible in much, indeed in almost everything, that has been written since 1968 about the Church and about religion in later medieval Scotland. The thesis which it presented was relatively straightforward. McRoberts argued that the fifteenth century witnessed a new and what he called ‘nationalist’ trend in Scottish religious observation. There were several dimensions to this development – but it was especially apparent, McRoberts argued, in the veneration of saints. Before the fifteenth century the Church had neglected Scotland's early saints; thereafter leading clergymen began to look anew at these forgotten worthies. In the earlier part of the century Prior James Haldenstone of St Andrews had coordinated a campaign to have St Duthac officially canonised. Elsewhere there were efforts to relocate the relics and to promote the cults of St Kentigern (at Glasgow and Culross), St Ninian (at Whithorn) and St Triduana (at Restalrig). We find the chronicler Walter Bower lauding St Columba and Archbishop Schevez of St Andrews mounting a search for the relics of St Palladius. This ‘devotional nationalism’ reached its culmination, according to McRoberts, in the early sixteenth century with the work of Bishop William Elphinstone and a team of collaborators in Old Aberdeen, who produced a new martyrology and a new breviary.
Munnu, or Fintan Munnu, as he is sometimes called in Scotland, is an apparently straightforward saint, with an eighth-century vita, an obit in the Annals of Ulster, an appearance in Adomnán's Vita Columbae, and a name – Mun or Mund – which appears in a distinctive form in place-names in Scotland: four Kilmuns in Argyll, and an Eilean Munde near Ballachulish in Lochaber. He is intriguing too in the survival of traces of his cult in fifteenth-century references to a keeper of his crozier, and in the surname Mac Gille Mund, evident in Argyll at least into the seventeenth century.
This cheerful opening may sound like a prelude to the cruel news that in fact Munnu is not straightforward at all – that his obit is unreliable, that the person in Vita Columbae is someone else altogether, and that Kilmun may commemorate another saint. I will indeed flag up some potential problems towards the end of this chapter but for now I am going to treat Munnu as if he were a nice simple saint, uncontaminated by overlap or confusion with other saints. And I treat his strange double name – Fintan Munnu – as a helpful aid in our attempts to track his cult. This name derives from the common name Fintan, of which there were many bearers,5 followed by an affectionate form of the same name, arrived at thus: Fintan > *Mo Finn (‘my Finn’ where the f is lenited and therefore silent) > Mun > Munnu.