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Dinosaur body fossil material is rare in Scotland, previously known almost exclusively from the Great Estuarine Group on the Isle of Skye. We report the first unequivocal dinosaur fossil from the Isle of Eigg, belonging to a Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) taxon of uncertain affinity. The limb bone NMS G.2020.10.1 is incomplete, but through a combination of anatomical comparison and osteohistology, we determine it most likely represents a stegosaur fibula. The overall proportions and cross-sectional geometry are similar to the fibulae of thyreophorans. Examination of the bone microstructure reveals a high degree of remodelling and randomly distributed longitudinal canals in the remaining primary cortical bone. This contrasts with the histological signal expected of theropod or sauropod limb bones, but is consistent with previous studies of thyreophorans, specifically stegosaurs. Previous dinosaur material from Skye and broadly contemporaneous sites in England belongs to this group, including Loricatosaurus and Sarcolestes and a number of indeterminate stegosaur specimens. Theropods such as Megalosaurus and sauropods such as Cetiosaurus are also known from these localities. Although we find strong evidence for a stegosaur affinity, diagnostic features are not observed on NMS G.2020.10.1, preventing us from referring it to any known genera. The presence of this large-bodied stegosaur on Eigg adds a significant new datapoint for dinosaur distribution in the Middle Jurassic of Scotland.
The primary claim of this chapter is that public health law can integrate medical and social understandings of disability in ways that promise to reduce disability stigma and enhance epistemic justice. However, models of disability currently embedded in public health law do precisely the opposite, at least partly due to the fact that public health laws have historically assimilated medicalized models of disability. Such models are born in the nineteenth century, and they continue to exert outsized and problematic effects in shaping the impact of public health law on disabled people. Accordingly, it is impossible either to understand the deficiencies of prevailing (medical) models of disability codified in public health law or to propose solutions without sufficient grounding in the nineteenth-century roots of those models.
In the United States, tornadoes are the third leading cause of fatalities from natural disasters1. To aid prevention and mitigation of tornado-related morbidity and mortality, improvement in standardizing tornado specific threat analysis terminology was assessed. The largest number of tornado-related fatalities has occurred in the state of Texas for over a hundred years. The occurrence of tornadic clusters or “outbreaks” has not been formally standardized. The concept of “tornado outbreaks” is better defined and its role in fatality mitigation is addressed in this Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved study.
To understand the role of “tornado outbreaks” related clusters in Texas in relationship to morbidity and mortality.
This IRB approved (IRB2017- 0507) research study utilized GIS tools and statistical analysis of historical data to examine the relationship between tornado severity (based on the Fujita Scale), the number of tornadoes, and the trends in morbidity and mortality. This study was funded in part from The National Science Foundation grant (NSF Grant #1560106) in support of the CyberHealthGIS Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU).
A statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the severity of a tornado and related morbidity and mortality during “tornado outbreaks” in Texas during a defined 30-year period.
Understanding the role and discerning the impacts of “tornado outbreaks” as related to tornado severity has critical implications to disaster preparedness. Applications of this conclusion may improve shelter planning/preparation, timely warning, and educating the at-risk public. Subsequently, examining the likelihood and improved descriptions of “tornado outbreaks” may aid in reducing the number of tornado-related injuries and fatalities nationally.
What impact do local candidates have on elections in single member district plurality electoral systems? We provide new evidence using data from a large election study carried out during the 2015 Canadian federal election. We improve on the measurement of local candidate effects by asking over 20,000 survey respondents to rate the candidates in their constituency directly. We present three estimates. We find that when all voters are considered together, local candidate evaluations are decisive for approximately 4 per cent of voters. Second, these evaluations are decisive for the outcome of 10 per cent of constituency contests. Third, when models are estimated for each constituency, we find significant evaluation effects for 14 per cent of candidates.
Children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome are at a risk for neurodevelopmental delays. Current guidelines recommend systematic evaluation and management of neurodevelopmental outcomes with referral for early intervention services. The Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial represents the largest cohort of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome ever assembled. Data on life events and resource utilisation have been collected annually. We sought to determine the type and prevalence of early intervention services used from age 1 to 4 years and factors associated with utilisation of services.
Data from 14-month neurodevelopmental assessment and annual medical history forms were used. We assessed the impact of social risk and geographic differences. Fisher exact tests and logistic regression were used to evaluate associations.
Annual medical history forms were available for 302 of 314 children. Greater than half of the children (52–69%) were not receiving services at any age assessed, whereas 20–32% were receiving two or more therapies each year. Utilisation was significantly lower in year 4 (31%) compared with years 1–3 (with a range from 40 to 48%) (p<0.001). Social risk factors were not associated with the use of services at any age but there were significant geographic differences. Significant delay was reported by parents in 18–43% of children at ages 3 and 4.
Despite significant neurodevelopmental delays, early intervention service utilisation was low in this cohort. As survival has improved for children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, attention must shift to strategies to optimise developmental outcomes, including enrolment in early intervention when merited.
Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models able to simulate grounding-line migration. We present results of an intercomparison experiment for plan-view marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no buttressing effects from lateral drag). Perturbation experiments specifying spatial variation in basal sliding parameters permitted the evolution of curved grounding lines, generating buttressing effects. The experiments showed regions of compression and extensional flow across the grounding line, thereby invalidating the boundary layer theory. Steady-state grounding-line positions were found to be dependent on the level of physical model approximation. Resolving grounding lines requires inclusion of membrane stresses, a sufficiently small grid size (<500 m), or subgrid interpolation of the grounding line. The latter still requires nominal grid sizes of <5 km. For larger grid spacings, appropriate parameterizations for ice flux may be imposed at the grounding line, but the short-time transient behaviour is then incorrect and different from models that do not incorporate grounding-line parameterizations. The numerical error associated with predicting grounding-line motion can be reduced significantly below the errors associated with parameter ignorance and uncertainties in future scenarios.
Ice-shelf basal melting is tightly coupled to ice-shelf morphology. Ice shelves, in turn, are coupled to grounded ice via their influence on compressive stress at the grounding line (‘ice-shelf buttressing’). Here, we examine this interaction using a local parameterization that relates the basal melt rate to the ice-shelf thickness gradient. This formulation permits a closed-form solution for a steady-state ice tongue. Time-dependent numerical simulations reveal the spatial and temporal evolution of ice-shelf/ice-stream systems in response to changes in ocean temperature, and the influence of morphology-dependent melting on grounding-line retreat. We find that a rapid (<1 year) re-equilibration in upstream regions of ice shelves establishes a spatial pattern of basal melt rates (relative to the grounding line) that persists over centuries. Coupling melting to ice-shelf shape generally, but not always, increases grounding-line retreat rates relative to a uniform distribution with the same area- average melt rate. Because upstream ice-shelf thickness gradients and retreat rates increase nonlinearly with thermal forcing, morphology-dependent melting is more important to the response of weakly buttressed, strongly forced ice streams grounded on beds that slope upwards towards the ocean (e.g. those in the Amundsen Sea).
The aim of this review is to describe the current state of knowledge related to neurodevelopmental outcomes and quality of life for children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and to explore future questions to be answered for this group of children.
Pandemic influenza poses a great challenge to healthcare systems. Vaccinating medical teams and the population against pandemic influenza is the global recommended strategy to contain spread of the disease. As part of the efforts made to overcome the H1N1 pandemic, the Israeli Ministry of Health (MOH) initiated a general vaccination program for medical teams and the total country population. Due to low compliance rates of the medical staff, the MOH conducted regional conferences aimed at providing knowledge and encouraging staff to be vaccinated.
To evaluate the effect of the regional conferences on the compliance rates amongst medical providers to be vaccinated against H1N1.
Medical providers from the primary health care services were invited to conferences that were conducted in 3 regions. Attitudes of the teams regarding compliance to be vaccinated were assessed pre and post the conferences. Additionally, the actual rates of vaccinations were recorded over the period of vaccination program. Actual compliance rates before and after the conferences were compared to detect differences as well as the relationship between teams' attitudes and actual vaccinations.
Vaccination rates of medical providers remained low during the full vaccination period. Among the non-vaccinated, 24% to 29% reported before the conference that they agree to be vaccinated versus 57% to 62% following the conference. Analysis of the actual vaccination data among the medical providers did not demonstrate a change in compliance following the conferences and an overall decrease was noted after the first two weeks of the vaccinated project.
A statistically significant relationship was not found between reported attitudes of medical providers regarding readiness to be vaccinated and their actual vaccination. The MOH intervention did not achieve the expected result and did not raise compliance to be vaccinated.
Israeli Hospitals are required to maintain a high level of emergency preparedness.
To investigate the effect of on-going use of an evaluation tool on acute-care hospitals' emergency preparedness for mass casualty events (MCE).
Evaluation of emergency preparedness for MCE was carried out in all acute-care hospitals, based on an evaluation tool consisting of 306 objective and measurable parameters. Two cycles of evaluations were conducted in 2005 to 2009 and the scores were calculated to detect differences.
A significant increase was found in the mean total scores of emergency preparedness between the two cycles of evaluations (from 77.1 to 88.5). An increase was found in scores for standard operating procedures, training and equipment, but the change was significant only in the training category. The relative increase was highest in hospitals that did not experience real MCE.
This study offers a structured and practical approach for ongoing improvement of emergency preparedness, based on validated measurable benchmarks. An ongoing assessment of the level of emergency preparedness motivates hospitals' management and staff to improve their capabilities and thus results in a more effective response mechanism for emergency scenarios.
Utilization of predetermined and measurable benchmarks allows the institutions being assessed to improve their level of performance in the evaluated areas. The expectation is that these benchmarks will allow for a better response to actual MCEs. The study further demonstrated that even hospitals without “real-life” experience can gear up using preset benchmarks and reach a high standard of mass casualty event preparedness.
An approximation to the first-order momentum balance with consistent boundary conditions is derived using variational methods. Longitudinal and lateral stresses are treated as depth-independent, but vertical velocity gradients are accounted for both in the nonlinear viscosity and in the treatment of basal stress, allowing for flow over a frozen bed. A numerical scheme is presented that is significantly less computationally expensive than that of a fully three-dimensional (3-D) solver. The numerical solver is subjected to the ISMIP-HOM experiments and experiments involving nonlinear sliding laws, and results are compared with those of 3-D models. The agreement with first-order surface velocities is favorable down to length scales of 10 km for flow over a flat bed with periodic basal traction, and ∼40 km for flow over periodic basal topography.
The rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is increasing in neonatal intensive care units. We determined the economic impact of isolating and cohorting MRSA-colonized neonates on total hospital cost at a 49-bed, level III-IV neonatal intensive care unit.