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Perfectionism is a transdiagnostic risk factor across psychopathology. The Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ) was developed to assess change in order to provide clinical utility, but currently the psychometric properties of the CPQ with adolescents is unknown.
To assess the factor structure and construct validity of the CPQ in female adolescents.
The CPQ was administered to 267 females aged 14–19 years of age. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the validity of the two-factor model and a second-order factor model. Pearson correlations were used to evaluate the relationships between the CPQ and a wide range of measures of perfectionism, psychopathology and personality traits.
The study demonstrated internal consistency, construct validity and incremental validity of the CPQ in a sample of female adolescents. The CFA in the present study confirmed the two-factor model of the CPQ with Factor 1 relating to perfectionistic strivings and Factor 2 representing perfectionistic concerns. The second-order two factor model indicated no deterioration in fit.
The two-factor model of the CPQ fits with the theoretical definition of clinical perfectionism where the over-dependence of self-worth on achievement and concern over mistakes are key elements. The CPQ is suitable for use with female adolescents in future research that seeks to better understand the role of perfectionism in the range of mental illnesses that impact youth.
Despite the significant health disparities experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, few investigators affiliated with the National Institutes of Health-funded Clinical and Translational Science Award Programs are conducting research related to this underserved population. We provide recommendations shared during a half-day workshop aimed at increasing researcher readiness to conduct LGBT research. This workshop was presented as part of a series on conducting research with underserved populations offered by the Recruitment, Retention, and Community Engagement Program of the Center for Clinical and Translational Science at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Six LGBT health research experts provided focused presentations. The workshop presentations included a summary of significant health inequality issues, theoretical models relevant to research on LGBT health, best practices in measuring sexual orientation and gender identity, recommendations for recruitment and retention, a discussion of community engagement, and ethical considerations in conducting LGBT research. We provide a summary of recommendations to guide future research, training, and public policy related to LGBT health. The information can increase capacity among Clinical and Translational Science Award affiliated researchers in conducting research in this special population.
Highly anomalous platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations in the podiform chromitites at the Cliff and Harold's Grave localities in the Shetland ophiolite complex have been well documented previously. The focus of this study is alluvial platinum-group minerals (PGM) located in small streams that drain from the PGE-rich chromitites. The placer PGM assemblage at Cliff is dominated by Pt-arsenides (64%) and Pd-antimonides (17%), with less irarsite–hollingworthite (11%) and minor Pd-sulfides, Pt–Pd–Cu and Pt–Fe alloys and laurite. Gold also occurs with the PGM. Alluvial PGM have average sizes of 20 µm × 60 µm, with sperrylite the largest grain identified at 110 µm in diameter, matching the range reported for the primary PGM in the source rocks. The placer assemblage contains more Pt-bearing and less Pd-bearing PGM compared with the rocks. The more resistant sperrylite and irarsite–hollingworthite grains which are often euhedral become more rounded further downstream whereas the less resistant Pd-antimonides which are commonly subhedral may become striated and etched. Less stable phases such as Pt- and Pd-oxides and other Ni-Cu-bearing phases located in the rocks (i.e. Ru-pentlandite, PtCu, Pd–Cu alloy) are absent in the placer assemblage. Also the scarce PGM (PdHg, Rh- and Ir-Sb) and Os in the rocks are absent. At Harold's Grave only three alluvial PGM (laurite, Ir, Os) and Au were recovered reflecting the limited release of IPGM from chromite grains in the rocks. In this cold climate with high rainfall, where erosion dominates over weathering, the PGM appear to have been derived directly from the erosion of the adjacent PGE-rich source rocks and there is little evidence of in situ growth of any newly formed PGM. Only the presence of dendritic pure Au and Pd-, Cu-bearing Au covers on the surface of primary minerals may indicate some local reprecipitation of these metals in the surficial conditions.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify whether the three main primary progressive aphasia (PPA) variants would show differential profiles on measures of visuospatial cognition. We hypothesized that the logopenic variant would have the most difficulty across tasks requiring visuospatial and visual memory abilities. Methods: PPA patients (n=156), diagnosed using current criteria, and controls were tested on a battery of tests tapping different aspects of visuospatial cognition. We compared the groups on an overall visuospatial factor; construction, immediate recall, delayed recall, and executive functioning composites; and on individual tests. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons were made, adjusted for disease severity, age, and education. Results: The logopenic variant had significantly lower scores on the visuospatial factor and the most impaired scores on all composites. The nonfluent variant had significant difficulty on all visuospatial composites except the delayed recall, which differentiated them from the logopenic variant. In contrast, the semantic variants performed poorly only on delayed recall of visual information. The logopenic and nonfluent variants showed decline in figure copying performance over time, whereas in the semantic variant, this skill was remarkably preserved. Conclusions: This extensive examination of performance on visuospatial tasks in the PPA variants solidifies some previous findings, for example, delayed recall of visual stimuli adds value in differential diagnosis between logopenic variant PPA and nonfluent variant PPA variants, and illuminates the possibility of common mechanisms that underlie both linguistic and non-linguistic deficits in the variants. Furthermore, this is the first study that has investigated visuospatial functioning over time in the PPA variants. (JINS, 2018, 24, 259–268)
Introduction/Innovation Concept: University Departments of Emergency Medicine are responsible for the supervision of research and other scholarly projects for fellows, residents and students, though often lack resources to provide adequate input and oversight. Many departments cover large geographical areas and several programs. We piloted new research committee structures and processes to improve oversight and output of research projects. Methods: We created an interactive group supervision tool based around formation of a collaborative research committee, with rotating chairs from each program, to provide supervision and face to face interaction, and direction for research learners. Included were all Dalhousie University adult and pediatric emergency medicine residency and fellowship programs, as well as trauma and EMS programs across Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. In addition to providing expertise in clinical trial coordination, database management, research administration, grant applications and Research Ethics Board submissions, we have completed a 2-year pilot of our interactive group supervision tool for research projects. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: The interactive tool consists of a structured PICOD form; allocation of topic and research mentors; standardized yearly milestones from project development through presentation and publication; and regular video-conferenced and in-person interactive group sessions involving several project leads, as well as program research directors, researchers, and co-ordinators. To date, all participating program learners have engaged with the tool, with positive feedback from learners, supervisors and program directors. Conclusion: We report our development of a regional collaborative interactive group supervision tool, that maximizes expert resources in the provision of research and scholarly project supervision.
Despite a growing body of literature on integrated land–sea management (ILSM), very little critical assessment has been conducted in order to evaluate ILSM in practice on island systems. Here we develop indicators for assessing 10 integrated island management principles and evaluate the performance of planning and implementation in four island ILSM projects from the tropical Pacific across different governance structures. We find that where customary governance is still strongly respected and enabled through national legislation, ILSM in practice can be very effective at restricting access and use according to fluctuations in resource availability. However, decision-making under customary governance systems may be vulnerable to mismanagement. Government-led ILSM processes have the potential to design management actions that address the spatial scale of ecosystem processes and threats within the context of national policy and legislation, but may not fully capture broad stakeholder interests, and implementation may be poorly coordinated across highly dispersed island archipelagos. Private sector partnerships offer unique opportunities for resourcing island ILSM, although these are highly likely to be geared towards private sector interests that may change in the future and no longer align with community and/or national objectives. We identify consistent challenges that arise during island ILSM planning and implementation and offer recommendations for improvement.
When children have marked problems with motor coordination, they often have problems with attention and impulse control. Here, we map the neuroanatomic substrate of motor coordination in childhood and ask whether this substrate differs in the presence of concurrent symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Participants were 226 children. All completed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5)-based assessment of ADHD symptoms and standardized tests of motor coordination skills assessing aiming/catching, manual dexterity and balance. Symptoms of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were determined using parental questionnaires. Using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance data, four latent neuroanatomic variables (for the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and thalamus) were extracted and mapped onto each motor coordination skill using partial least squares pathway modeling.
The motor coordination skill of aiming/catching was significantly linked to latent variables for both the cerebral cortex (t = 4.31, p < 0.0001) and the cerebellum (t = 2.31, p = 0.02). This effect was driven by the premotor/motor cortical regions and the superior cerebellar lobules. These links were not moderated by the severity of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. In categorical analyses, the DCD group showed atypical reduction in the volumes of these regions. However, the group with DCD alone did not differ significantly from those with DCD and co-morbid ADHD.
The superior cerebellar lobules and the premotor/motor cortex emerged as pivotal neural substrates of motor coordination in children. The dimensions of these motor coordination regions did not differ significantly between those who had DCD, with or without co-morbid ADHD.
Spectral line profiles in pulsating stars are affected by the interplay of a number of velocity fields. In addition to the basic velocities associated with the pulsation mode, the complications of stellar rotation, atmospheric velocity gradients, stellar winds and varying scales of turbulence may also be present. Initial modelling for line profiles in variables assumed a constant ‘intrinsic profile’ which was integrated over the limb-darkened stellar disk. This approach has been used even in recent work for nonradial pulsations (Stamford and Watson 1977; Kubiak 1978) because of computational ease. Employing an LTE analysis to predict centre-to-limb profile variations, which are then integrated over the disk, represents an improvement on this. This has been done, for example, by Parsons (1972) for radial pulsations in cepheids and by Smith (1978) for nonradial oscillations in B stars. Mihalas (1979) has recently made an even more detailed examination of profiles in expanding atmospheres which involved consideration of velocity gradients, departures from LTE and rotation.
The β Cephei variables are a group of short period pulsating variables of early spectral type for which no satisfactory physical driving mechanism has yet been discovered. Further it is not clear what form of pulsation these stars are undergoing. The existence of a beat phenomenon and a phase of spectral line broadening is well established in some of these stars. This extends to observed spectral line doubling in three stars, BW Vul, σ Sco and 12 Lac. Because of the difficulty in explaining these phenomena with purely radial oscillations, Ledoux (1951) first suggested the possibility of non-radial oscillations. Other stars in the group, γ Peg, δ Cet, #x03BE;’ CMa and β Cep have approximately sinusoidal velocity and light curves with little indication of spectral line broadening. For these there is probably no a priori observational need to look beyond purely radial oscillations. It is of course conceivable that different modes of oscillation are present in different members of the β Cephei group. However, if line profiles are calculated for various proposed oscillation modes and compared with the observations, it may be possible to eliminate some suggestions and hence limit the search for an instability mechanism.
Both radial and non-radial motions have been suggested at various stages to explain the observational peculiarities of the β Cephei variables. The non-radial possibility has been investigated most recently by Smith (1977) and Stamford and Watson (1977). We here examine the radial shock proposal by generating a series of isothermal radial shock models in suitable early B star atmospheres. Odgers (1955) has long advocated such a model in connection with the large amplitude variable BW Vul. The observations of Goldberg, Walker and Odgers (1976) clearly show a radial velocity ‘stillstand’ effect and line splitting in this star. We discuss our models in the context of these two phenomena.
The proposal that the complex spectral line changes seen in the large amplitude β Cephei variable BW Vul resulted from a shock effect, driven by an underlying radial pulsation, was first made by Odgers (1955). Stamford and Watson (1978) examined some suitable atmospheric models for this star, which were driven by a hard subphotospheric piston under an isothermal assumption. These models displayed strong shock development and had some encouraging similarities with the BW Vul phenomenon. However, particularly because of the use of a hard piston, they were not very physically realistic. Here we discuss the results of a more sophisticated approach to this modelling problem. This modelling problem is of specific current importance because Odell’s (1981) recent observations of a variable polarization in BW Vul have renewed the debate over possible nonradial pulsations in this star. Since nonlinear effects are clearly substantial in BW Vul, it is evident that the implications of these on the observed spectral line changes should be carefully examined on a radial pulsation hypothesis, before turning to the complexities of nonlinear nonradial profile modelling.
A complete orbital light-curve of V2051 Oph in the IR H band is presented, together with a second eclipse in the J band. Simultaneous Rc band data were obtained. Eclipse depths in Rc, J and H are 1.8 mag, 1.0 mag and 0.8 mag respectively. No evidence for ellipsoidal variations due to the secondary was seen and constraints on the secondary are discussed.
Among the most important stimuli for developing the FLAIR multi-object spectroscopy system on the 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope was its potential for carrying out large-scale redshift surveys of galaxies of intermediate magnitude (B <~ 17). During FLAIR’s lengthy development period, these objects provided the yardstick by which the system’s performance was measured, and a number of limited-area redshift surveys were carried out. We are now following these with a 1-in-3 survey over the 60 fields of the ROE/Durham Galaxy Catalogue to produce a redshift map of some 4000 galaxies out to a distance of ~ 300h−1 Mpc (where the parameter h is the Hubble constant expressed as a fraction of 100 kms−1 Mpc−1). In this paper we summarise the results from our redshift surveys to highlight the capabilities of FLAIR. We present a status report on the current large-scale survey, and show that the recently-introduced FLAIR II system will speed its progress considerably.
EX Hya was one of the earliest detected eclipsing cataclysmic variables. The 98 min orbital period was first documented as a result of the spectroscopy of Kraft and Krzeminski (1962) and the photometry of Mumford (1964, 1967). However, new properties of this system continue to be discovered and these have required a more complex model than was previously envisaged.
The object EX Hya is a dwarf nova with a binary period of 98.3 min (Mumford 1964, 1967). Warner (1972, 1973a) has observed two complete cycles of this star with a photoelectric time resolution of 5 sec. These observations suggested that EX Hya can be understood in terms of the model proposed by Warner and Nather (1971) in their discussion of U Gem. In this model, a white dwarf primary of a semi-detached binary system is surrounded by a disk of gas formed from matter transfered from the secondary, which is a cool dwarf star filling its Roche lobe.
The appearance of SN 1987A led to the implementation of a fast sampling option in the data collection system of the photometer on the University of Tasmania’s optical telescope. This option permits acquisition of continuous data trains of over one hour’s duration at sample rates of 5 kHz. Monitoring of SN 1987 A at regular intervals has permitted upper limits to be assigned to any pulsed fraction of the optical flux. Successful test observations of the Crab pulsar have been obtained, as well as observations of the geostationary Aussat satellites during their bi-annual specular-reflection episodes. For the latter, very accurate spin rates (∼1 Hz) are determinable in short data runs because of the higher frequency components (∼100 Hz) in their light curves. These components are produced by the rows of solar cells on the outer surfaces of the satellites, and fast-Fourier transform analyses essentially permit the numbers of rows of cells to be counted precisely.