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Building on prior work using Tom Dishion's Family Check-Up, the current article examined intervention effects on dysregulated irritability in early childhood. Dysregulated irritability, defined as reactive and intense response to frustration, and prolonged angry mood, is an ideal marker of neurodevelopmental vulnerability to later psychopathology because it is a transdiagnostic indicator of decrements in self-regulation that are measurable in the first years of life that have lifelong implications for health and disease. This study is perhaps the first randomized trial to examine the direct effects of an evidence- and family-based intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on irritability in early childhood and the effects of reductions in irritability on later risk of child internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Data from the geographically and sociodemographically diverse multisite Early Steps randomized prevention trial were used. Path modeling revealed intervention effects on irritability at age 4, which predicted lower externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 10.5. Results indicate that family-based programs initiated in early childhood can reduce early childhood irritability and later risk for psychopathology. This holds promise for earlier identification and prevention approaches that target transdiagnostic pathways. Implications for future basic and prevention research are discussed.
Maternal trauma is a complex risk factor that has been linked to adverse child outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This study, which included adoptive and biological families, examined the heritable and environmental mechanisms by which maternal trauma and associated depressive symptoms are linked to child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Path analyses were used to analyze data from 541 adoptive mother–adopted child (AM–AC) dyads and 126 biological mother–biological child (BM–BC) dyads; the two family types were linked through the same biological mother. Rearing mother's trauma was associated with child internalizing and externalizing behaviors in AM–AC and BM–BC dyads, and this association was mediated by rearing mothers’ depressive symptoms, with the exception of biological child externalizing behavior, for which biological mother trauma had a direct influence only. Significant associations between maternal trauma and child behavior in dyads that share only environment (i.e., AM–AC dyads) suggest an environmental mechanism of influence for maternal trauma. Significant associations were also observed between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing behavior in dyads that were only genetically related, with no shared environment (i.e., BM–AC dyads), suggesting a heritable pathway of influence via maternal depressive symptoms.
An evolution of the low-frequency pulse profile of PSR B2217+47 is observed during a six-year observing campaign with the LOFAR telescope at 150 MHz. The evolution is manifested as a new component in the profile trailing the main peak. The leading part of the profile, including a newly-observed weak component, is steady during the campaign. The transient component is not visible in simultaneous observations at 1500 MHz using the Lovell telescope, implying a chromatic effect. A variation in the dispersion measure of the source is detected in the same timespan. Precession of the pulsar and changes in the magnetosphere are investigated to explain the profile evolution. However, the listed properties favour a model based on turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM). This interpretation is confirmed by a strong correlation between the intensity of the transient component and main peak in single pulses. Since PSR B2217+47 is the fourth brightest pulsar visible to LOFAR, we speculate that ISM-induced pulse profile evolution might be relatively common but subtle and that SKA-Low will detect many similar examples. In this scenario, similar studies of pulse profile evolution could be used in parallel with scintillation arcs to characterize the properties of the ISM.
Glaciofluvial ridges, several hundred kilometres long, are commonly referred to as interlobate moraines because they appear to have formed at the convergence of two distinct ice lobes. Flow convergence is indicated by patterns of striations, streamlined forms and eskers. The so-called interlobate moraines are also thought to have formed asynchronously as the ice margin retreated. By contrast, we argue that the Harricana moraine of northern Quebec, Canada, formed following flow convergence in a regional-scale subglacial outburst flood. Flowlines constructed from streamlined bedforms mapped on the glacial map of Canada, reinterpretation of these streamlined forms as products of meltwater erosion, and field records of erosional marks (S-forms) in bedrock and glaciofluvial deposits to the lee of bedrock highs support this model. The effects of this flow convergence on the ice-sheet topography and drainage controlled the location of the broad conduit in which the Harricana moraine was deposited. Continued flow in this conduit and melting of the conduit walls explain the local patterns of striae, the supply of debris to the conduit, and the morphological and sedimentary characteristics of the moraine itself. From these characteristics, we conclude that the moraine was formed synchronously. This conclusion, if correct, is instructive regarding the deglacial hydrological organization of a large sector of the Laurentide ice sheet.
Little is known about the precursors of suicide risk among primary-care patients. This study aimed to examine suicide risk in relation to patterns of clinical consultation, psychotropic drug prescribing, and psychiatric diagnoses.
Nested case-control study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), England. Patients aged ⩾16 years who died by suicide during 2002–2011 (N = 2384) were matched on gender, age and practice with up to 20 living control patients (N = 46 899).
Risk was raised among non-consulting patients, and increased sharply with rising number of consultations in the preceding year [⩾12 consultations v. 1: unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.9–7.3]. Markedly elevated risk was also associated with the prescribing of multiple psychotropic medication types (⩾5 types v. 0: OR 62.6, CI 44.3–88.4) and with having several psychiatric diagnoses (⩾4 diagnoses v. 0: OR 31.1, CI 19.3–50.1). Risk was also raised among patients living in more socially deprived localities. The confounding effect of multiple psychotropic drug types largely accounted for the rising risk gradient observed with increasing consultation frequency.
A greater proportion of patients with several psychiatric diagnoses, those prescribed multiple psychotropic medication types, and those who consult at very high frequency might be considered for referral to mental health services by their general practitioners. Non-consulters are also at increased risk, which suggests that conventional models of primary care may not be effective in meeting the needs of all people in the community experiencing major psychosocial difficulties.
When children have marked problems with motor coordination, they often have problems with attention and impulse control. Here, we map the neuroanatomic substrate of motor coordination in childhood and ask whether this substrate differs in the presence of concurrent symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Participants were 226 children. All completed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5)-based assessment of ADHD symptoms and standardized tests of motor coordination skills assessing aiming/catching, manual dexterity and balance. Symptoms of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were determined using parental questionnaires. Using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance data, four latent neuroanatomic variables (for the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and thalamus) were extracted and mapped onto each motor coordination skill using partial least squares pathway modeling.
The motor coordination skill of aiming/catching was significantly linked to latent variables for both the cerebral cortex (t = 4.31, p < 0.0001) and the cerebellum (t = 2.31, p = 0.02). This effect was driven by the premotor/motor cortical regions and the superior cerebellar lobules. These links were not moderated by the severity of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. In categorical analyses, the DCD group showed atypical reduction in the volumes of these regions. However, the group with DCD alone did not differ significantly from those with DCD and co-morbid ADHD.
The superior cerebellar lobules and the premotor/motor cortex emerged as pivotal neural substrates of motor coordination in children. The dimensions of these motor coordination regions did not differ significantly between those who had DCD, with or without co-morbid ADHD.
Parental depressive symptoms are associated with emotional and behavioural problems in offspring. However, genetically informative studies are needed to distinguish potential causal effects from genetic confounds, and longitudinal studies are required to distinguish parent-to-child effects from child-to-parent effects.
We conducted cross-sectional analyses on a sample of Swedish twins and their adolescent offspring (n = 876 twin families), and longitudinal analyses on a US sample of children adopted at birth, their adoptive parents, and their birth mothers (n = 361 adoptive families). Depressive symptoms were measured in parents, and externalizing and internalizing problems measured in offspring. Structural equation models were fitted to the data.
Results of model fitting suggest that associations between parental depressive symptoms and offspring internalizing and externalizing problems remain after accounting for genes shared between parent and child. Genetic transmission was not evident in the twin study but was evident in the adoption study. In the longitudinal adoption study child-to-parent effects were evident.
We interpret the results as demonstrating that associations between parental depressive symptoms and offspring emotional and behavioural problems are not solely attributable to shared genes, and that bidirectional effects may be present in intergenerational associations.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Police officers often serve as first responders during out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA). Current knowledge and attitudes about resuscitation techniques among police officers are unknown.
This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillators (AEDs) among urban police officers and quantified the effect of video self-instruction (VSI) on these outcomes.
Urban police officers were enrolled in this online, prospective, educational study conducted over one month. Demographics, prior CPR-AED experience, and baseline attitudes were queried. Subjects were randomized into two groups. Each group received a slightly different multiple-choice test of knowledge and crossed to the alternate test after the intervention, a 10-minute VSI on CPR and AEDs. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed immediately before and after the intervention. The primary attitude outcome was entering “very likely” (5-point Likert) to do chest compressions (CC) and use an AED on a stranger. The primary knowledge outcomes were identification of the correct rate of CC, depth of CC, and action in an OHCA scenario.
A total of 1616 subjects responded with complete data (63.6% of all electronic entries). Randomization produced 819 participants in group 1, and 797 in group 2. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ significantly in any background variable. After the intervention, subjects “very likely” to do CC on a stranger increased by 17.2% (95% CI, 12.5%-21.8%) in group 1 and 21.2% (95% CI, 16.4%-25.9%) in group 2. Subjects “very likely” to use an AED on a stranger increased by 20.0% (95% CI, 15.3%-24.7%) in group 1 and 25.0% (95% CI, 20.2%-29.6%) in group 2. Knowledge of correct CC rate increased by 59.0% (95% CI, 55.0%-62.8%) in group 1 and 64.8% (95% CI, 60.8%-68.3%) in group 2. Knowledge of correct CC depth increased by 44.8% (95% CI, 40.5%-48.8%) in group 1 and 54.4% (95% CI, 50.3%-58.3%) in group 2. Knowledge of correct action in an OHCA scenario increased by 27.4% (95% CI, 23.4%-31.4%) in group 1 and 27.2% (95% CI, 23.3%-31.1%) in group 2.
Video self-instruction can significantly improve attitudes toward and knowledge of CPR and AEDs among police officers. Future studies can assess the impact of VSI on actual rates of CPR and AED use during real out-of-hospital cardiac arrests.
AldeenAZ, HartmanND, SequraA, PhullA, ShawDM, ChiampasGT, CourtneyDM. Video Self-instruction for Police Officers in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Automated External Defibrillators. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(5):1-6.
Human rights violations are commonly experienced by people in psychiatric and social care institutions. States and private organizations providing such health and social services must comply with international human rights law. Monitoring of such compliance is increasingly recognized as a vital component in ensuring that rights are respected and violations are brought out in the open, remedied and prevented.
The Institutional Treatment, Human Rights and Care Assessment (ITHACA) project produced a method to document violations and good practice with the aim of preventing human rights violations and improving general health care practice in psychiatric and social care institutions (www.ithacastudy.eu).
A methodological and implementation study conducted across 15 European countries developed and assessed the ITHACA Toolkit in monitoring visits to 87 mental health organizations.
The toolkit is available in 13 European languages and has demonstrated applicability in a range of contexts and conditions. The information gathered through monitoring visits can document both good practice and areas for improvement.
The ITHACA Toolkit is an acceptable and feasible method for the systematic monitoring of human rights and general health care in psychiatric and social care institutions that explicitly calls for the participation of service users in the monitoring of human rights violations and general health care practice.
The role of interfacial exchange coupling in the magnetic behavior of metal oxide materials has been investigated through the study of Fe3O4/NiO superlattices. We report results on a series of superlattices grown where one bilayer constituent was held to a fixed thickness while varying the other from single unit cell dimensions upward. High crystalline quality was confirmed by XRD, RHEED and neutron diffraction. Magnetization profiles show substantial deviations from bulklike iron oxide results, with an increase in domain rotation energies observed in the superlattices over that of bulk iron oxide (increasing with NiO layer thickness) indicating the strong nature of Fe3O4/NiO interfacial linkage. Neutron scattering at elevated temperatures shows that the NiO remains ordered above the 523 K bulk Néel temperature. This suggests that at least a portion of the NiO within a layer remains ordered well above the Néel temperature, with an increase in effective Néel transition temperature that approaches the Fe3O4 Curie temperature in the limit of very thin NiO layers. Although the exchange coupling dominates these effects, strain also plays an important role.
The current study examines the interplay between parental overreactivity and children's genetic backgrounds as inferred from birth parent characteristics on the development of negative emotionality during infancy, and in turn, to individual differences in externalizing problems in toddlerhood. The sample included 361 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Data were collected when the children were 9, 18, and 27 months old. Results indicated links between individual levels and changes in negative emotionality during infancy and toddlerhood to externalizing problems early in the third year of life. Findings also revealed an interaction between birth mother negative affect and adoptive mother overreactive parenting on children's negative emotionality. This Genotype × Environment interaction predicted externalizing problems indirectly through its association with negative emotionality and revealed stronger effects of genetic risk for children with less overreactive parenting from their mothers. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are discussed.
Planning for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel is at an advanced stage in several nations around the world. Licensing of the disposal facility requires correspondingly detailed assessment of the future performance of the facility. With increased site-specific detail available to the assessment, local characteristics play an increasingly important role in determining the potential radiological risk posed by releases to the biosphere. In this paper we go beyond existing reference biosphere models and investigate the potential for specific accumulation mechanisms. The implications for the modelling carried out in long timescale performance assessment are discussed.
Modern time-domain surveys have demonstrated that finding variable objects is relatively straightforward. The problem now is one of selecting and following up discoveries. With even larger-scale surveys on the horizon, the magnitude of the problem will inevitably increase. One way to prepare for the coming deluge is to have realistic estimates of the numbers of potential detections so that resources can be developed to meet that need. To that end, astronomers at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) have begun a project to characterize the variable sky in terms of type of objects, distribution on the sky and range of variation.
We have used electrical characterization and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to investigate the influence of hydrogen or deuterium (H/D) on the degradation of the electrical properties of Pt/Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3/Pt thin film capacitors after forming gas exposure. Deuterium SIMS depth profiling shows that high deuterium concentrations can be incorporated into Pt/BSTO/Pt capacitors after forming gas annealing. The increase in H/D concentration in the film is accompanied by an increase in the leakage and dielectric relaxation current density. Voltage offsets in the capacitance-applied voltage (C-VA) characteristics after forming gas exposure at lower temperatures (20 °C) and a suppression in the capacitance density near zero applied D.C. bias after forming gas exposure at higher temperatures, suggests that one effect of forming gas exposure to Pt/BSTO/Pt thin film capacitors is to introduce positive space charge into the BSTO film. Using an equivalent model for a ferroelectric thin film capacitor, which incorporates lower permittivity interfacial layers and a nonlinear electric field-electric displacement relationship for the film interior, the effects of a uniform distribution of positive space charge on the theoretical C-VA and current density applied voltage (J-VA) characteristics are investigated. It is shown the model can account for many of the observed changes that occur in the experimental C-VA and J-VA characteristics after forming gas exposure.
We report energy distributions of silicon Field Emitter Arrays coated with 50A of ZnO. The distributions reflect changes in the ZnO conductivity induced by annealing in vacuum, temperature, and annealing in hydrogen. An additional coating of titanium performed in-situ produced large additional changes. Emission from the ZnO at energies near the Fermi level increased with gate voltage only after hydrogen annealing, when hot, and after Ti coating. In those same cases the emission distribution contained a tail at energies above EF. The highenergy emission tail is due to a many-body or Auger process whereby holes injected below EF create hot electrons. Although emission from ZnO occurred at energies up to 8eV below EF, no high-energy tail was observed in the normal case. Thus emission appears to occur from isolated electrons in ZnO gap states in cases where the distribution lacks a high-energy tail. Conversely, emission above EF suggests that emission occurred from a metallic state such as an accumulated conduction band.