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Most research showing that cognates are named faster than non-cognates has focused on isolated word production which might not realistically reflect cognitive demands in sentence production. Here, we explored whether cognates elicit interference by examining error rates during sentence production, and how this interference is resolved by language control mechanisms. Twenty highly proficient Spanish–English bilinguals described visual scenes with sentence structures ‘NP1-verb-NP2’ (NP = noun-phrase). Half the nouns and half the verbs were cognates and two manipulations created high control demands. Both situations that demanded higher inhibitory control pushed the cognate effect from facilitation towards interference. These findings suggest that cognates, similar to phonologically similar words within a language, can induce not only facilitation but robust interference.
This chapter attempts a dialogue between developmental psychology and sociology to explore the potential contribution a joint approach can make to understanding children’s human rights, with a focus on addressing childhood poverty. We reflect upon the relevance of our respective disciplines for thinking about children’s human rights and explore some of the tensions as well as complementarities between psychology and sociology. Beginning with a brief history of children’s rights, we explain the basics of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and introduce the theoretical framework of “living rights, social justice and translations.” Second, we address what our differing disciplines offer to the study and advancement of children’s rights, starting with psychology before outlining a sociological approach and how perspectives from both disciplines enrich an understanding of living rights. Our third section takes childhood poverty as an example to explore rights questions – defining child poverty as multidimensional and drawing on research from our respective fields. Fourth, we link children’s rights and poverty by focusing on a topic of vital importance to children’s well-being, that of violence. We conclude by summarizing the contributions that developmental psychology and sociology can make to understanding and translating children’s rights.
A survey of Veterans’ Affairs Medical Centers on control of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and carbapenem-producing CRE (CP-CRE) demonstrated that most facilities use VA guidelines but few screen for CRE/CP-CRE colonization regularly or regularly communicate CRE/CP-CRE status at patient transfer. Most respondents were knowledgeable about CRE guidelines but cited lack of adequate resources.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
This study investigated whether the duration and type of screen time (ST) (TV viewing, recreational computer use, video gaming) is longitudinally associated with z-BMI and if these relationships are mediated by disordered eating (emotional, restrained).
At baseline, participants were n 1197 (T1; 60 % female) adolescents (mean age = 13·51 years) who completed surveys over 2 years. ST was assessed by a self-reported measure created by the investigative team, while emotional and restrained eating was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEB-Q). Height and weight were objectively measured to quantify z-BMI.
Thirty-one public and two private schools from the region of Ottawa, Canada.
Students in grades 7–12.
Parallel multiple mediation analyses revealed that more time spent watching TV at baseline is associated with higher z-BMI at T3 (total effect; B = 0·19, se = 0·07, P = 0·01, 95 % CI 0·05, 0·34), but no relationships were observed for total ST exposure or other types of ST and z-BMI. Disordered eating did not mediate the positive association between baseline TV viewing and z-BMI at T3.
TV viewing was longitudinally associated with higher z-BMI in a community-based sample of adolescents, but disordered eating behaviours did not mediate this relationship. However, other non-pathological eating behaviours may mediate the association between ST and obesity and warrant further investigation. Finding suggests that targeting reduction in youth’s TV viewing may be an effective component in the prevention of childhood obesity.
Previous genetic association studies have failed to identify loci robustly associated with sepsis, and there have been no published genetic association studies or polygenic risk score analyses of patients with septic shock, despite evidence suggesting genetic factors may be involved. We systematically collected genotype and clinical outcome data in the context of a randomized controlled trial from patients with septic shock to enrich the presence of disease-associated genetic variants. We performed genomewide association studies of susceptibility and mortality in septic shock using 493 patients with septic shock and 2442 population controls, and polygenic risk score analysis to assess genetic overlap between septic shock risk/mortality with clinically relevant traits. One variant, rs9489328, located in AL589740.1 noncoding RNA, was significantly associated with septic shock (p = 1.05 × 10–10); however, it is likely a false-positive. We were unable to replicate variants previously reported to be associated (p < 1.00 × 10–6 in previous scans) with susceptibility to and mortality from sepsis. Polygenic risk scores for hematocrit and granulocyte count were negatively associated with 28-day mortality (p = 3.04 × 10–3; p = 2.29 × 10–3), and scores for C-reactive protein levels were positively associated with susceptibility to septic shock (p = 1.44 × 10–3). Results suggest that common variants of large effect do not influence septic shock susceptibility, mortality and resolution; however, genetic predispositions to clinically relevant traits are significantly associated with increased susceptibility and mortality in septic individuals.
The Handbook of Behavior Change is the first wide-ranging compendium of theory- and evidence-based research and practice on behavior change. It provides scientists, students, and practitioners with the current evidence on behavior change and expert advice on how to develop, evaluate, and implement behavior change interventions. The handbook also sets an agenda for future research on behavior change theory and practice across multiple behaviors, contexts, and populations. This chapter outlines emerging issues and future research directions arising from the handbook. The chapter stresses the importance of theory development, including the need for greater emphasis on ecological and social theories; clearer descriptions and operationalizations of behavior change theories; and increased application of interdisciplinary approaches. Future research on intervention development should conduct more comprehensive intervention fidelity assessments; adopt novel means to improve the translation, feasibility, and optimization of interventions; ensure consideration of ethical issues in behavior change research; routinely evaluate mechanisms of action in behavior change interventions; and apply complex systems approaches to behavior change. “Best-practice” guidance on behavior change should consider emerging methods and approaches to behavior change; implement trials to evaluate the long-term maintenance of behavior change; and develop core curricula on behavior change to educate the next generation of scientists and practitioners.
Social problems in many domains, including health, education, social relationships, and the workplace, have their origins in human behavior. The documented links between behavior and social problems have sparked interest in governments and organizations to develop effective interventions to promote behavior change. The Handbook of Behavior Change provides comprehensive coverage of contemporary theory, research, and practice on behavior change. The handbook incorporates theory- and evidence-based approaches to behavior change with chapters from leading theorists, researchers, and practitioners from multiple disciplines, including psychology, sociology, behavioral science, economics, and implementation science. Chapters are organized into three parts: (1) Theory and Behavior Change; (2) Methods and Processes of Behavior Change: Intervention Development, Application, and Translation; and (3) Behavior Change Interventions: Practical Guides to Behavior Change. This chapter provides an overview of the theory- and evidence-based approaches of the handbook, introduces the content of the handbook, and provides suggestions on how the handbook may be used by different readers. The handbook aims to provide all interested in behavior change, including researchers and students, practitioners, and policy makers, with up-to-date knowledge on behavior change and guidance on how to develop effective interventions to change behavior in different populations and contexts.
This chapter provides an overview of economic and behavioral economic approaches to behavior change. The chapter begins with a description of the traditional or neoclassical economic view of decision-making using expected utility theory as its basis. Attempts by an external party (e.g., a government or agency) to change behavior are viewed as justifiable in a limited number of circumstances, such as when there are externalities or coordination failures. When behavior change is warranted, neoclassical economics has focused on four options: provide information, increase incentives, reduce prices, or increase subsidies, or impose regulations. To be successful, the approach must change the net benefits of the promoted behavior. The chapter then describes the rationale behind behavioral economic approaches to behavior change, emphasizing the role that “nudges” play in behavior change. Examples are provided of common heuristics and associated decision errors that can result, and how nudges are designed to overcome these decision errors. The underlying rationale and steps for developing nudges are summarized. Current evidence suggests that some nudges can be effective in changing behavior, but more research is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of many nudge strategies. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the likely long-term impact of nudges in the field of behavior change.
Self-determination theory is a generalized theory of behavior that focuses on motivation quality and psychological need satisfaction as preeminent behavioral determinants. The theory distinguishes between autonomous and controlled forms of motivation. Autonomous motivation reflects willingly engaging in behaviors for self-endorsed reasons, whereas controlled motivation reflects engaging in behavior for externally or internally pressured or controlled reasons. Satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness is necessary for optimal functioning and well-being, and influences the form of motivation, autonomous or controlled, experienced by individuals when acting. Autonomous motivation is consistently related to sustained behavior change and adaptive outcomes. Interventions to promote autonomous motivation have targeted psychological need support provided by social agents (e.g., leaders, managers, teachers, health professionals), particularly autonomy need support. Interventions using need-supportive techniques have demonstrated efficacy in promoting autonomous motivation, behavior change, and adaptive outcomes. Research has identified behaviors displayed, and language used, by social agents, or communicated by other means, that support autonomous motivation. Autonomy-support training programs have been developed to train social agents to promote autonomous motivation and behavior change. Future research needs to examine the unique and interactive effects of specific autonomy-support techniques, provide further evidence for long-term efficacy, and examine “dose” effects and long-term efficacy.