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Ice shelves play a critical role in modulating dynamic loss of ice from the grounded portion of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and its contribution to sea-level rise. Measurements of ice-shelf motion provide insights into processes modifying buttressing. Here we investigate the effect of seasonal variability of basal melting on ice flow of Ross Ice Shelf. Velocities were measured from November 2015 to December 2016 at 12 GPS stations deployed from the ice front to 430 km upstream. The flow-parallel velocity anomaly at each station, relative to the annual mean, was small during early austral summer (November–January), negative during February–April, and positive during austral winter (May–September). The maximum velocity anomaly reached several metres per year at most stations. We used a 2-D ice-sheet model of the RIS and its grounded tributaries to explore the seasonal response of the ice sheet to time-varying basal melt rates. We find that melt-rate response to changes in summer upper-ocean heating near the ice front will affect the future flow of RIS and its tributary glaciers. However, modelled seasonal flow variations from increased summer basal melting near the ice front are much smaller than observed, suggesting that other as-yet-unidentified seasonal processes are currently dominant.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
Transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation is usually performed from a femoral venous – transfemoral – approach, but this may not be the optimal vascular access option in some patients. This study aimed to determine which group of patients might benefit from an internal jugular – transjugular – approach for transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation.
This multicentre retrospective study included all patients who underwent attempted transcatheter pulmonary valve placement in the right ventricular outflow tract between April 2010 and June 2012 at two large congenital heart centres. Patients were divided into two groups based on venous access site – transfemoral or transjugular. Patient characteristics, procedural outcomes, and complications were compared between groups.
Of 81 patients meeting the inclusion criteria (median age 16.4 years), the transjugular approach was used in 14 patients (17%). The transjugular group was younger (median age 11.9 versus 17.3 years), had lower body surface area (mean 1.33 versus 1.61 m2), more often had moderate or greater tricuspid regurgitation (29% versus 7%), and had a higher ratio of right ventricle-to-systemic systolic pressure (mean 82.4 versus 64.7). Patients requiring a transjugular approach after an unsuccessful transfemoral approach had longer fluoroscopic times and procedure duration.
The transjugular approach for transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation is used infrequently but is more often used in younger and smaller patients. Technical limitations from a transfemoral approach may be anticipated if there is moderate or greater tricuspid regurgitation or higher right ventricular pressures. In these patients, a transjugular approach should be considered early.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Radio continuum emission due to thermal bremsstrahlung and optical Hα spectral line emission arise from processes involving similar atomic entities and physical conditions. The relationship between the flux density of the emission from the two processes is mainly a function of the electron temperature of the emitting region, modified by other factors such as the mode of radiation transfer in the hydrogen spectrum. On the other hand, radio continuum radiation due to non-thermal synchrotron emission is formed by species and processes not involved in thermal emission. As a consequence, differences between the observed radio continuum emission and Hα emission from cosmic sources can provide reliable information on a variety of important physical aspects of the sources, including the relative importance of thermal and non-thermal radio emission and the degree of optical obscuration. This paper reviews the theory of the formation of Hα and the radio continuum in the interstellar medium (ISM), discusses some of the factors that must be considered in comparing observations made in the two frequency regimes, and summarises the properties of some classes of galactic object that emit both optical and radio radiation.
Objective: There is clear evidence of a genetic component in major depression, and several studies indicate that neuropeptide Y (NPY) could play an important role in the pathophysiology of the disease. A well-known polymorphism encoding the substitution of leucine to proline in the signal peptide sequence of NPY (Leu7Pro variation) was previously found to protect against depression. Our study aimed at replicating this association in a large Danish population with major depression.
Method: Leu7Pro was studied in a sample of depressed patients and ethnically matched controls, as well as psychiatric disease controls with schizophrenia. Possible functional consequences of Leu7Pro were explored in vitro.
Results: In contrast to previous studies, Pro7 appeared to be a risk allele for depression, being significantly more frequent in the depression sample (5.5%, n = 593; p = 0.009; odds ratio, OR: 1.46) as compared to ethnically matched controls (3.8%, n = 2912), while schizophrenia patients (4.1%, n = 503) did not differ. In vitro, the Pro7 substitution appeared to be associated with reduced levels of NPY without affecting its mRNA level.
Conclusion: The Leu7Pro variation may increase the risk of major depression, possibly by affecting the biosynthesis of NPY.
Clinical research on subjective determinants of recovery and health has increased, but no instrument has been developed to assess the subjective experience and meaning of psychoses. We have therefore constructed and validated the Subjective Sense in Psychosis Questionnaire (SUSE) to measure sense making in psychotic disorders.
SUSE was based on an item pool generated by professionals and patients. For pre-testing, 90 psychosis patients completed the instrument. Psychometric properties were assessed using methods of classical test theory. In the main study, SUSE was administered to a representative sample of 400 patients. Factor structure, reliability and validity were assessed and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used for testing subscale coherence and adequacy of the hypothesized factor structure. Response effects due to clinical settings were tested using multilevel analyses.
The final version of SUSE comprises 34 items measuring distinct aspects of the experience and meaning of psychoses in a consistent overall model with six coherent subscales representing positive and negative meanings throughout the course of psychotic disorders. Multilevel analyses indicate independence from clinical context effects. Patients relating psychotic experiences to life events assessed their symptoms and prospects more positively. 76% of patients assumed a relationship between their biography and the emergence of psychosis, 42% reported positive experience of symptoms and 74% ascribed positive consequences to their psychosis.
SUSE features good psychometric qualities and offers an empirical acquisition to subjective assessment of psychosis. The results highlight the significance of subjective meaning making in psychoses and support a more biographical and in-depth psychological orientation for treatment.
Since January 1959, Health Canada has monitored environmental levels of radioactive fallout, to ensure the health and well being of Canadians. This work has evolved to include explosion verification for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty by monitoring the concentration of radioxenon in the atmosphere. Detection of Xe at Yellowknife by the monitoring system of Health Canada combined with the atmospheric transport and dispersion models (ATDM) of Environment Canada and seismic timing data have shown that the source of this Xe was most likely from the North Korean nuclear test of October 9th, 2006. Historical and real time monitoring data on the distribution of Xe releases from Chalk River Labs, the major source of anthropogenic background to Yellowknife were studied. Careful review of other large Xe-133 measurements at Yellowknife with ATDM was used to understand the October 2006 measurements of Xe. This allowed us to conclude that the Xe-133 detected at Yellowknife could be attributed to a release from the October nuclear test in North Korea. Health Canada and Environment Canada have demonstrated that Xe detection combined with ATDM is a viable technology for treaty verification.
The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently conducted an extragalactic submillimetric survey of the Chandra Deep Field South region of unprecedented size, depth, and angular resolution in three wavebands centered at 250,
350, and 500 µm. BLAST wavelengths are chosen to study the Cosmic Infrared Background near its peak at 200 µm.
We find that most of the CIB at these wavelengths is contributed by galaxies detected at 24 µm by the MIPS instrument on Spitzer, and that the source counts distribution shows a population with strongly evolving density and luminosity. These results anticipate what can be expected from the surveys that will be conducted with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel space observatory.
SPIRE, the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver, is Herschel's submillimetre camera and spectrometer. It comprises a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 350 and 500 μm, and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) covering 194–672 μm. The design of SPIRE is described, and the expected scientific performance is summarised, based on modelling and flight instrument test results.
To determine factors that influence transmission of Staphylococcus aureus in nursing homes in the Rhine-Neckar region of southern Germany.
Forty-seven nursing homes in the region.
Residents of the approached nursing homes who agreed to participate.
Personal data and swabs of the nares were collected from participants. Swabs were examined for growth of S. aureus. All S. aureus isolates were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Transmission rates were calculated by dividing the number of transmissions (ie, cases in which two inhabitants shared the same PFGE type) by the number of S. aureus carriers. Characteristics of the nursing homes were correlated with a home's transmission rate.
In each nursing home, 12% to 54% of the residents were colonized with S. aureus. The transmission rates for the 47 nursing homes ranged from 0% to 70%. A linear regression model revealed that a stay in the nursing home of longer than 6 months and accommodation in a room with 3 or more beds were positively associated with the transmission rate. Receipt of antibiotics during the 4 weeks preceding the study was negatively associated with transmission.
Stays beyond 6 months and accommodation in rooms with multiple beds are important for the transmission of S. aureus. One way to reduce transmission would be to design facilities with single and double rooms. However, the social needs of the residents must be evaluated and respected.
This paper reports on the status of the PHELIX petawatt laser which is
built at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in close
collaboration with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and
the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) in France. First
experiments carried out with the chirped pulse amplification (CPA)
front-end will also be briefly reviewed.
We present simulated monopedal and bipedal robots that are capable of open-loop stable periodic running motions without any feedback even though they have no statically stable standing positions. Running as opposed to walking involves flight phases which makes stability a particularly difficult issue. The concept of open-loop stability implies that the actuators receive purely periodic torque or force inputs that are never altered by any feedback in order to prevent the robot from falling. The design of these robots and the choice of model parameter values leading to stable motions is a difficult task that has been accomplished using newly developed stability optimization methods.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
The Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver (Acbar) is a multifrequency millimeter-wave receiver optimized for observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in clusters of galaxies. Acbar was installed on the 2.1 m Viper telescope at the South Pole in January 2001 and the results presented here incorporate data through July 2002. The power spectrum of the CMB at 150 GHz over the range ℓ = 150 — 3000 measured by Acbar is presented along with estimates for the values of the cosmological parameters within the context of ΛCDM models. The inclusion of ΩΛ greatly improves the fit to the power spectrum. Three-frequency images of the SZ decrement/increment are also presented for the galaxy cluster 1E0657–67.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.