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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between depression in older nursing home residents and family caregivers’ (FCGs) depressive status and reasons for involvement with residents.
This study employed a cross-sectional design.
Eight nursing homes in northern Taiwan.
A total of 139 older resident–FCG pairs were recruited.
Depression was measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form for nursing home residents and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Short Form for family members. Depression and demographic data were collected with face-to-face interviews. The meaning ascribed to caregivers’ nursing home visits was calibrated using the Family Meaning of Nursing-Home Visits scale. Multiple logistic regression was used to understand the factors related to residents’ depressive symptoms.
Depressive symptoms were present in 58.3% of the nursing home residents (n = 81). Depressive status of family members (Chi-square = 1.46, p = 0.23) or family’s visiting frequency (Chi-square = 1.64, p = 0.44) did not differ between residents with or without depressive symptoms. Factors associated with an increased risk of residents having depressive symptoms were age, self-perceived health status, and having a caregiver motivated to visit to assuage their guilt.
Visiting a family member to assuage their guilt was the only caregiver variable associated with depressive symptoms for nursing home residents. This finding suggests that developing interventions to improve personal relationships between nursing home residents and family members might facilitate the emotional support of caregivers and psychological support for older nursing home residents in Taiwan.
Dietary recommendations (DR) in the USA may be inadequate at improving diets in racial/ethnic minority communities and may require redesign of the systems driving their development over the long term. Meanwhile, cultural adaptation of evidence-based DR may be an important strategy for mitigating nutrition disparities, but less is known about the adaptability of these recommendations to meet the needs of diverse groups. We examined the content and origin of major DRs – aspects that provide context on their potential universality across populations and evaluated their potential for cultural adaptation.
Case studies of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), the Mediterranean diet (MD), the EAT-Lancet diet (EAT) and the NOVA classification system.
Racial/ethnic minority populations.
Current DR differ in their origin/evolution but are similar in their reductionist emphasis on physical health. DASH has been successfully adapted for some cultures but may be challenged by the need for intensive resources; MD may be more beneficial if applied as part of a broader set of food procurement/preparation practices than as just diet alone; EAT-Lancet adaptation may not honor existing country-specific practices that are already beneficial to human and environmental health (e.g. traditional/plant-based diets); evidence for cultural adaptation is limited with NOVA, but classification of levels of food processing has potential for widespread application.
For DR to equitably support diverse populations, they must move beyond a Eurocentric or ‘general population’ framing, be more inclusive of cultural differences and honour social practices to improve diet and reduce disparities.
This article examines the earliest examples of replication of bronze objects of complicated structure in China. It uses four quadrupeds from the Freer Gallery (National Museum of Asian Art, Smithsonian Institution), the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, the British Museum, and the Yūrinkan Museum in Kyōto as examples to illustrate the complex technology required in replicating bronzes. It provides evidence to define identical bronzes and proves that the four quadrupeds shared the same decorated model. The application of section-mold casting, spacers, clay cores, and mold section assemblage will be examined using 3D scanning, X-ray photography, computerized tomography (CT) scanning, and alloy composition analysis.
No relevant studies have yet been conducted to explore which measurement can best predict the survival time of patients with cancer cachexia. This study aimed to identify an anthropometric measurement that could predict the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia. We conducted a nested case–control study using data from a multicentre clinical investigation of cancer from 2013 to 2020. Cachexia was defined using the Fearon criteria. A total of 262 patients who survived less than 1 year and 262 patients who survived more than 1 year were included in this study. Six candidate variables were selected based on clinical experience and previous studies. Five variables, BMI, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, calf circumference and triceps skin fold (TSF), were selected for inclusion in the multivariable model. In the conditional logistic regression analysis, TSF (P = 0·014) was identified as a significant independent protective factor. A similar result was observed in all patients with cancer cachexia (n 3084). In addition, a significantly stronger positive association between TSF and the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia was observed in participants aged > 65 years (OR: 0·94; 95 % CI 0·89, 0·99) than in those aged ≤ 65 years (OR: 0·96; 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99; Pinteraction = 0·013) and in participants with no chronic disease (OR: 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·97) than in those with chronic disease (OR: 0·97; 95 % CI 0·94, 1·00; Pinteraction = 0·049). According to this study, TSF might be a good anthropometric measurement for predicting 1-year survival in patients with cancer cachexia.
The tropical areas of eastern Asia contain a high diversity of foliicolous lichens, including various species of the genus Badimia. Badimia xanthocampylidia W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei is described from tropical rainforests in southern China and Thailand based on morphology, chemistry, and combined mtSSU, ITS and nrLSU sequences. It is characterized by a pale green thallus with yellow verrucae and bright yellow campylidia and the presence of isousnic acid. Three other species, B. multiseptata Papong & Lücking, B. pallidula (Kremp.) Vězda and B. polillensis (Vain.) Vězda, are discussed and the genus Badimia is newly reported from China. A worldwide key to currently known species in the genus is presented.
The coexistence of underweight (UW) and overweight (OW)/obese (OB) at the population level is known to affect iron deficiency (ID) anaemia (IDA), but how the weight status affects erythropoiesis during pregnancy is less clear at a population scale. This study investigated associations between the pre-pregnancy BMI (pBMI) and erythropoiesis-related nutritional deficiencies.
Anthropometry, blood biochemistry and 24-h dietary recall data were collected during prenatal care visits. The weight status was defined based on the pBMI. Mild nutrition deficiency-related erythropoiesis was defined if individuals had an ID, folate depletion or a vitamin B12 deficiency.
The Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (Pregnant NAHSIT 2017–2019).
We included 1456 women aged 20 to 45 years with singleton pregnancies.
Among these pregnant women, 9·6 % were UW, and 29·2 % were either OW (15·8 %) or OB (13·4 %). A U-shaped association between the pBMI and IDA was observed, with decreased odds (OR; 95 % CI) for OW subjects (0·6; 95 % CI (0·4, 0·9)) but increased odds for UW (1·2; 95 % CI (0·8, 2·0)) and OB subjects (1·2; 95 % CI (0·8, 1·8)). The pBMI was positively correlated with the prevalence of a mild nutritional deficiency. Compared to normal weight, OB pregnant women had 3·4-fold (3·4; 95 % CI (1·4, 8·1)) higher odds for multiple mild nutritional deficiencies, while UW individuals had lowest odds (0·3; 95 % CI (0·1, 1·2)). A dietary analysis showed negative relationships of pBMI with energy, carbohydrates, protein, Fe and folate intakes, but positive relationship with fat intakes.
The pre-pregnancy weight status can possibly serve as a good nutritional screening tool for preventing IDA during pregnancy.
To investigate the safety and feasibility of midazolam for conscious sedation in transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects guided solely by transthoracic echocardiography.
A retrospective analysis was performed on 55 patients who underwent transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects from October, 2019 to May, 2020. All patients received intravenous midazolam and local anesthesia with lidocaine to maintain sedation. A group of previous patients with unpublished data who underwent the same procedure with general anesthesia was set as the control group. The relevant clinical parameters, the Ramsay sedation scores, the numerical rating scale, and the post-operative satisfaction questionnaire were recorded and analyzed.
In the midazolam group, the success rate of atrial septal defect closure was 98.2%. Hemodynamic stability was observed during the procedure. None of the patients needed additional endotracheal intubation for general anesthesia. Compared with the control group, the midazolam group had no statistically significant differences in the Ramsay sedation score and numerical rating scale scores. Patients in the midazolam group experienced more post-operative satisfaction than those in the control group.
Conscious sedation using midazolam is a safe and effective anesthetic technique for transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects guided solely by transthoracic echocardiography.
Epilobium belongs to the family Onagraceae, which consists of approximately 200 species distributed worldwide, and some species have been used as medicinal plants. Epilobium nankotaizanense is an endemic and endangered herb that grows in the high mountains in Taiwan at an elevation of more than 3300 m. Alpine herbs are severely threatened by climate change, which leads to a reduction in their habitats and population sizes. However, only a few studies have addressed genetic diversity and population genetics. In the present study, we developed a new set of microsatellite markers for E. nankotaizanense using high-throughput genome sequencing data. Twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and tested on 30 individuals collected from three natural populations. These loci were successfully amplified, and polymorphisms were observed in E. nankotaizanense. The number of alleles per locus (A) ranged from 2.000 to 3.000, and the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.929 and from 0.034 to 0.631, respectively. The developed polymorphic microsatellite markers will be useful in future conservation genetic studies of E. nankotaizanense as well as for developing an effective conservation strategy for this species and facilitating germplasm collections and sustainable utilization of other Epilobium species.
This study explored the clinical effect of employing breast milk oral care for infants who underwent surgical correction of ventricular septal defect.
A prospective randomised controlled study was conducted in a provincial hospital between January, 2020 and July, 2020 in China. Patients were randomly divided into an intervention group (breast milk oral care, n = 28) and a control group (physiological saline oral care, n = 28). The intervention group was given oral nursing using breast milk for infants in the early post-operative period, and the control group was given oral nursing using physiological saline. Related clinical data were recorded and analysed.
There were no significant differences in age, gender, weight, operation time, cardiopulmonary bypass time, or aortic cross-clamping time between the two groups. Compared with the physiological saline oral care group, the mechanical ventilation duration, the length of ICU stay in the breast milk oral care group were significantly shorter. The time of start feeding and total enteral nutrition were significantly earlier in the intervention group than those in the control group. The incidence of post-operative pneumonia in the breast milk oral care group was 3.6%, which was significantly lower than that of the physiological saline oral care group.
The use of breast milk for oral care in infants who underwent surgical correction of VSD can reduce the incidence of post-operative pneumonia and promote the recovery of gastrointestinal function.
This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of supplementing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in breeder hens diet on development and hepatic lipid metabolism of chick offspring. Hy-Line Brown breeder hens were allocated into two groups, supplemented with 0 (control (CT)) or 0·5 % CLA for 8 weeks. Offspring chicks were grouped according to the mother generation and fed for 7 d. CLA treatment had no significant influence on development, egg quality and fertility of breeder hens but darkened the egg yolks in shade and increased yolk sac mass compared with the CT group. Addition of CLA resulted in increased body mass and liver mass and decreased deposition of subcutaneous adipose tissue in chick offspring. The serum TAG and total cholesterol levels of chick offspring were decreased in CLA group. CLA treatment increased the incorporation of both CLA isomers (c9t11 and t10c12) in the liver of chick offspring, accompanied by the decreased hepatic TAG levels, related to the significant reduction of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) enzyme activities and the increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) enzyme activity. Meanwhile, CLA treatment reduced the mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS, ACC and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c) and induced the expression of genes related to β-oxidative (CPT1, AMP-activated protein kinase and PPARα) in chick offspring liver. In summary, the addition of CLA in breeder hens diet significantly increased the incorporation of CLA in the liver of chick offspring, which further regulate hepatic lipid metabolism.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) affects 10-20% of women with breast cancer and is biologically more aggressive than other subtypes. The novel compound we have developed, DL7076, would give clinicians a vital strategy to improve the commonly used cyclophosphamide (CPA) and doxorubicin (DOX) regimen in the treatment of TNBC. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The objective of this research project is to develop a novel compound which can activate both 1) the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and subsequently enhance the CYP2B6-mediated activation of CPA, and 2) the nuclear factor erythroid- related factor-2 (Nrf2) leading to the cardiomyocyte protection from DOX-associated cardiotoxicity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Following the identification of the compound candidate, DL7076 was evaluated for tissue specific induction of CAR and Nrf2 using qPCR, western blot analysis, and luciferase reporter assays.
Further, we have developed a multicellular coculture model incorporating human primary hepatocytes for metabolism, TNBC spheroids as the target, and cardiomyocytes as a side target of DOX. We have investigated the anticancer effects of CPA/DOX on TNBC cells and the toxic effects on cardiomyocytes with/without a CAR-Nrf2 activator, in a multicellular environment where hepatic metabolism is well-retained. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found that our dual activator of CAR and Nrf2, DL7076, exhibits tissue specific induction of CAR and Nrf2. Inclusion of DL7076 in combination with the CPA/DOX regimen improves anticancer efficacy, through the subsequent increase in the formation of the active CPA metabolite. With the addition of DL7076, DOX-mediated off-target cardiotoxicity was markedly reduced.
Lastly, utilizing the novel coculture system with human primary hepatocytes, TNBC spheroids, and cardiomyocytes, the inclusion of DL7076 to the CPA/DOX regimen shows decreased spheroid viability and improved cardiomyocyte viability and function. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our findings suggest that DL7076 can facilitate DOX/CPA containing regimens by increasing CAR-mediated metabolism and subsequent CPA bioactivation while selectively protecting cardiomyocytes from DOX-induced toxicity. This research is expected to translate our basic scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for women with TNBC.
The associations between suicidal behaviours and childhood maltreatment (CM), as well as Internet addiction (IA) have been extensively examined. However, few studies pay attention to different types of CM and all stages of suicidality, including suicidal ideation (SI), suicidal plans (SP) and suicidal attempts (SA). Moreover, little is known regarding the mediation of IA on the relationship between CM and suicidal behaviours. The study aims to explore the direct effect of CM and IA on three stages of suicidal behaviours, and the indirect effect of CM on suicidality via IA.
A total of 16 130 high-school students aged 12–18 were recruited using a stratified cluster sampling strategy across five representative provinces in China. Relevant information was collected by a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and structural equation model were used to examine the associations.
During the last year, 16.0% of participants reported suicidal behaviours. Specifically, 7.9% reported SI only, 4.6% reported SP but no SA, and 3.5% reported SA. The prevalence of neglect, physical abuse and IA in moderate to severe were 28.9, 19.9 and 33.1%, respectively. After controlling for demographic characteristics and confounding factors, such as loneliness, psychological resilience, and social support, moderate and severe neglect, physical abuse and IA were associated with an increased risk of SI, SP and SA (p < 0.01). The total effect of neglect and physical abuse on suicidal behaviours were 0.152 and 0.172, respectively (p < 0.001). The mediation proportion of IA on the association between neglect and suicidal behaviours, as well as physical abuse and suicidal behaviours were 22.4 and 18.0%, respectively.
CM and IA are independently associated with suicidal behaviours among Chinese adolescents. Moreover, IA plays a mediating role on the relationship between CM and suicidality. Targeted interventions for adolescents’ suicidal behaviours should focus on those who have experience of CM and IA.
We aimed to examine whether baseline neutrophil counts affected the risk of new-onset proteinuria in hypertensive patients, and, if so, whether folic acid treatment is particularly effective in proteinuria prevention in such a setting. A total of 8208 eligible participants without proteinuria at baseline were analysed from the renal substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Participants were randomised to receive a double-blind daily treatment of 10 mg of enalapril and 0·8 mg of folic acid (n 4101) or 10 mg of enalapril only (n 4107). The primary outcome was new-onset proteinuria, defined as a urine dipstick reading of ≥1+ at the exit visit. The mean age of the participants was 59·5 (sd, 7·4) years, 3088 (37·6 %) of the participants were male. The median treatment duration was 4·4 years. In the enalapril-only group, a significantly higher risk of new-onset proteinuria was found among participants with higher neutrophil counts (quintile 5; ≥4·8 × 109/l, OR 1·44; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·06), compared with those in quintiles 1–4. For those with enalapril and folic acid treatment, compared with the enalapril-only group, the new-onset proteinuria risk was reduced from 5·2 to 2·8 % (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·82) among participants with higher neutrophil counts (≥4·8 × 109/l), whereas there was no significant effect among those with neutrophil counts <4·8 × 109/l. In summary, among hypertensive patients, those with higher neutrophil counts had increased risk of new-onset proteinuria, and this risk was reduced by 51 % with folic acid treatment.
In order for an employee to help the organization achieve strategic success through his or her performance, he/she must work at optimal levels towards very clear and specific objectives. In other words, the organization must design and implement a performance management system (PMS) that empowers employees and allows them to work at optimal levels. However, a review of the related research shows but when it comes to expatriates, most organisations do not develop dedicated PMSs – instead, it seems that most organizations evaluate and manage expatriates on an ad-hoc basis, often leading to dissatisfaction with the outcomes and conduct of the PMS, and subsequent dip in performance levels and quality. In this chapter, we briefly trace the history of PMSs, with particular emphasis to PMSs related to expatriates, and discuss some recent PMS models. We further discuss additional contextual variables that should be incorporated into effective PMSs, and conclude by offering guidelines for designing an effective PMS for expatriates.
Background: In the United States, carbapenemases are rarely the cause of carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Detection of carbapenemase production (CP) in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA) is critical for preventing its spread, but testing of many isolates is required to detect a single CP-CRPA. The CDC evaluates CRPA for CP through (1) the Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network (ARLN), in which CRPA are submitted from participating clinical laboratories to public health laboratories for carbapenemase testing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and (2) laboratory and population-based surveillance for CRPA in 8 sites through the Emerging Infection Program (EIP). Objective: We used data from ARLN and EIP to identify AST phenotypes that can help detect CP-CRPA. Methods: We defined CRPA as P. aeruginosa resistant to meropenem, imipenem, or doripenem, and we defined CP-CRPA as CRPA with molecular identification of carbapenemase genes (blaKPC, blaIMP, blaNDM, or blaVIM). We applied CLSI break points to 2018 ARLN CRPA AST data to categorize isolates as resistant, intermediate, or susceptible, and we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of AST phenotypes to detect CP among CRPA; isolates that were intermediate or resistant were called nonsusceptible. Using EIP data, we assessed the proportion of isolates tested for a given drug in clinical laboratories, and we applied definitions to evaluate performance and number needed to test to identify a CP-CRPA. Results: Only 203 of 6,444 of CRPA isolates (3%) tested through AR Lab Network were CP-CRPA harboring blaVIM (n = 123), blaKPC (n = 53), blaIMP (n = 16), or blaNDM (n = 13) genes. Definitions with the best performance were resistant to ≥1 carbapenem AND were (1) nonsusceptible to ceftazidime (sensitivity, 93%; specificity, 61%) (Table 1) or (2) nonsusceptible to cefepime (sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 53%). Most isolates not identified by definition 2 were sequence type 111 from a single-state blaVIM CP-CRPA outbreak. Among 4,209 CRPA isolates identified through EIP, 80% had clinical laboratory AST data for ceftazidime and 96% had clinical laboratory AST data for cefepime. Of 967 CRPA isolates that underwent molecular testing at the CDC, 7 were CP-CRPA; both definitions would have detected all 7. Based on EIP data, the number needed to test to identify 1 CP-CRPA would decrease from 135 to 42 for definition 1 and to 50 using definition 2. Conclusions: AST-based definitions using carbapenem resistance combined with ceftazidime or cefepime nonsusceptibility would rarely miss a CP-CRPA and would reduce the number needed to test to identify CP-CRPA by >60%. These definitions could be considered for use in laboratories to decrease the testing burden to detect CP-CRPA.
Disclosures: In the presentation we will discuss the drug combination aztreonam-avibactam and acknowledge that this drug combination is not currently FDA approved.
The phylogeny of foliicolous taxa in Pilocarpaceae was reconstructed using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of concatenated ITS and mtSSU sequences. Sixty-six new partial sequences representing 36 taxa were generated and 29 sequences were downloaded from GenBank. Our results indicate that Lasioloma R. Sant. is nested within a paraphyletic Calopadia Vězda, whereas Fellhanera Vězda is polyphyletic and the phylogenetic relationships of Eugeniella Lücking et al. and Sporopodium Mont. with Fellhanera require further investigation. In addition, Tapellaria parvimuriformis W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei is described as a new species from Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, and is characterized by its small muriform ascospores, grey campylidia with a pale base, and short conidia. Eight new records of foliicolous lichens for Thailand are also listed.
A molecular phylogeny of the genus Byssoloma is inferred from mtSSU sequences using Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses. Byssoloma subdiscordans is resolved as sister to B. citricola rather than to the B. leucoblepharum clade, the B. subundulatum group (species with a compact apothecial margin) is shown to be a monophyletic group, and three species belonging to this group are described as new to science from Hainan Province in China: B. brunneodiscum W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei, with dark brown apothecia, crystals in the excipulum and the presence of 2,5,7-trichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone; B. rubrofuscum W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei, with red-brown apothecia, 3–6-septate ascospores and the presence of 5,7-dichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone; B. melanodiscocarpum W. C. Wang & J. C. Wei, with pure black apothecia, a K+ olive-black hypothecium and the presence of thiophanic acid.
The role of severe respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–laden aerosols in the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains uncertain. Discordant findings of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air samples were noted in early reports.
Sampling of air close to 6 asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 patients with and without surgical masks was performed with sampling devices using sterile gelatin filters. Frequently touched environmental surfaces near 21 patients were swabbed before daily environmental disinfection. The correlation between the viral loads of patients’ clinical samples and environmental samples was analyzed.
All air samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the 6 patients singly isolated inside airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) with 12 air changes per hour. Of 377 environmental samples near 21 patients, 19 (5.0%) were positive by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with a median viral load of 9.2 × 102 copies/mL (range, 1.1 × 102 to 9.4 × 104 copies/mL). The contamination rate was highest on patients’ mobile phones (6 of 77, 7.8%), followed by bed rails (4 of 74, 5.4%) and toilet door handles (4 of 76, 5.3%). We detected a significant correlation between viral load ranges in clinical samples and positivity rate of environmental samples (P < .001).
SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detectable by air samplers, which suggests that the airborne route is not the predominant mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Wearing a surgical mask, appropriate hand hygiene, and thorough environmental disinfection are sufficient infection control measures for COVID-19 patients isolated singly in AIIRs. However, this conclusion may not apply during aerosol-generating procedures or in cohort wards with large numbers of COVID-19 patients.