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Living Caprini are dominant bovids in the pan-Tibetan area that are strongly adapted to dry steppe and high-mountain meadow habitats. Some taxa with Holarctic distributions, e.g., Ovis Linnaeus, 1758, were thought to originate on the Tibetan Plateau and subsequently dispersed elsewhere, which was depicted as an ‘out of Tibet’ story. However, except for some information on a stem caprine assemblage from the Qaidam Basin, the early evolution of Caprini around the Tibetan Plateau is poorly known. Here, we report new material of Olonbulukia tsaidamensis Bohlin, 1937, which was a member of this stem caprine assemblage, from the Wuzhong region, northern China, confirming the similarity of the Wuzhong Fauna and ‘Qaidam Fauna.’ Based on a biometric study of horncores from the ‘Qaidam’ and Wuzhong faunas, we recognize six taxa from this stem caprine assemblage: O. tsaidamensis, O. sp., Qurliqnoria cheni Bohlin, 1937, Tossunnoria pseudibex Bohlin, 1937, ?Protoryx cf. P. enanus Köhler, 1987, and cf. Pachytragus sp. Among these taxa, Q. cheni and T. pseudibex are probably related to some extant Tibetan endemic species, e.g., the Tibetan antelope, Pantholops hodgsonii (Abel, 1826), and the Himalayan tahr, Hemitragus jemlahicus (Smith, 1826). Others might be ancestral to the Turolian caprine assemblages and even possibly gave rise to the extant Caprina. This work reveals an early radiation of stem caprines along the northern side of the rising Tibetan Plateau and indicates a mixed pattern of pan-Tibetan stem caprine evolution prior to their dispersal out of the Tibetan Plateau.
be a residually finite Dedekind domain and let
be a nonzero ideal of
. We consider counting problems for the ideal chains in
. By using the Cauchy–Frobenius–Burnside lemma, we also obtain some further extensions of Menon’s identity.
be a positive integer. We obtain new Menon’s identities by using the actions of some subgroups of
on the set
. In particular, let
be an odd prime and let
be a positive integer. If
is a subgroup of
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
Suitable fertilization is crucial for the sustainability of rice production and for the potential mitigation of global warming. The effects of fertilization on porewater nutrients and greenhouse-gas fluxes in cropland, however, remain poorly known. We studied the effects of no fertilization (control), standard fertilization and double fertilization on the concentrations of porewater nutrients, greenhouse-gas fluxes and emissions, and rice yield in a subtropical paddy in southeastern China. Double fertilization increased dissolved NH4+ in porewater. Mean CO2 and CH4 emissions were 13.5% and 7.4%, and 20.4% and 39.5% higher for the standard and double fertilizations, respectively, than the control. N2O depositions in soils were 61% and 101% higher for the standard and double fertilizations, respectively, than the control. The total global warming potentials (GWPs) for all emissions were 14.1% and 10.8% higher for the standard and double fertilizations, respectively than the control, with increasing contribution of CH4 with fertilization and a CO2 contribution > 85%. The total GWPs per unit yield were significantly higher for the standard and double fertilizations than the control by 7.3% and 10.9%, respectively. The two levels of fertilization did not significantly increase rice yield. Prior long-term fertilization in the paddy (about 20 years with annual doses of 95 kg N ha−1, 70 kg P2O5 ha−1 and 70 kg K2O ha−1) might have prevented these fertilizations from increasing the yield. However, fertilizations increased greenhouse-gas emissions. This situation is common in paddy fields in subtropical China, suggesting a saturation of soil nutrients and the necessity to review current fertilization management. These areas likely suffer from unnecessary nutrient leaching and excessive greenhouse-gas emissions. These results provide a scientific basis for continued research to identify an easy and optimal fertilization management solution.
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is defined as headache occurring on 15 or more days per month developing as a consequence of regular overuse of acute or symptomatic headache medication (on 10 or more, or 15 or more days per month, depending on the medication) for more than three months. Triptans, NSAIDs, acetaminophen, ergotamine, barbiturates, and opioids can all cause MOH. Although the optimal treatment strategy for MOH is debated, treatments include discontinuing the overused medications and treating with preventive migraine medications. In the ED, it is important to recognize patients who have MOH to provide appropriate treatment recommendations for MOH and to avoid perpetuating the patient’s medication overuse. In general, ED treatment of the patient with frequent headaches should not include narcotics or butalbital-containing medications as they are associated with the highest risk of developing MOH as well as the potential to create drug-seeking behavior. Proper follow-up should be arranged prior to discharge from the ED.
Rice is the main food for most of the human population, so sustainable rice production is very important for food security. The fertility of the soil in paddy fields is the key factor controlling rice growth and production. Steel slag amendment is becoming an effective method to increase the soil fertility, stabilize rice production and reduce greenhouse-gas emissions in Asiatic paddy fields (i.e. Korea, Japan, Bangladesh and China). We studied the relationships of steel slag amendment with plant–soil nutrient allocation, stoichiometry and rice yield in a paddy field in subtropical China. Amendment was associated with higher soil N and P availability, lower available-N:available-P ratio and higher available Ca and Si concentrations. Increases in P, Ca and Mg availability were correlated with high yields. High yields under steel slag amendment were also associated with high foliar and stem N and P concentrations and lower N:P ratios and with high shoot/root N and P concentration ratios, traits that are typically associated with productive ecosystems able to support species with high growth rates. The positive correlation between steel slag application and yield was partially due to an indirect effect (35% of the total effect) of enhancement of soil Ca, Si and P availability, which were positively correlated with yield. Steel slag amendment in this paddy field increased plant growth and yield by enhancing nutrient availability, altering soil and plant stoichiometry and shifting stem:root nutrient allocation.
Reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from paddy fields is crucial both for the sustainability of rice production and mitigation of global climatic warming. The effects of applying industrial and agricultural wastes as fertilizer on the reduction of GHG emissions in cropland areas, however, remain poorly known. We studied the effects of the application of 8 Mg ha−1 of diverse wastes on GHG emission and rice yield in a subtropical paddy in southeastern China. Plots fertilized with steel slag, biochar, shell slag, gypsum slag and silicate and calcium fertilizer had lower total global-warming potentials (GWP, including CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions) per unit area than control plots without waste application despite non-significant differences among these treatments. Structural equation models showed that the effects of these fertilization treatments on gas emissions were partially due to their effects on soil variables, such as soil water content or soil salinity. Steel slag, biochar and shell slag increased rice yield by 7.1%, 15.5% and 6.5%, respectively. The biochar amendment had a 40% lower GWP by Mg−1 yield production, relative to the control. These results thus encourage further studies of the suitability of the use waste materials as fertilizers in other different types of paddy field as a way to mitigate GHG emissions and increase crop yield.
The Middle and early Late Triassic of southern China is well known for a remarkable diversity of marine vertebrates, particularly reptiles, including an abundance of intriguing new forms (e.g., Jiang et al., 2005; Hu et al., 2011; Li et al., 2016). Here we describe a new diapsid from Yunnan Province. It possesses an elongate neck that exhibits a remarkable similarity to that of many Protorosauria, yet in other respects the skull and postcranium are much less derived.
The new taxon is part of the so-called Panxian-Luoping Fauna and the deposits correspond to the Upper Member of the Guanling Formation, comprising thin to medium bedded, gray to dark-gray laminated marly limestone and limestone, with several layers of bentonite intercalated in the fossil level at Panxian (Wan, 2002; Motani et al., 2008; Jiang et al., 2009). Their age is Pelsonian (middle Anisian, Middle Triassic) as is indicated by the conodont Nicoraella kockeli Zone (Sun et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2009). A recent U-Pb study indicates the absolute age of these middle Anisian beds to be close to 244 Ma (Wang et al., 2014).
The LAMOST Galactic surveys provide robust stellar atmospheric parameters, abundances, masses and ages of millions of stars, allowing a unprecedented mapping of matter distribution, spatial structure, star formation rate, chemistry and kinematics of the Galaxy. In this proceeding we present structure and metallicity of the Galactic disk revealed by mono-age stellar populations within a few kilo-parsec of the solar neighborhood.
Gain a detailed understanding of the protocols, network architectures and techniques being considered for 5G wireless networks with this authoritative guide to the state of the art.• Get up to speed with key topics such as cloud radio access networks, mobile edge computing, full duplexing, massive MIMO, mmWave, NOMA, Internet of things, M2M communications, D2D communications, mobile data offloading, interference mitigation techniques, radio resource management, visible light communications, and smart data pricing.• Learn from leading researchers in academia and industry about the most recent theoretical developments in the field.• Discover how each potential technology can increase the capacity, spectral efficiency, and energy efficiency of wireless systems. Providing the most comprehensive overview of 5G technologies to date, this is an essential reference for researchers, practicing engineers and graduate students working in wireless communications and networking.