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In this study, a single-sideband time-modulated phased array (STMPA)-based hyper beamforming (HBF) system for automobile radar is suggested. The left beam and the right beam are generated once the improved STMPA is split into two subarrays. The HBF method is then used to produce the hyper beam. The switching sequence may be adjusted to generate the hyper beam in the desired direction. This study's benefits may be summed up as follows: (1) The hyper beam's sidelobe level is lower and its beamwidth is narrower than the conventional beam, which can help with estimating the direction of arrival. (2) The HBF can be achieved over a very wide scanning range. (3) With time as an additional controllable variable, the system's control mode is flexible and only two channels are needed, which lowers the system's cost and complexity. The effectiveness of the algorithm is tested through simulation, and the results highlight the system's potential when used with automobile radar.
Worldwide adverse impacts of occupational stressors are timeless concerns to humanity. These impacts not only disrupt mental and health well-being of workers and their families but also impede growth and prosperity of organizations, societies, and nations. In this chapter, we first reviewed to what extent occupational stressors have created burdens on organizations and nations in terms of economic costs (e.g., productivity loss and health care cost) and health outcomes (e.g., morbidity and mortality). After that, we reviewed work-related legislations enacted to address five occupational stressors (i.e., age discrimination, racial discrimination, sex discrimination, sexual harassment, and workplace bullying). To conduct the review, we surveyed these legislations across each continent/ geopolitical region, including Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Russia, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, South Korea, the UK, and the US. Finally, we summarized the progress of occupational stress research and offered ways of advancing preventive organizational stress management.
Slowed information processing speed (IPS) is the core contributor to cognitive impairment in patients with late-life depression (LLD). The hippocampus is an important link between depression and dementia, and it may be involved in IPS slowing in LLD. However, the relationship between a slowed IPS and the dynamic activity and connectivity of hippocampal subregions in patients with LLD remains unclear.
One hundred thirty-four patients with LLD and 89 healthy controls were recruited. Sliding-window analysis was used to assess whole-brain dynamic functional connectivity (dFC), dynamic fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (dfALFF) and dynamic regional homogeneity (dReHo) for each hippocampal subregion seed.
Cognitive impairment (global cognition, verbal memory, language, visual–spatial skill, executive function and working memory) in patients with LLD was mediated by their slowed IPS. Compared with the controls, patients with LLD exhibited decreased dFC between various hippocampal subregions and the frontal cortex and decreased dReho in the left rostral hippocampus. Additionally, most of the dFCs were negatively associated with the severity of depressive symptoms and were positively associated with various domains of cognitive function. Moreover, the dFC between the left rostral hippocampus and middle frontal gyrus exhibited a partial mediation effect on the relationships between the scores of depressive symptoms and IPS.
Patients with LLD exhibited decreased dFC between the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and the decreased dFC between the left rostral hippocampus and right middle frontal gyrus was involved in the underlying neural substrate of the slowed IPS.
Water pollution by hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is widespread and problematic. As a result, more research into economic Cr(VI) removal is needed. In this study, we created and employed an adsorption–reduction mechanism to remove Cr(VI). Magnetically reduced graphene oxide bentonite (MrGO-BT) is acid resistant and can undergo magnetic separation. The hydroxyl group of chitosan (CS) condensed with the functional groups on the surface of bentonite (BT), and the MrGO-BT sandwich has been fabricated and constructed from an Fe3O4 core layer sandwiched by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and a BT shell, with CS acting as a crosslinker. Cr(VI) elimination by MrGO-BT was exothermic and spontaneous according to thermodynamic analyses. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms were characterized by the pseudo-second order kinetic theory and the Langmuir model, respectively. Regarding the elimination of Cr(VI), the greatest adsorption ability for Cr(VI) elimination achieved was 91.5 mg g–1. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that Cr(VI) was reduced by C–O–H on MrGO-BT to produce Cr(III) and H–C=O, and that Cr(III) chelated with amino groups or exchanged with BT after intercalation. In addition, the introduction of Cu2+ increased the positive charge of MrGO-BT and amplified the electrostatic interaction between Cr2O72− and HCrO4–, which is what caused Cr(VI) to be eliminated. Cu2+ and reduced Cr(III) combined with -NH2 on the surface of MrGO-BT to form -NH-Cr(III) or -NH-Cu2+, and Cr(VI) elimination via chelation and ion exchange was confirmed. MrGO-BT is shown to be an adsorbent with high acid resistance and good magnetic responsiveness and stability.
The aeroacoustic characteristics of flying vehicles with pitch-fixed rotors differ from traditional helicopters with pitch-controlled rotor blades. Accurate predictions of rotor noise are still challenging because many uncertainty factors and unsteadinesses exist. This work investigates the aeroacoustic effects of rotational speed deviation, rotation speed fluctuation, blade vibration and blade geometric asymmetry. The analysis is based on the efficient computation of rotor noise under different working conditions. The mean aerodynamic variables are computed using the blade element moment theory, while small-amplitude fluctuations are introduced to account for the unsteadiness and uncertainty factors. It is shown that periodic rotation speed fluctuations and blade vibrations can produce significant extra tones. By contrast, if the fluctuations and vibrations are random, the noise level in a wide frequency range is increased. The intriguing result reminds us of the need to revisit the rotor broadband noise sources commonly attributed to turbulent flows. The influences are observer angle dependent, and the extra noise production is more significant in the upstream and downstream directions. The asymmetric blade geometry can cause extra tonal noise at the harmonics of the blade shaft frequency. The noise features of dual rotors are also investigated. Usually, the noise is sensitive to the initial phase difference and rotation directions due to the interference effect. However, the noise features are vastly altered if there are slight differences in the rotation speeds. Although the influences of some factors on rotor noise were already known, the present study provides a more comprehensive analysis of the problem. The results also highlight the need to consider these practical factors for accurate noise prediction of multi-rotor flying vehicles.
For a quadratic Markov branching process (QMBP), we show that the decay parameter is equal to the first eigenvalue of a Sturm–Liouville operator associated with the partial differential equation that the generating function of the transition probability satisfies. The proof is based on the spectral properties of the Sturm–Liouville operator. Both the upper and lower bounds of the decay parameter are given explicitly by means of a version of Hardy’s inequality. Two examples are provided to illustrate our results. The important quantity, the Hardy index, which is closely linked to the decay parameter of the QMBP, is deeply investigated and estimated.
This study addresses orbit design and optimisation for the situation of satellite interception in which the target spacecraft is capable of manoeuvring using continuous magnitude restricted thrust. For the purpose of designing a long-range continuous thrust interception orbit, the orbit motion equations of two satellites with J2 perturbation are constructed. This problem is assumed to be a typical pursuit-evasion problem in differential game theory; using boundary constraint conditions and a performance index function that includes time and fuel consumption, the saddle point solution corresponding to the bilateral optimal is derived, and then this pursuit-evasion problem is transformed into a two-point boundary value problem. A hybrid optimisation method using a genetic algorithm (GA) and sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is derived to obtain the optimal control strategy. The proposed model and algorithm are proved to be feasible for the given simulation cases.
With the dangerous and troublesome nature of hollow defects inside building structures, hollowness inspection has always been a challenge in the field of construction quality assessment. Several methods have been proposed for inspecting hollowness inside concrete structures. These methods have shown great advantages compared to manual inspection but still lack autonomy and have several limitations. In this paper, we propose a range-point migration-based non-contact hollowness inspection system with sensor fusion of ultra-wide-band radar and laser-based depth camera to extract both outer surface and inner hollowness information accurately and efficiently. The simulation result evaluates the performance of the system based on the original range-point migration algorithm, and our proposed one and the result of our system show great competitiveness. Several simulation experiments of structures that are very common in reality are carried out to draw more convincing conclusions about the system. At the same time, a set of laboratory-made concrete components were used as experimental objects for the robotic system. Although still accompanied by some problems, these experiments demonstrate the availability of an automated hollow-core detection system.
Swirling waves frequently occur in a three-dimensional tank under a nearly resonant excitation with oblique excitation angle. The oblique excitation produces two excitation components and the secondary component triggers rotational waves. The detailed mechanism of the switch in circular direction is clearly described in this study. The evolution of the hydrodynamic forces (Fz) on the tank walls presents a beating phenomenon and the switch direction always occurs at the peak and trough of the envelope of the Fz history. The external excitation moment changes the circulation intensity, and finally the swirling wave becomes a single-direction wave, but only for a short time. The profile of the single-direction wave was determined by the dominant sloshing mode and the instantaneous tank motion was found to be a key factor to determine the consequent swirling flow circulating direction.
The terminal Ediacaran Shibantan biota (~550–543 Ma) from the Dengying Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area of South China represents one of the rare examples of carbonate-hosted Ediacara-type macrofossil assemblages. In addition to the numerically dominant taxa—the non-biomineralizing tubular fossil Wutubus and discoidal fossils Aspidella and Hiemalora, the Shibantan biota also bears a moderate diversity of frondose fossils, including Pteridinium, Rangea, Arborea, and Charnia. In this paper, we report two species of the rangeomorph genus Charnia, including the type species Charnia masoni Ford, 1958 emend. and Charnia gracilis new species, from the Shibantan biota. Most of the Shibantan Charnia specimens preserve only the petalodium, with a few bearing the holdfast and stem. Despite overall architectural similarities to other Charnia species, the Shibantan specimens of Charnia gracilis n. sp. are distinct in their relatively straight, slender, and more acutely angled first-order branches. They also show evidence that may support a two-stage growth model and a epibenthic sessile lifestyle. Charnia fossils described herein represent one of the youngest occurrences of this genus and extend its paleogeographic and stratigraphic distributions. Our discovery also highlights the notable diversity of the Shibantan biota, which contains examples of a wide range of Ediacaran morphogroups.
In this work, a confined-doped fiber with the core/inner-cladding diameter of 40/250 μm and a relative doping ratio of 0.75 is fabricated through a modified chemical vapor deposition method combined with the chelate gas deposition technique, and subsequently applied in a tandem-pumped fiber amplifier for high-power operation and transverse mode instability (TMI) mitigation. Notably, the impacts of the seed laser power and mode purity are preliminarily investigated through comparative experiments. It is found that the TMI threshold could be significantly affected by the seed laser mode purity. The possible mechanism behind this phenomenon is proposed and revealed through comprehensive comparative experiments and theoretical analysis. Finally, a maximum output power of 7.49 kW is obtained with the beam quality factor of approximately 1.83, which is the highest output power ever reported in a forward tandem-pumped confined-doped fiber amplifier. This work could provide a good reference and practical solution to improve the TMI threshold and realize high-power high-brightness fiber lasers.
The effect of sheared E × B flow on the blob dynamics in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of HL-2A tokamak has been studied during the plasma current ramp-up in ohmically heated deuterium plasmas by the combination of poloidal and radial Langmuir probe arrays. The experimental results indicate that the SOL sheared E × B flow is substantially enhanced as the plasma current exceeds a certain value and the strong sheared E × B flow has the ability to slow the blob radial motion via stretching its poloidal correlation length. The locally accumulated blobs are suggested to be responsible for the increase of plasma density just outside the Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS) observed in this experiment. The results presented here reveal the significant role played by the strong sheared E × B flow on the blob dynamics, which provides a potential method to control the SOL width by modifying the sheared E × B flow in future tokamak plasmas.
The relationship between a conveyance's validity and its underlying contract has been a classic but unsettled topic for comparative private lawyers over the past three decades. This paper attempts to add positivist and normative observations drawn from property transfer theories and practices in English and Chinese law. A jurisdiction adopting an ‘intent plus’ model does not necessarily recognise a separate intent to convey distinct from the intent in the underlying contract, as exemplified by Chinese law, while a jurisdiction adopting the ‘intent alone’ model does not necessarily deny the separate intent to convey, as exemplified by English law. One advantage for a jurisdiction that takes the separatist approach is its flexibility, so that it can still choose between pure causality, pure abstraction, or context-based abstraction at a later stage. Recent developments show that English and Chinese law are moving towards this approach. As to whether flaws in the underlying contract infect the validity of the conveyance, the English position depends on vitiating factors, whereas the mainstream Chinese judgments tend to be pro-causal. Justifications favouring causality provided in the English and Chinese academia are different, though neither can stand up to scrutiny. The detecting opportunity argument submitted in this paper helps to justify abstraction.
Although attentional bias modification training (ABM) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) are two effective methods to decrease the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorders (GAD), to date, no randomized controlled trials have yet evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention combining internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) and ABM for adults with GAD.
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention combining ICBT and ABM for adults with GAD.
Sixty-three participants diagnosed with GAD were randomly assigned to the treatment group (ICBT with ABM; 31 participants) or the control group (ICBT with ABM placebo; 32 participants), and received 8 weeks of treatment and three evaluations. The CBT, ABM and ABM-placebo training were conducted via the internet. The evaluations were conducted at baseline, 8 weeks later, and 1 month later, respectively.
Both the treatment and control groups reported significantly reduced anxiety symptoms and attentional bias, with no clear superiority of either intervention. However, the treatment group showed a greater reduction in negative automatic thoughts than the control group after treatment and at 1-month follow-up (η2 = 0.123).
The results suggest that although not differing in therapeutic efficacy, the intervention combining ICBT and ABM is superior to the intervention combining ICBT and ABM-placebo in the reduction of negative automatic thoughts. ABM may be a useful augmentation of ICBT on reducing anxiety symptoms.
The Nanjing Bao'ensi site is the largest and highest-ranking royal temple from the Ming Dynasty, and it is famous for its full-body glass pagoda. In this study, the glazed tiles excavated from the southern area of the Bao'ensi site were selected and analysed using X-ray diffraction, thermal dilation and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence to determine their phase composition, firing temperature and chemical composition. The glazed tile bodies of the Bao'ensi site consist mainly of quartz and mullite, although some samples contain trace amounts of other minerals. All of the body samples were fired to the same temperature range (i.e. 1000–1100°C). The firing temperature combined with the phase composition indicate that the raw materials and firing process of the glazed tile body samples have similarities, but there are certain differences. The source of the raw materials for a portion of the glazed tile bodies is Dangtu, Anhui, whilst the source of the raw materials for the remaining materials remains to be discovered.
A diverse Wuchiapingian brachiopod fauna, which contains 57 species in 28 genera, is described from the Shuizhutang Formation at the Liannan section, Guangdong province, southeastern China. Four new species Tyloplecta liannanensis n. sp., Linoproductus huananensis n. sp., Araxathyris minor n. sp., and Permophricodothyris flata n. sp. are proposed. From well-preserved Liannan specimens, characteristics of the shell microstructures in Permianella are revised, and different morphologies of muscle scars in Permophricodothyris are distinctly shown. Until now, only several Wuchiapingian brachiopod faunas have been found in South China. Compared with these faunas, the Liannan fauna shows much higher α diversity and is more like faunas from southeastern China than those from the Yangtze area in faunal composition. The Liannan fauna is dominated with Neochonetes, Transennatia, Orthothetina, Permophricodothyris, and Cathaysia, which are normally larger and more strongly ornamented than their Changhsingian counterparts. The Wuchiapingian brachiopods in South China are represented mainly by the Douling fauna and Shuizhutang fauna. The Douling fauna has relatively low diversity and presents the survival stage after the Guadalupian–Lopingian boundary crisis. The Shuizhutang fauna has a much higher diversity and more key Changhsingian taxa and shows a rapid radiation stage. Faunal compositions of the two faunas indicate that the initial recovery of brachiopods occurred mainly at the genus level followed by a more rapid radiation at both genus and species levels.
In this study, we report the first complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Nippotaenia mogurndae in the order Nippotaeniidea Yamaguti, 1939. This mitogenome, which is 14,307 base pairs (bp) long with an A + T content of 72.2%, consists of 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two rRNA genes, and two non-coding regions. Most tRNAs have a conventional cloverleaf structure, but trnS1 and trnR lack dihydrouridine arms of tRNA. The two largest non-coding regions, NCR1 (220 bp) and NCR2 (817 bp), are located between trnY and trnS2 and between nad5 and trnG, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomic data indicate that N. mogurndae is closely related to tapeworms in the order Cyclophyllidea.
Spectral observations with high temporal and frequency resolution are of great significance for studying the fine structures of solar radio bursts. In addition, it is helpful to understand the physical processes of solar eruptions. In this paper, we present the design of a system to observe solar radio bursts with high temporal and frequency resolutions at frequencies of 25–110 MHz. To reduce the impact of analog devices and improve the system flexibility, we employ various digital signal processing methods to achieve the function of analog devices, such as polarisation synthesis and beamforming. The resourceful field programmable gate array is used to process radio signals. The system has a frequency resolution of
30 kHz and a temporal resolution of up to 0.2 ms. The left/right circular polarisation signals can be simultaneously observed. At present, the system has been installed at Chashan Solar Observatory operated by the Institute of Space Science, Shandong University. The system is running well, multiple bursts have been observed, and relevant data have been obtained.