To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Multi-proxy analyses of a sequence spanning the Younger Dryas (YD) in the Glacial Lake Hind basin of Manitoba provides insight into regional paleohydrology and paleovegetation of meltwater rivers and lakes spanning >4000 yr; the sequence is controlled by 25 new accelerator mass spectrometry ages. This lake, dammed by the Laurentide Ice Sheet, overflowed into Lake Agassiz. The pre-YD interval records rapid sedimentation from meltwaters that headed in proglacial lakes in the Canadian Prairies that are known to have been catastrophically released when ice or sediment barriers were breached. Pollen in this phase is dominated by pre-Quaternary forms eroded from Paleocene bedrock. At the onset of the YD at ~12.8 cal ka, the sudden appearance of concentrations of nanodiamonds, high-temperature magnetic spherules, platinum, and iridium provide evidence of an extraterrestrial (ET) event that others have identified at more than 40 sites in North America. Major changes in oceans and climate, and the catastrophic outflow of nearby Lake Agassiz at the onset of the YD, may be related. Lower water levels and a reduction of Souris River inflow to Lake Hind followed, which are reflected by more clayey and organic-rich sediments and a decrease in pre-Quaternary palynomorphs. This may have resulted from the deepening of river valleys caused by the release of meltwater triggered by the ET event. Wetlands then began to develop, leading to peat deposition from 12.3 to 11 cal ka. This was followed by a fluvial episode depositing sand and then by increased Holocene aridity that resulted in accumulation of a thick sequence of dune sands. A dry woodland environment with a mix of conifers (especially Picea and Larix) and deciduous trees (especially Populus and Quercus) covered the uplands from ~13 to 10 cal ka.
Hincmar, archbishop of Reims 845–882, placed strong emphasis on written law, as numerous surviving manuscripts and many treatises attest. This chapter analyzes that emphasis, exploring Hincmar’s classification of different kinds of legal norms, including church councils, papal decrees, biblical rules, and royal edicts. It then tracks how he applied the law in three case studies: the divorce of King Lothar II in 860; the rebellion of the archbishop’s own nephew Hincmar, bishop of Laon, in 870; and the Council of Saint-Macre in 881, of which Hincmar was the guiding spirit. Although Hincmar’s direct influence on legal tradition was relatively small, the chapter argues that his indirect influence was much greater, inasmuch as Hincmar raised the level of legal debate in late-Carolingian Francia.
Far from the oral society it was once assumed to have been, early medieval Europe was fundamentally shaped by the written word. This book offers a pioneering collection of fresh and innovative studies on a wide range of topics, each one representing cutting-edge scholarship, and collectively setting the field on a new footing. Concentrating on the role of writing in mediating early medieval knowledge of the past, on the importance of surviving manuscripts as clues to the circulation of ideas and political and cultural creativity, and on the role that texts of different kinds played both in supporting and in subverting established power relations, these essays represent a milestone in studies of the early medieval written word.
Since cow-calf operations are large contributors of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in North America, consequences of pasture species composition, weaning age, and stocking rate decisions were examined by operation size, calving season, and pasture fertility. Fixed resource use and seasonal prices affected the mix of forage and beef production. Overall, adding fertilizer to pasture was unprofitable, resulting in increased stocking rates and greater emissions. Calving season and attendant breeding failure rates influenced the relative profitability of the analyzed beef-production strategies, which in turn affected farm GHG emissions. More-efficient practices led to greater amounts of beef sold per bred cow.
This article analyzes economic tradeoffs among harvest date, fertilizer applied, nutrient removal, and switchgrass yield as they vary with respect to input and output prices. Economic sensitivity analyses suggest that higher biomass prices lead to earlier harvest. Optimal harvest time occurs beyond time of maximum yield because nutrient removal in the biomass is an important economic consideration. Switchgrass price premia that reflect the cost of non-optimal harvest time are driven by standing crop yield loss, nutrient removal, storage loss, and opportunity cost. These price premia could provide a mechanism to compensate producers for alternative harvest times and aid with logistics management.