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Numerical methods based on quadrilateral finite elements have been developed for calculating distributions of velocity and temperature in polar ice sheets in which horizontal gradients transverse to the flow direction are negligible. The calculation of the velocity field is based on a variational principle equivalent to the differential equations governing incompressible creeping flow. Glen’s flow law relating effective strain-rate ε̇ and shear stress τ by ε̇ = (τ/B)n is assumed, with the flow law parameter B varying from element to element depending on temperature and structure. As boundary conditions, stress may be specified on part of the boundary, in practice usually the upper free surface, and velocity on the rest. For calculation of the steady-state temperature distribution we use Galerkin’s method to develop an integral condition from the differential equations. The calculation includes all contributions from vertical and horizontal conduction and advection and from internal heat generation. Imposed boundary conditions are the temperature distribution on the upper surface and the heat flux elsewhere
For certain simple geometries, the flow calculation has been tested against the analytical solution of Nye (1957), and the temperature calculation against analytical solutions of Robin (1955) and Budd (1969), with excellent results.
The programs have been used to calculate velocity and temperature distributions in parts of the Barnes Ice Cap where extensive surface and bore-hole surveys provide information on actual values. The predicted velocities are in good agreement with measured velocities if the flow-law parameter B is assumed to decrease down-glacier from the divide to a point about 2 km above the equilibrium line, and then remain constant nearly to the margin. These variations are consistent with observed and inferred changes in fabric from fine ice with random c-axis orientations to coarser ice with single- or multiple-maximum fabrics. In the wedge of fine-grained deformed superimposed ice at the margin, B increases again.
Calculated and measured temperature distributions do not agree well if measured velocities and surface temperatures are used in the model. The measured temperature profiles apparently reflect a recent climatic warming which is not incorporated into the finite-element model. These profiles also appear to be adjusted to a vertical velocity distribution which is more consistent with that required for a steady-state profile than the present vertical velocity distribution.
An extensive program of seismic refraction and reflection shooting was undertaken in the vicinity of Dome C station, East Antarctica (latitude 74°39'S, longitude 124°10'E). Refraction experiments (1978–79, 1979–80) were performed at 37 different shot-point-to-center-of-spread distances along four lines of different azimuth using receiver spacings of 2 to 30 m. The principal result is an extremely well-determined velocity-depth relation for the upper few hundred meters of the ice sheet. Availability of good bore-hole control at Dome C allows us to demonstrate the validity of Kohne's (1972) density-velocity formula, which was developed for warmer ice. Also, after a careful search for azimuthal dependence of variations in the time-distance relationship along different refraction lines, deviations from transverse isotropy in the firn and upper ice are not indicated. Our reflection work (1979–80), conducted along three mutually-centered lines (10.2, 10.2, and 10.7 km in length) oriented at 60° angles to one another, used a series of 16 bore holes, each 30 m in depth, and 18 separate 24-channel recording stations. This extensive coverage combined with common reflection-point shooting geometries (to minimize topographic error) and small charge sizes (to increase resolution) yielded the highest quality set of reflection data yet obtained in East Antarctica. Significant crystalline anisotropy in the lower portion of the ice sheet is indicated. A model with 75% of the ice thickness below the firn (approximately 2 400 m) having c-axes distributed throughout a vertical cone with a semi-apex angle of 20° gives good agreement with the field observations.
Although extinction risk has been found to have a consistent negative relationship with geographic range across wide temporal and taxonomic scales, the effect has been difficult to disentangle from factors such as sampling, ecological niche, or clade. In addition, studies of extinction risk have focused on benthic invertebrates with less work on planktic taxa. We employed a global set of 1114 planktic graptolite species from the Ordovician to lower Devonian to analyze the predictive power of species’ traits and abiotic factors on extinction risk, combining general linear models (GLMs), partial least-squares regression (PLSR), and permutation tests. Factors included measures of geographic range, sampling, and graptolite-specific factors such as clade, biofacies affiliation, shallow water tolerance, and age cohorts split at the base of the Katian and Rhuddanian stages.
The percent variance in durations explained varied substantially between taxon subsets from 12% to 45%. Overall commonness, the correlated effects of geographic range and sampling, was the strongest, most consistent factor (12–30% variance explained), with clade and age cohort adding up to 18% and other factors <10%. Surprisingly, geographic range alone contributed little explanatory power (<5%). It is likely that this is a consequence of a nonlinear relationship between geographic range and extinction risk, wherein the largest reductions in extinction risk are gained from moderate expansion of small geographic ranges. Thus, even large differences in range size between graptolite species did not lead to a proportionate difference in extinction risk because of the large average ranges of these species. Finally, we emphasize that the common practice of determining the geographic range of taxa from the union of all occurrences over their duration poses a substantial risk of overestimating the geographic scope of the realized ecological niche and, thus, of further conflating sampling effects on observed duration with the biological effects of range size on extinction risk.
Les deux imposants volumes que M. John Maynard Keynes a consacrés à l’examen des problèmes monétaires constituent certainement une des plus intéressantes contributions à l’étude des questions économiques.
Les qualités d’écrivain de l’auteur du « Tract on Monetary Reform » sont universellement connues dans le monde des économistes. D’un style puissant et agréable, M. Keynes a toujours attiré l’attention par son originalité et son mordant. Un nouveau livre de sa part sur les questions financières et monétaires qui depuis longtemps constituent son sujet de prédilection, ne pouvait manquer d’être attendu par beaucoup avec impatience. Le souci d’originalité et le goût de la controverse de l’auteur pouvaient faire craindre que le «Traité sur la Monnaie » manquât d’une certaine profondeur. Il n’en est heureusement rien. Si l’ouvrage n’est pas exempt de défauts, il n’a pas celui d’être superficiel. L’œuvre de M. Keynes contient de nouveaux points de vue qui constituent certainement un progrès dans la connaissance des forces qui ont une action dans le monde économique moderne; la discussion des nombreux problèmes que traite l’auteur n’est certes pas définitive. Mais la lecture de ces deux volumes ouvre de nouveaux horizons.
Deltas formed in Lake Hitchcock, a glacial lake that developed in the Connecticut River Valley, New England, between ∼18.3 and 12.5 ka. The heights of topset/foreset contacts of these deltas presently increase northward, linearly, at rate of ∼0.9 m/km. Others have interpreted this as indicating that isostatic rebound did not begin until after the lake drained, several kiloyears after glacial retreat began. However, (non-elastic) adjustment of Earth's lithosphere to changing loads is known to occur on time scales of years. Late-glacial shoreline features elsewhere in New England also increase in elevation with distance from the LGM margin at ∼0.9 m/km, suggesting that this is a result of fundamental properties of the crust and mantle, and independent of the history of glacier retreat. On the basis of a numerical model of flexure of the lithosphere beneath a circular load, we suggest that deflection of the lithosphere is remarkably linear in a zone 50–200 km wide between the retreating ice margin and a forebulge, and that initial rebound of this zone is spatially quite uniform for some kiloyears before differential rebound starts. Thus, lake shorelines, formed over a period of some centuries during deglaciation would, today, rise linearly northward.
Students Training for Achievement in Research Based on Analytical Space-science Experiences (STARBASE) is being established to provide exciting hands-on research opportunities for students. STAR-BASE is a network of networks, consisting of dedicated hardware, universities, professional astronomers, teachers, and students all working together in scientific investigations. Funded through the NASA Office of Space Science, the STARBASE network is working to bring major science research projects to motivated students all over the globe.
One thing should already be clear from the preceding chapters: transnational climate governance is qualitatively different from the standard multilateral model that has characterised the last two decades of climate change governance. The multilateral model is a hierarchical one; it functions through the generally accepted legitimate authority of nation-states to act on issues that transcend borders. In the multilateral process, a legally binding global treaty engages all nation-states in a common (and hopefully enforceable) purpose. In theory, there is an assumption of smooth vertical development of policy that draws on the legitimate, traditional authority of nation-states, both in constructing the international treaty and formulating national regulations. International law translates to national regulation, which directs domestic actions at more local levels. Alternatives to the authority and legitimacy of the multilateral process are rarely considered quite simply because the global system has functioned through this process for over a century (Denemark & Hoffmann 2008) despite criticisms about the interests served by this system and whose order it seeks to preserve (Cox 1987; Murphy 1994; Cox & Sinclair 1996). The emergence and functioning of TCCG asks us to question and engage questions of authority and legitimacy with a more critical eye, to understand how, in Hajer’s (2003) words, we can have policy without a polity, or how, as Rosenau asks, a range of actors can govern without the legal authority to do so (Rosenau & Czempiel 1992).
Our intention at the outset of this project was to move beyond the focus on individual cases or particular segments of the world of TCCG in order to examine what we might be able to discover collectively about this phenomenon. In this final chapter, we return to this overarching theme and identify the ways in which our analysis of TCCG contributes to ongoing debates in the field.
Underpinning this contribution, we suggest, are two novel aspects of our work. First, the book provides the first analysis of transnational governance that includes both an extensive database of a large number and a diverse array of particular case-studies. Existing research in the field of transnational governance has been mostly based on either individual examples or a small number of cases; whereas these can provide rich and nuanced analyses, there is nevertheless a significant value added in attempting to say something about this phenomenon as a whole. While we have not been able to survey the entire universe of cases in the transnational climate governance arena, a task that would be difficult to undertake given that much of this activity is relatively unknown, we have devised a strategy to maximise the diversity of cases we explore. In the sense that the approach we have developed includes the full variety of forms of TCCG, we thus suggest that it can be regarded as representative of the phenomenon as a whole. The database approach has enabled us to see patterns in the types of initiatives that predominate in TCCG, in terms of the types of actors, the issues upon which they focus, the forms of institutionalisation, the practices of governance, the claims to legitimacy and the geographical reach of TCCG initiatives.
Our knowledge of transnational governance has been fundamentally shaped by the theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches that have been used to study it (O’Neill et al. 2013, 444). Primarily using a case-study approach revolving around a few high-profile examples, research on transnational governance has focused on the ways in which actors have sought to engage with different forms of transnational governance, the various functions that such arrangements seek to perform and their potential consequences in terms of legitimacy and effectiveness. Such approaches have yielded significant insights into these aspects of transnational governance but cannot, by their very nature, achieve a more comprehensive or systematic view. As O’Neill et al. (2013) suggest, such approaches may be ill-equipped to deal with the challenges of ‘complexity and uncertainty, vertical linkages across multiple scales, horizontal linkages across issue areas, and (often rapidly) evolving problem sets and institutional initiatives’ that beset global environmental governance research, such that new methodological approaches are required. If we regard transnational governance initiatives as having something in common – in terms of what they are seeking to accomplish, or in terms of the ways in which they are organised and constituted – we suggest that methodological innovations capable of creating a more comprehensive account of the overall phenomenon are required.
In order to develop such a broader understanding of the extent and nature of transnational governance in the climate change domain, our approach extends beyond small n case-studies or surveys of one particular type of transnational arrangement through the construction and analysis of a database of sixty transnational climate governance initiatives. This approach enables an analysis of the contours of transnational climate governance in a way that has not been possible within existing methodological approaches, allowing for a more thorough description of who and what are involved, where it is taking place, and how and why it is being pursued.
This chapter examines the political dynamics underpinning the emergence of TCCG. In the first section of the chapter, we undertake a temporal analysis of the growth of TCCG, focusing on its parallel evolution with the international climate change regime and the broader political-economic shifts outlined in the previous chapter. In the second section of the chapter, our analysis turns to consider the patterns and drivers of private, hybrid and public transnational initiatives over time and to consider the governance functions that are being pursued in these different forms of TCCG. Through this analysis, we seek to capture the process through which climate politics has pluralised by describing and offering explanations for the growth of institutional diversity over time.
In doing so, the three theoretical lenses discussed in Chapter 3 serve as guides for our analysis. The agency-centred perspective is particularly helpful for highlighting the interests of the actors that populate climate politics, their sources of influence and factors underpinning the demand and supply of new forms of transnational governance. The social and system dynamics perspective helps to explain the diffusion of common practices and governance techniques through communities of environmental practitioners and policymakers. Finally, the critical political theory perspective sheds light on the marketisation of a substantial cluster of TCCG initiatives, the ideological underpinnings of these initiatives and the particular constellations of public and private forces that animate them. We use the TCCG database and illustrative case-studies to interrogate these issues illuminating the relationship between the agency of different actors, market logics, functional imperatives and normative contexts.