To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In the ablation zone of glacier habitats, cryoconite holes are known to harbor diverse microbial communities, including unique diatom floras distinct from those of surrounding aquatic and terrestrial systems. Besides descriptive studies, little is known about the diversity of cryoconite diatoms and their response to environmental stressors, particularly in low-latitude glaciers. This paper documents an extremely diversified diatom community in Antisana Glacier (Ecuador), reporting 278 taxa found in 54 surface holes, although with low individual abundances. Contrary to our expectations, assemblage structure did not respond to water physical or chemical characteristics, nor to cryoconite hole morphology, but to elevation. We demonstrate that elevation is a driver of diatom assemblages. Both alpha diversity (measured as Fisher's index) and species richness (corrected for unequal sample sizes) correlated negatively with elevation, suggesting a replacement toward simplified, poorer communities along this gradient. The taxonomic composition also changed significantly, as revealed by multivariate statistics. In summary, cryoconite holes are sites of high taxonomic diversity composed of taxa that are allochthonous in origin.
Unsustainable harvesting to supply the demand for pets is the second most significant threat to parrots (Psittacidae). Given that parrot keeping is widespread, in-depth and culturally sensitive research is needed to inform and develop interventions targeted at changing consumer preferences and purchasing behaviours. Parrot keeping is thought to be driven mainly by a desire for companionship (the affection hypothesis). Alternative hypotheses include a deeply ingrained culture of parrot ownership (the tradition hypothesis) or the influence of socio-economic context (the contextual hypothesis). We used the theory of planned behaviour to evaluate the relative importance of behavioural and contextual factors influencing the intention to keep the yellow-shouldered Amazon Amazona barbadensis as a pet. We interviewed 150 owners and non-owners of parrots in two locations in Macanao Peninsula, Margarita Island, Venezuela, where the primary population of this species is located. We found mixed evidence supporting both the affection and contextual hypotheses: intention to keep parrots was higher in non-owners with high education level, strong affective attitudes regarding human–animal relationships, and higher expectations about social norms (41% of explained variance). Our study expands previous research on the illegal parrot trade by taking into account behavioural measures beyond attitudes, highlighting the role of social norms frequently ignored in such research. We discuss how a behaviour change campaign could redirect affective attitudes in the human–parrot relationship, and promote new social norms that support parrot conservation. Future research should consider the inclusion of moral and injunctive norms, and monitoring of intervention effectiveness.
Both psychodynamic group therapy (PGT) and clonazepam are used as treatment strategies in reducing symptoms of generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). However, many individuals remain symptomatic after treatment with PGT or clonazepam.
Fifty-eight adult outpatients with a diagnosis of GSAD according to DSM-IV were randomized to 12 weeks PGT plus clonazepam or clonazepam. The Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) Scale was the primary efficacy measure. Secondary efficacy measures included the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) total score, the World Health Organization Instrument to Assess Quality of Life—Brief (WHOQOL-Bref) Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
CGI-I data from 57 patients (intent-to-treat population) showed that patients who received PGT plus clonazepam presented significantly greater improvement than those who received clonazepam (P = 0.033). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the secondary efficacy measures.
Our study suggests that the combination of PGT with clonazepam may be a promising strategy for the treatment of GSAD, regarding gains in the global functioning. However the present study failed to detect more specific changes in social anxiety symptomatology between the two groups.
This paper presents a review of filtering methods to eliminate echo in antenna measurements. Two different methods, fast Fourier transform and Matrix Pencil, are explained, compared, and simulated in a planar near field where other effects, such as aliasing, can and will be present if the simulation is not appropriately made and the parameters are not carefully chosen. Finally both methods are applied to real measurements of a dipole in a Microwave Vision Group multiprobe system and of a horn in a single-cut measurement. Other effects, such as window shift, may appear depending on the geometry of the system where the measurement is taken. These effects must be taken into consideration and carefully corrected.
We study the abundance of the remnants of stars that reionized the Universe in galaxies in the present day Universe using the eagle cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. High mass galaxies contain most of these ‘reionizers’. The fractional number of galaxies that do not host reionizers increases with decreasing stellar mass, M⋆. For the galaxies that host reionizers, the fraction of mass of the galaxy in reionizers increases with decreasing M⋆, such that the fraction is low (~10−4) for high mass galaxies and can be as high as 0.1 in low mass galaxies, M⋆ ≤ 107 M⊙. In Milky-Way like galaxies, the distribution of reionizers is spatially more extended than that of normal stars.
The Archive is the main Gaia data distribution hub. The contents of DR1 are briefly reviewed and the data structures discussed. The system architecture, based on Virtual Observatory standards, is also presented, together with the extensions that allow e.g. authenticated access, persistent uploads and table sharing. Finally some usage examples are provided.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing and remitting disorder characterised by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. There is a growing consensus that IBD is associated with anxiety- and depression-related symptoms. Psychological symptoms appear to be more prevalent during active disease states with no difference in prevalence between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Behavioural disturbances including anxiety- and depression-like symptoms have also been observed in animal models of IBD.
The likely mechanisms underlying the association are discussed with particular reference to communication between the gut and brain. The close bidirectional relationship known as the gut–brain axis includes neural, hormonal and immune communication links. Evidence is provided for a number of interacting factors including activation of the inflammatory response system in the brain, the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, and brain areas implicated in altered behaviours, changes in blood brain barrier integrity, and an emerging role for gut microbiota and response to probiotics in IBD.
The impact of psychological stress in models of IBD remains somewhat conflicted, however, it is weighted in favour of stress or early stressful life events as risk factors in the development of IBD, stress-induced exacerbation of inflammation and relapse.
It is recommended that patients with IBD be screened for psychological disturbance and treated accordingly as intervention can improve quality of life and may reduce relapse rates.
Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of anger in the community.
We used data derived from a large national sample of the U.S. population, which included more than 34,000 adults ages 18 years and older. We defined inappropriate, intense, or poorly controlled anger by means of self-report of the following: (1) anger that was triggered by small things or that was difficult to control, (2) frequent temper outbursts or anger that lead to loss of control, or (3) hitting people or throwing objects in anger.
The overall prevalence of inappropriate, intense, or poorly controlled anger in the U.S. population was 7.8%. Anger was especially common among men and younger adults, and was associated with decreased psychosocial functioning. Significant and positive associations were evident between anger and parental factors, childhood, and adulthood adverse events. There were strong associations between anger and bipolar disorder, drug dependence, psychotic disorder, borderline, and schizotypal personality disorders. There was a dose-response relationship between anger and a broad range of psychopathology.
A rationale exists for developing screening tools and early intervention strategies, especially for young adults, to identify and help reduce anger.
Objective: Protocols for the placement of temporary pacing wires vary among institutions. Our current protocol is to selectively place temporary pacing wires in those patients who develop haemodynamically significant intra-operative arrhythmia. We wished to identify how effective our current protocol is at identifying who will develop post-operative arrhythmia and need temporary pacing wires. Methods: The charts of 880 patients over 8 years who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass were reviewed to find patients who developed intra-operative arrhythmia, had temporary pacing wires placed, and whether or not they developed post-operative arrhythmia and required utilisation of the pacing wires. Results: A total of 87 (9.9%) out of 880 patients who required cardiopulmonary bypass over 8 years had intra-operative arrhythmia and had temporary pacing wires placed. Of these, 59 (67.8%) had post-operative arrhythmia and utilised the pacing wires, whereas 28 (32.2%) did not have post-operative arrhythmia or utilise the pacing wires. In all, seven patients who did not have intra-operative arrhythmia or temporary pacing wires placed developed post-operative arrhythmia. Conclusion: Intra-operative arrhythmia is predictive of post-operative arrhythmia (70.2%) and our protocol is a sensitive means of identifying those who will develop post-operative arrhythmia (89.3%).
This chapter reviews the contribution of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecule in narcolepsy in terms of genetic association, relationship to clinical characteristics, autoimmune hypothesis and molecular mechanisms. The HLA genotype has been related to sleep, even in healthy subjects. In 1983, a strong association was reported in Japanese narcolepsy patients with HLA. Narcolepsy is not limited to the core symptoms of lapsing into sleep and cataplexy, but also exhibits wide range of associated symptoms that are somatic and neuropsychiatric. Among known HLA-related diseases, the relative risk of narcolepsy is extremely high. Although, there is no direct evidence for autoimmunity, studies of environmental factors in narcolepsy have suggested that previous infectious diseases could be a trigger to develop narcolepsy. Association with the HLA complex is not limited to narcolepsy, and over 100 types of diseases are known to show significant associations with HLA.
A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship.
To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders.
Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ⩾30.
Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women.
Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women.
This chapter summarizes the available evidence for the pharmacological management of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were the first medications to be widely studied as a treatment for SAD. Six double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have consistently demonstrated the efficacy of phenelzine in the treatment of SAD, resulting in symptomatic and functional improvement. Compared with non-reversible MAOIs, reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase-A (RIMAs) have a significantly lower risk of potentiating the dangerous pressor effect of tyramine, which allows for relaxation or total elimination of dietary restrictions. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) have been studied widely because of their efficacy, safety, and tolerability compared with earlier medications. The evidence from the reviewed clinical trials and meta-analyses suggests that a number of medications are efficacious in the treat.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and often disabling disorder. This paper reviews the pharmacological treatment of SAD based on published placebo-controlled studies and published meta-analyses. It addresses three specific questions: What is the first-line pharmacological treatment of SAD? How long should treatment last? What should be the management of treatment-resistant cases? Based on their efficacy for SAD and common co-morbid disorders, tolerability and safety, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and venlafaxine should be considered the first-line treatment for most patients. Less information is available regarding the optimal length of treatment, although individuals who discontinue treatment after 12–20 wk appear more likely to relapse than those who continue on medication. Even less empirical evidence is available to support strategies for treatment-resistant cases. Clinical experience suggests that SSRI non-responders may benefit from augmentation with benzodiazepines or gabapentin or from switching to monoamine oxidase inhibitors, reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A, benzodiazepines or gabapentin. Cognitive-behavioural is a well-established alternative first line therapy that may also be a helpful adjunct in non-responders to pharmacological treatment of SAD.
To evaluate the effects on anencephaly risk of the interaction between the maternal profile of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine and the 677C→T polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR).
Case–control study paired (1:1) on maternity clinic, date of birth and state of residence. Cases of anencephaly were identified using the Registry of the Mexican Neural Tube Defect Epidemiological Surveillance System. Case and control mothers were selected from the same maternity departments. All mothers completed a structured questionnaire and blood samples were obtained to determine the MTHFR 677C→T polymorphism and biochemical profile.
Mexico, Puebla and Guerrero states, Mexico.
A total of 151 mothers of cases and controls were enrolled from March 2000 to February 2001. We had complete information on biochemical profile and MTHFR C677T polymorphism for ninety-eight mothers of cases and ninety-one mothers of controls.
The adjusted models show that the risk of anencephaly in mothers with 677TT genotype was reduced by 18 % (OR = 0·82; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·94) for each 1 ng/ml increment in serum folate. In terms of tertiles, mothers with 677TT genotype with serum folate levels in the upper tertile (>14·1 ng/ml) had a 95 % lower risk to have a child with anencephaly than mothers with serum folate levels in the first and second tertiles (P trend = 0·012).
Our data agree with the hypothesis of a gene–nutrient interaction between MTHFR 677C→T polymorphism and folate status. We observed a protective effect on anencephaly risk only in mothers with 677TT genotype as serum folate levels increased.
The activities of the Commission have continued to focus on controlling unwanted light and radio emissions at observatory sites, monitoring of conditions at observatory sites, and education and outreach. Commission members have been active in securing new legislation in several locations to further the protection of observatory sites as well as in the international regulation of the use of the radio spectrum and the protection of radio astronomical observations.
In the first half of the twentieth century, research by von Economo and Walle Nauta implicated the hypothalamus in sleep and waking. In the subsequent 50 years the hypothalamus was abandoned and instead the pons was considered to house the neurons regulating states of consciousness. In 1999, the linkage of a hypothalamic peptide, hypocretin, with narcolepsy shifted the emphasis back to the hypothalamus. However, since REM sleep originates from the pons, we sought to identify how the hypothalamus links with the pons, which would elucidate a network map of regions responsible for all three states. In this review we summarize our hypothesis that hypothalamic wake and non-REM sleep active neurons link with a group of i nhibitory pontine neurons to gate the transition to REM sleep. This hypothesis was first publically presented by us at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in 2004. We suggest that the pontine areas inhibiting REM sleep (PAIRS) represent GABA neurons; that these neurons are activated by glucosensing neurons, and neurons involved in emotion and arousal, and that their purpose is to keep the animal upright, mobile, and vigilant as it forages for food.