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The dietary inclusion of feed additives to improve the carcass characteristics of the final product is of great importance for the pork production chain. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the association of ractopamine (RAC) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance traits of finishing pigs during the last 26 days prior to slaughter. In total, 810 commercial hybrid barrows were used. Animals were distributed among treatments according to a randomised block design in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, with three RAC levels (0, 5 or 10 ppm) and three CLA levels (0, 0.3 or 0.6%). Pigs fed the diet with 5 ppm RAC had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) (2.83 kg; P < 0.05) when compared with those fed 10 ppm RAC and the control diet (2.75 and 2.74 kg, respectively). Lower ADFI values (P < 0.01) were observed with the diets containing CLA compared with the control diet with no CLA (2.73 and 2.75 v. 2.85 kg/day, respectively). The average daily weight gain of pigs fed 5 and 10 ppm RAC was +148 and +173 g/dayhigher (P < 0.001), respectively, than those fed the control diet. Dietary RAC levels influenced (P < 0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR), which was reduced as RAC levels increased, with the pigs fed 10, 5 and 0 ppm RAC presenting FCR values of 2.57, 2.71 and 3.05, respectively. FCR also improved (P < 0.05) with the inclusion of 0.6% CLA relative to the control diet (2.70 v. 2.84, respectively). There was a significant interaction between CLA × RAC levels (P < 0.01) for final BW, loin eye area (LEA) (P < 0.05) and backfat thickness (BT) (P < 0.05). The treatments containing 10 ppm RAC + 0.6% or 0.3% CLA increased LEA and reduced BT. In conclusion, the level of 10 ppm inclusion of RAC increased the overall performance parameters of pigs and therefore improved production efficiency. The combined use of RAC and CLA promoted a lower feed conversion ratio as well as better quantitative carcass traits, as demonstrated by the higher LEA and lower BT. The dietary inclusion of CLA at 0.3% improved feed efficiency, however, without affecting LEA or BT yields.
Background: Hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis a hereditary, multi-systemic and life-threatening disease resulting in neuropathy and cardiomyopathy. In the APOLLO study, patisiran, an investigational RNAi therapeutic targeting hepatic TTR production resulted in significant improvement in neuropathy and QoL compared to placebo and was generally well tolerated. Methods: APOLLO, a Phase 3 study of patisiran vs. placebo (NCT01960348) prespecified a cardiac subpopulation (n=126 of 225 total) that included patients with baseline left ventricular (LV) wall thickness ≥ 13mm and no medical history of aortic valve disease or hypertension. Cardiac measures included structure and function by electrocardiography, changes in NT-proBNP and 10-MWT gait speed. Results: At 18 months, patisiran treatment resulted in a mean reduction in LV wall thickness of 1 mm (p=0.017) compared to baseline, which was associated with significant improvements relative to placebo in LV end diastolic volume (+8.31 mL, p=0.036), global longitudinal strain (-1.37%, p=0.015) and NT-proBNP (55% reduction, p=7.7 x 10-8) (Figure 1). Gait speed was also improved relative to placebo (+0.35 m/sec, p=7.4 x 10-9). Rate of death or hospitalization was lower with patisiran. mNIS+7 results in the cardiac subpopulation will also be presented. Conclusions: These data suggest patisiran has the potential to halt or reverse cardiac manifestations of hATTR amyloidosis.
Background: Hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis is a multi-systemic, heterogenous, life-threatening disease. Patisiran resulted in significant improvement in neuropathy and QoL at 18-months compared to placebo, and was generally well-tolerated in the Phase 3 APOLLO study. Methods: Multi-center, OLE study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term patisiran dosing for ≤ 5 years in hATTR amyloidosis patients with polyneuropathy who have completed the APOLLO study (NCT02510261). Endpoints include safety, tolerability and long-term efficacy of patisiran. Measures of clinical benefit are the same endpoints used in APOLLO including changes in mNIS+7 composite neuropathy impairment score and QoL (Norfolk QoL-DN) Results: As of December 2017, 184 of 186 (99%) patients who completed APOLLO and 25 patients from the Ph 2 OLE study enrolled in the Global OLE study. Baseline data for 211(APOLLO/placebo, n=49; APOLLO/patisiran, n=137 and patisiran Ph 2 OLE, n=25) patients included: median age 61 years (26-84); 74% males; 46% V30M. Interim safety data and 12-month efficacy results will be presented. Conclusions: The global OLE study includes a diverse population of hATTR amyloidosis patients. Interim data will include the long-term safety and maintenance of effect in patients continuing on patisiran, as well as the impact of treatment with patisiran on patients previously treated with placebo.
There is no suitable vaccine against human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and available drugs are toxic and/or present high cost. In this context, diagnostic tools should be improved for clinical management and epidemiological evaluation of disease. However, the variable sensitivity and/or specificity of the used antigens are limitations, showing the necessity to identify new molecules to be tested in a more sensitive and specific serology. In the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed in Leishmania infantum promastigotes and amastigotes employing sera samples from VL patients. Aiming to avoid undesired cross-reactivity in the serological assays, sera from Chagas disease patients and healthy subjects living in the endemic region of disease were also used in immunoblottings. The most reactive spots for VL samples were selected, and 29 and 21 proteins were identified in the promastigote and amastigote extracts, respectively. Two of them, endonuclease III and GTP-binding protein, were cloned, expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments against a large serological panel, and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values for the diagnosis of disease. In conclusion, the identified proteins could be considered in future studies as candidate antigens for the serodiagnosis of human VL.
We studied the genetic diversity and the population structure of human isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum, the causative agent of histoplasmosis, using a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) assay to identify associations with the geographic distribution of isolates from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia and Argentina. The RAPD-PCR pattern analyses revealed the genetic diversity by estimating the percentage of polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles, Shannon's index and heterozygosity. Population structure was identified by the index of association (IA) test. Thirty-seven isolates were studied and clustered into three groups by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Group I contained five subgroups based on geographic origin. The consistency of the UPGMA dendrogram was estimated by the cophenetic correlation coefficient (CCCr = 0.94, P = 0.001). Isolates from Mexico and Colombia presented higher genetic diversity than isolates from Argentina. Isolates from Guatemala grouped together with the reference strains from the United States of America and Panama. The IA values suggest the presence of a clonal population structure in the Argentinian H. capsulatum isolates and also validate the presence of recombining populations in the Colombian and Mexican isolates. These data contribute to the knowledge on the molecular epidemiology of histoplasmosis in Latin America.
To characterize the food environment in schools that participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) and to identify individual and contextual factors associated with hypertension and obesity.
National school-based survey.
Blood pressure, weight and height were measured, and characteristics of the schools were obtained in interviews with the principals. For each outcome, multilevel models of mixed effects were applied by logistic regression.
School-going adolescents aged 12–17 years.
A total of 73 399 adolescents were evaluated. The prevalence of hypertension was 9·6 (95 % CI 9·0, 10·3) % and that of obesity was 8·4 (95 % CI 7·9, 8·9) %. Approximately 50 % of the adolescents were able to purchase food at school and in its immediate vicinity and 82 % had access to no-charge meals through Brazil’s National School Feeding Program. In the adjusted analysis, hypertension was associated (OR; 95 % CI) with the consumption of meals prepared on the school premises (0·79; 0·69, 0·92), the sale of food in the school’s immediate vicinity (0·67; 0·48, 0·95) and the purchase of food in the school cafeteria (1·29; 1·11, 1·49). It was observed that there were lower odds of obesity among students who were offered meals prepared on the school premises (0·68; 0·54, 0·87).
High frequency of sales of ultra-processed foods in schools was identified. Contextual and individual characteristics in the school food environment were associated with hypertension and obesity, pointing to the need for regulation and supervision of these spaces.
Cadillo is an invasive species in Florida pastures and natural areas. Despite its invasiveness, relatively few studies have evaluated cadillo management. Thus, the objective of this research was to determine effective POST herbicides for cadillo control in Florida. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center near Ona, FL, in 2015 and 2016. In the greenhouse study, triclopyr-ester, aminopyralid, metsulfuron, 2,4-D amine, aminopyralid+metsulfuron, aminocyclopyrachlor+metsulfuron, and imazapyr+aminocyclopyrachlor+metsulfuron provided ≥80% control of cadillo 28 d after treatment (DAT). Aminocyclopyrachlor at 17 and 35 g ha–1 were the only treatments with <80% control, with 70% and 75% control, respectively. Similar results were reflected in cadillo dry biomass reduction. The herbicide treatments used in the field study were triclopyr-ester, aminopyralid, 2,4-D amine, aminocyclopyrachlor, and triclopyr+fluroxypyr. Most treatments provided excellent control in the field (≥90% control) 30 DAT, and by 60 DAT all treatments provided 100% control. Results from these studies suggest that cadillo is susceptible to many of the common POST herbicides utilized in pastures and natural areas in Florida.
Highly porous alumina-based oxides, γ-Al2O3, SiO2–Al2O3, and TiO2–Al2O3 were synthesized by a modified sol–gel method. Polivinylpyrrolidone was used as the pore expanding agent, whereas cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was used as the template in the presence of alkoxide inorganic precursors. Both as-synthesized and calcined solids were used as catalysts for esterification of glycerol with acetic acid (EG). The XRD and SEM-EDS measurements demonstrated that the Si-containing solids are amorphous while those containing Ti are semicrystalline with the latter composed of TiO2 rutile, TiO2 anatase, and γ-Al2O3 phases. All solids possessed ordered porous structures comprising of micro- and mesoporosity, with interconnectivity between these pores of different length scales. The high acidity of γ-Al2O3 and TiO2–Al2O3 materials resulted in good catalytic performances in the EG. Porosity of the solids plays a secondary role in determining the catalytic activity. Under the same conditions, the as-synthesized solids exhibited slightly lower catalytic performances compared to that of the calcined ones.
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.
The present study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms modulated by dietary arginine supplementation to sows during lactation regarding antioxidant capacity and vascularization of mammary glands. At 109 days of gestation, animals were transferred to individual farrowing crates equipped with manual feeders and automatic drinker bowls. Environmental temperature and humidity inside the farrowing rooms were registered every 15 min. At farrowing, sows were assigned in a completely randomized design to a control diet (CON) or the CON diet supplemented with 1.0% L-arginine (ARG). A total of three gilts and two sows were fed the CON diet, whereas three gilts and three sows were fed ARG diets. Sows were fed a fixed amount of 6.0 kg/day, subdivided equally in four delivery times (0700, 1000, 1300 and 1600 h) for 21 days. At weaning, sows were slaughtered and mammary tissue samples and blood from the pudendal vein were collected. Data were analyzed considering each sow as an experimental unit. Differences were considered at P<0.05. L-arginine fed sows presented lower messenger RNA (mRNA) expression for prolactin receptor (P=0.002), angiopoietin1 (P=0.03) and receptor tyrosine kinase (P=0.01); higher mRNA expression for prostaglandin synthase 1 (P=0.01); a trend of decrease for glucocorticoid receptor (P=0.06) and IGF receptor 1 (P=0.07); and a trend (P=0.05) for an increased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. The angiopoietin2:angiopoietin1 mRNA ratio tended to increase (P=0.07) in ARG fed sows. L-arginine fed sows had greater (P=0.04) volumetric proportion of blood vessels and a trend of enhance (P=0.07) in the number of blood vessels per mm2. These findings show that 1.0% ARG supplementation to sows activates proliferative mechanisms, may improve mammary tissues’ angiogenesis and tended to increase mRNA expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes in mammary gland of sows.