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Dally flux density measurements of 36 extragalactic radio sources over a seven year period, obtained by the Green Bank interferometer, reveal several unusual minima in the light curves that do not follow typical source variations (Fiedler et al. 1987). The most significant departure from typical source variability occurred at both frequencies in the quasar 0954+658 between 1980.95 and 1981.3. Refractive focussing by small scale inhomogeneities in an ionized structure in the interstellar medium appears to be the most likely explanation.
This article presents results from the first 3 rounds of an international intercomparison of measurements of Δ14CO2 in liter-scale samples of whole air by groups using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The ultimate goal of the intercomparison is to allow the merging of Δ14CO2 data from different groups, with the confidence that differences in the data are geophysical gradients and not artifacts of calibration. Eight groups have participated in at least 1 round of the intercomparison, which has so far included 3 rounds of air distribution between 2007 and 2010. The comparison is intended to be ongoing, so that: a) the community obtains a regular assessment of differences between laboratories; and b) individual laboratories can begin to assess the long-term repeatability of their measurements of the same source air. Air used in the intercomparison was compressed into 2 high-pressure cylinders in 2005 and 2006 at Niwot Ridge, Colorado (USA), with one of the tanks “spiked” with fossil CO2, so that the 2 tanks span the range of Δ14CO2 typically encountered when measuring air from both remote background locations and polluted urban ones. Three groups show interlaboratory comparability within l% for ambient level Δ14CO2. For high CO2/low Δ14CO2 air, 4 laboratories showed comparability within 2%. This approaches the goals set out by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) CO2 Measurements Experts Group in 2005. One important observation is that single-sample precisions typically reported by the AMS community cannot always explain the observed differences within and between laboratories. This emphasizes the need to use long-term repeatability as a metric for measurement precision, especially in the context of long-term atmospheric monitoring.
Cygnus A, the nearest truly powerful radio galaxy, resides at the centre of a massive galaxy cluster. Chandra X-ray observations reveal its cocoon shocks, radio lobe cavities and an X-ray jet, which are discussed here. It is argued that X-ray emission from the outer regions of the cocoon shocks is nonthermal. The X-ray jets are best interpreted as synchrotron emission, suggesting that they, rather than the radio jets, are the path of energy flow from the nucleus to the hotspots. In that case, a model shows that the jet flow is non-relativistic and carries in excess of one solar mass per year.
Recent research indicates that cognitive reserve mitigates the clinical expression of neuropsychological impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). This literature primarily uses premorbid intelligence and lifetime experiences as indicators. However, changes in current recreational activities may also contribute to the maintenance of neural function despite brain atrophy. We examined the moderation effects of current changes in recreational activity on the relationship between brain atrophy and information processing speed in 57 relapsing-remitting MS patients. Current enrichment was assessed using the Recreation and Pastimes subscale from the Sickness Impact Profile. In patients reporting current declines in recreational activities, brain atrophy was negatively associated with cognition, but there was no such association in participants reporting stable participation. The MRI metric-by-recreational activity interaction was significant in separate hierarchical regression analyses conducted using third ventricle width, neocortical volume, T2 lesion volume, and thalamic volume as brain measures. Results suggest that recreational activities protect against brain atrophy's detrimental influence on cognition. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–6)
SNR 1987A is the expanding remnant from the brightest supernova since the invention of the telescope. The remnant has been monitored extensively in the radio at variety of wavelengths and provides a wealth of data on which to base a simulation. Questions to be answered include estimating the efficiency of particle acceleration at shock fronts, determining the cause of the one-sided radio morphology for SNR 1987A and investigating the gas properties of the pre-supernova environment. We attempt to address these questions using a fully three-dimensional model of SNR 1987A.
The pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations remains poorly understood.
To characterise the time course of regional brain activity leading to auditory verbal hallucinations.
During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 11 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder signalled auditory verbal hallucination events by pressing a button. To control for effects of motor behaviour, regional activity associated with hallucination events was scaled against corresponding activity arising from random button-presses produced by 10 patients who did not experience hallucinations.
Immediately prior to the hallucinations, motor-adjusted activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus was significantly greater than corresponding activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus. In contrast, motor-adjusted activity in a right posterior temporal region overshadowed corresponding activity in the left homologous temporal region. Robustly elevated motor-adjusted activity in the left temporal region associated with auditory verbal hallucinations was also detected, but only subsequent to hallucination events. At the earliest time shift studied, the correlation between left inferior frontal gyrus and right temporal activity was significantly higher for the hallucination group compared with non-hallucinating patients.
Findings suggest that heightened functional coupling between the left inferior frontal gyrus and right temporal regions leads to coactivation in these speech processing regions that is hallucinogenic. Delayed left temporal activation may reflect impaired corollary discharge contributing to source misattribution of resulting verbal images.
An experiment is reported where the proportion of potentially “special”, coincident site lattice boundaries is increased by manipulation of the kinetics of anomalous grain growth. A relatively new technique, electron back scattering in a scanning electron microscope, is used to obtain the data.
We have studied the deposition of aluminum films by triisobutylaluminum (TIBA) pyrolysis on clean and oxidized Si(lll) (7×7), Si(100) (2×1), and an evaporated aluminum film on silicon. On all of the silicon surfaces, HBA has a very low reaction probability (<0.01). On aluminum, the reaction probability is much higher, and the rate of steady state aluminum deposition is limited by β-hydride elimination from surface-bound isobutyl species to give isobutene and hydrogen. In the steady state deposition of aluminum on top of silicon, gas phase silanes such as isobutyl- and diisobutylsilane are also evolved. This clearly indicates that hydrogen and alkyl ligand transfer from aluminum to silicon (which has diffused up through the growing aluminum film) can occur. We have also found that alkyl species generated on aluminum surfaces by. the adsorption of alkyl iodides have surface chemistries analogous to the aluminum alkyl ligands.
An important step in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of aluminum from triisobutylaluminum (TIBA) is the reaction between TIBA (adsorbed from the gas phase) and the growing aluminum surface. We have studied this chemistry by impinging TIBA under collisionless conditions in an ultra-high vacuum system onto single crystal Al(111) and Al(100) substrates. We find that when TIBA (340K) collides with an aluminum surface heated to between 500 and 600K, the aluminum atom is cleanly abstracted from this precursor with near unit reaction probability to deposit, epitaxially, carbon-free aluminum films. The gas phase products are isobutylene and hydrogen. From monolayer thermal desorption experiments, we have determined the kinetic parameters for the rate-determining step, a β-hydride elimination reaction by surface bound isobutyl ligands. Using these kinetic parameters and a Langmuir absorption model, we can predict the rate of aluminum deposition at pressures ranging from 10−6 to 1 Torr.
A copolymer prepared using methylcyclosiloxanes and methylcyclosilazanes has been pyrolysed in N2 and a NH3/N2 mixture. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in both atmospheres and thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) studies in N2 are discussed. The latter results have been used to suggest a mechanism for the thermal decomposition of the copolymer.
This paper addresses the development of an energy-based characterization framework which quantifies stress-induced dipole switching in ferroelectric materials. Helmholtz and Gibbs energy relations that accommodate 90° and 180° dipole orientations as equilibrium states are constructed at the lattice level. For regimes in which thermal relaxation mech- anisms are negligible, minimization of the Gibbs relations provides local polarization and strain relations. Alternatively, behavior such as creep or thermal relaxation can be incorpo- rated by balancing Gibbs and relative thermal energies through Boltzmann principles. In the nal step of the development, stochastic homogenization techniques based on the assump- tion that parameters such as coercive and induced elds are manifestations of underlying distributions are employed to construct macroscopic models suitable for nonhomogeneous polycrystalline compounds. Attributes and limitations of the model are illustrated through comparison with experimental PLZT data.
The one-dimensional free energy model for ferroelectric materials developed in [1-3] is general-ized to two dimensions. The proposed two-dimensional energy potential consists of four energy wells corresponding to four variants of the material, four saddle points representing the barriers for 900 switching processes, and a local energy maximum across which 1800-switching processes take place. The free energy potential is combined with the evolution equations based on the theory of thermally activated processes. The prediction of the model is compared with the recent measurements on a Ba- TiO3 single crystalline ferroelectric in . The responses of the model at various loading frequencies are calculated and the kinetics of 900 and 1800 switching processes are discussed.
All clinically-approved and many novel gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents used to enhance signal intensity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are optically silent. To verify MRI results, a “gold standard” that can map and quantify Gd down to the parts per million (ppm) levels is required. Nuclear microscopy is a relatively new technique that has this capability and is composed of a combination of three ion beam techniques: scanning transmission ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and particle induced X-ray emission used in conjunction with a high energy proton microprobe. In this proof-of-concept study, we show that in diseased aortic vessel walls obtained at 2 and 4 h after intravenous injection of the myeloperoxidase-senstitive MRI agent, bis-5-hydroxytryptamide-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate gadolinium, there was a time-dependant Gd clearance (2 h = 18.86 ppm, 4 h = 8.65 ppm). As expected, the control animal, injected with the clinically-approved conventional agent diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate gadolinium and sacrificed 1 week after injection, revealed no significant residual Gd in the tissue. Similar to known in vivo Gd pharmacokinetics, we found that Gd concentration dropped by a factor of 2 in vessel wall tissue in 1.64 h. Further high-resolution studies revealed that Gd was relatively uniformly distributed, consistent with random agent diffusion. We conclude that nuclear microscopy is potentially very useful for validation studies involving Gd-based magnetic resonance contrast agents.
Cross-sectional allometric growth patterns of the cranial and postcranial skeleton were compared between giant transgenic (MT-rGH) mice and their normal littermate controls. Body weights, external body dimensions, and a series of cranial and postcranial linear dimensions of the skeleton were determined for samples of known age. Comparative bivariate and multivariate allometric analyses were completed in order to determine whether (1) the larger transgenic mice differed significantly from the normal controls in aspects of body and skeletal proportions, and (2) any such proportion differences resulted from general allometric effects of overall weight or skeletal size increase. Results demonstrate that the transgenic mice do exhibit significantly different body and skeletal proportions than normal control adults. Allometric comparisons of the skeletal dimensions relative to body weight reveal similar coefficients of growth allometry but several differences in y-intercept values in the transgenic vs. control groups. The comparisons among the skeletal dimensions of the skull and postcranium generally reveal the sharing and differential extension of common growth allometries in the two groups. Thus, the elevated levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in the transgenic mice appear to result in increased overall growth for the various skeletal elements, but in the relative proportions determined by intrinsic growth controls within that system.
A continuation of this WG was voted for at the IAU GA 2006 in Prague. The International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is defined by the positions of 212 distant quasars at radio wavelengths. The primary, optical reference frame is the Hipparcos Celestial Reference Frame (HCRF), which is the Hipparcos Catalog without astrometric ‘problem’ stars (in: H. Rickman (ed.) 2001, Proceedings IAU XXIV General Assembly, Transactions IAU XXIVB (San Francisco: ASP), Resolution B1.2). The Tycho-2 catalog with its 2.5 million brightest stars forms the first step in the densification of the optical reference frame. However, the limiting magnitude of about V = 12 of the Tycho-2 catalog is not sufficient for most applications in astronomy and the goal of this IAU Working Group is to further extend the grid of highly accurate positions and motions toward more and fainter stars. The web site of this WG is at <ad.usno.navy.mil/dens_wg/>.