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Both vitamin K and probiotics can promote the bone health of poultry and mammals. The present study was conducted to investigate the interactive effects between vitamin K3 (VK3) and Bacillus subtilis PB6 on the growth performance and tibia quality of broiler chickens with sex separate rearing. In a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 720 one-day-old broiler chicks (Arbor Acres) were assigned to 12 groups with three levels of dietary VK3 (0, 0.5 and 4.0 mg/kg), with or without probiotic supplementation (500 g/t) and with sex separation (male and female). Each group included 3 replicates with 20 birds per replicate. During day 1 to 21, 0.5 and 4.0 mg/kg of VK3 increased average daily gain (ADG) of all birds and average daily feed intake of male birds (P < 0.05). During day 22 to 42, probiotic supplementation increased the ADG of birds (P < 0.05). Probiotic addition increased the weight, length, diameter and strength of tibia in all birds, and 0.5 and 4.0 mg/kg of VK3 increased the tibial breaking strength of male birds at day 21 (P < 0.05). Vitamin K3 and probiotic synergistically increased tibial breaking strength at day 42 and ash content at day 21 (P < 0.05). Three factors exhibited interactive effects on the chemical composition of tibia at day 42, and female birds fed 4 mg/kg of VK3 and probiotic had the highest contents of ash, calcium and phosphorus (P < 0.05). Bacillus subtilis PB6 increased the serum phosphorus level of male birds at day 21 and serum calcium level of female ones at day 42 (P < 0.05). At day 21, in the probiotic-supplemented birds, serum osteocalcin (OCN) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were increased by 0 and 4.0 mg/kg of VK3, respectively (P < 0.05). Probiotic increased serum OCN and cooperated with VK3 to increase the serum BALP at day 42 (P < 0.05). Vitamin K3 and probiotic synergistically down-regulated the mRNA expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 and OCN at day 21 (P < 0.05). Vitamin K3 down-regulated the alkaline phosphatase (liver/bone/kidney) expression in male birds at day 21 and 42, but probiotic up-regulated the expression of these genes at day 42 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, VK3 and B. subtilis PB6 promoted the growth performance of broilers during starter and grower phases, respectively. They synergistically improved the physical and chemical traits of tibias, especially in grower phase, by modulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism as well as osteogenic gene expression.
The fatty acid composition of chicken’s meat is largely influenced by dietary lipids, which are often used as supplements to increase dietary caloric density. The underlying key metabolites and pathways influenced by dietary oils remain poorly known in chickens. The objective of this study was to explore the underlying metabolic mechanisms of how diets supplemented with mixed or a single oil with distinct fatty acid composition influence the fatty acid profile in breast muscle of Qingyuan chickens. Birds were fed a corn-soybean meal diet supplemented with either soybean oil (control, CON) or equal amounts of mixed edible oils (MEO; soybean oil : lard : fish oil : coconut oil = 1 : 1 : 0.5 : 0.5) from 1 to 120 days of age. Growth performance and fatty acid composition of muscle lipids were analysed. LC-MS was applied to investigate the effects of CON v. MEO diets on lipid-related metabolites in the muscle of chickens at day 120. Compared with the CON diet, chickens fed the MEO diet had a lower feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05), higher proportions of lauric acid (C12:0), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7), oleic acid (C18:1n-9), EPA (C20:5n-3) and DHA (C22:6n-3), and a lower linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) content in breast muscle (P < 0.05). Muscle metabolome profiling showed that the most differentially abundant metabolites are phospholipids, including phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), which enriched the glycerophospholipid metabolism (P < 0.05). These key differentially abundant metabolites – PC (14:0/20:4), PC (18:1/14:1), PC (18:0/14:1), PC (18:0/18:4), PC (20:0/18:4), PE (22:0/P-16:0), PE (24:0/20:5), PE (22:2/P-18:1), PE (24:0/18:4) – were closely associated with the contents of C12:0, C14:0, DHA and C18:2n-6 in muscle lipids (P < 0.05). The content of glutathione metabolite was higher with MEO than CON diet (P < 0.05). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the diet supplemented with MEO reduced the feed conversion ratio, enriched the content of n-3 fatty acids and modified the related metabolites (including PC, PE and glutathione) in breast muscle of chickens.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Identify objective neurological substrates of cognitive fatigue in Parkinson’s disease and in aging. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Structural and diffusion MRI. Behavioral assessments for aged adults and Parkinson’s disease. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Gray and white matter deficits that correlate with deficits in the basal ganglia for fatigued Parkinson’s disease patients Versus anterior cingulate cortex in healthy aged adults with fatigue. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Over 50% of patients with Parkison’s disease and 38% of healthy older adults suffer from cognitive fatigue. However, diagnostics are limited to subjective surveys and there are no treatments for either population. Therefore, objective measures are greatly needed for better diagnosis and development of treatment targets.
Upgraded heating and current drive (H/CD) systems have been equipped on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). With the upgraded H/CD systems, the operation space of EAST is extended, and the ability to achieve higher performance is improved. In this paper, a 0.5 dimension transport code named Minute Embedded Tokamak Integrated Simulator (METIS) is applied to predict the EAST operation space and to assess the current drive capability of the 4.6 GHz lower hybrid current drive system. Predictive simulation of several EAST scenarios, including steady-state high confinement mode (H-mode), advanced regime, high normalized beta and high electron temperature, are also performed with the available H/CD systems. The simulation results provide a guidance for forthcoming advanced EAST experiments.
Aiming at a fusion reactor, two issues must be solved for the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), namely good lower hybrid wave (LHW)–plasma coupling and effective current drive at high density. For this goal, efforts have been made to improve LHW–plasma coupling and current drive capability at high density in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). LHW–plasma coupling is improved by means of local gas puffing and gas puffing from the electron side is taken as a routine way for EAST to operate with LHCD. Studies of high density experiments suggest that low recycling and high lower hybrid (LH) frequency are preferred for LHCD experiments at high density, consistent with previous results in other machines. With the combination of 2.45 GHz and 4.6 GHz LH waves, a repeatable high confinement mode plasma with maximum density up to
was obtained by LHCD in EAST. In addition, in the first stage of LHCD cyclic operation, an alternative candidate for more economical fusion reactors has been demonstrated in EAST and further work will be continued.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, however genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for MDD, as well as for related continuous outcomes, have not shown consistent results. Attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of MDD may be hindered by heterogeneity in diagnosis. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale provides a widely used tool for measuring depressive symptoms clustered in four different domains which can be combined together into a total score but also can be analysed as separate symptom domains.
We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of the CES-D symptom clusters. We recruited 12 cohorts with the 20- or 10-item CES-D scale (32 528 persons).
One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs713224, located near the brain-expressed melatonin receptor (MTNR1A) gene, was associated with the somatic complaints domain of depression symptoms, with borderline genome-wide significance (pdiscovery = 3.82 × 10−8). The SNP was analysed in an additional five cohorts comprising the replication sample (6813 persons). However, the association was not consistent among the replication sample (pdiscovery+replication = 1.10 × 10−6) with evidence of heterogeneity.
Despite the effort to harmonize the phenotypes across cohorts and participants, our study is still underpowered to detect consistent association for depression, even by means of symptom classification. On the contrary, the SNP-based heritability and co-heritability estimation results suggest that a very minor part of the variation could be captured by GWAS, explaining the reason of sparse findings.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that was caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTSV. The study aimed to disclose the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SFTSV infection in China so far. An integrated clinical database comprising 1920 SFTS patients was constructed by combining first-hand clinical information collected from SFTS sentinel hospitals (n = 1159) and extracted data (n = 761) from published literature. The considered variables comprised clinical manifestations, routine laboratory tests of acute infection, hospitalization duration and disease outcome. SFTSV-IgG data from 19 119 healthy subjects were extracted from the published papers. The key clinical variables, case-fatality rate (CFR) and seroprevalence were estimated by meta-analysis. The most commonly seen clinical manifestations of SFTSV infection were fever, anorexia, myalgia, chill and lymphadenopathy. The major laboratory findings were elevated lactate dehydrogenase, aminotransferase, followed by thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, elevated alanine transaminase and creatine kinase. A CFR of 12·2% was estimated, significantly higher than that obtained from national reporting data, but showing no geographical difference. In our paper, the mortality rate was about 1·9 parts per million. Older age and longer delay to hospitalization were significantly associated with fatal outcome. A pooled seroprevalence of 3·0% was obtained, which increased with age, while comparable for gender. This study represents a clinical characterization on the largest group of SFTS patients up to now. A higher than expected CFR was obtained. A wider spectrum of clinical index was suggested to be used to identify SFTSV infection, while the useful predictor for fatal outcome was found to be restricted.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breast feeding on childhood overweight and obesity in a mainland Chinese population. The incidence of and factors associated with overweight and obesity were compared between children of mothers with (n=1068) and without (n=1756) GDM. The independent roles of the associated factors were examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. The incidence of overweight was higher (16.6 v. 12.6%, P=0.002) in the GDM group, but that of obesity was not different (10.7 v. 12.0%, P=0.315). At age 1–2 and 2–5 years, no difference in overweight (11.0 v. 12.0%, P=0.917, and 15.7 v. 14.6%, P=0.693, respectively) was found, while obesity (8.0 v. 13.6%, P=0.019, and 8.4 v. 13.4%, P=0.014, respectively) was less frequent in the GDM offspring. At age 5–10 years, increased overweight (22.2 v. 12.1%, P<0.001) and obesity (15.9 v. 9.0%, P=0.001) were found in the GDM group, which was associated with maternal obesity, being born large-for-gestational age, male gender and formula feeding. After adjusting for confounding factors, GDM remained an independent determinant of offspring overweight and obesity (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.61–3.22), suggesting that the effects of GDM were independent of breast feeding, as well as of maternal obesity and birth size.
We investigate the cavity formation during the impact of spheres and cylinders into a liquid pool by using a combination of experiments, simulations and theoretical analysis, with particular interest in contact-line pinning and its relation with the subsequent cavity evolution. The flows are simulated by a Navier–Stokes diffuse-interface solver that allows for moving contact lines. On the basis of agreement on experimentally measured quantities such as the position of the pinned contact line and the interface shape, we investigate flow details that are not accessible experimentally, identify the interface regions in the cavity formation and examine the geometric effects of impact objects. We connect wettability, inertia, geometry of the impact object, interface bending and contact-line position with the contact-line pinning by analysing the force balance at a pinned meniscus, and the result compares favourably with those from simulations and experiments. In addition to adjusting the interface bending, the object geometry also has a significant effect on the magnitude of low pressure in the liquid and the occurrence of flow separation. As a result, it is easier for an object with sharp edges to generate a cavity than a smooth object. A theoretical model based on the Rayleigh–Besant equation is developed to provide a quantitative description of the radial expansion of the cavity after the pinning of the contact line. The accuracy of the solution is greatly affected by the geometrical information on the interface connected to the pinned meniscus, showing the dependence of the global cavity dynamics on the local flows around the pinned contact line. Vertical ripple propagation on the cavity wall is found to follow the dispersion relation for the perturbation evolution on a hollow jet.
To examine the association between urinary excretion of isoflavonoids and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we conducted a nested case–control study among 1111 T2D pairs identified during 1995–2008 in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII, who were free of diabetes, CVD and cancer at urine sample collection. Urinary excretion of daidzein and genistein, as well as their metabolites O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), dihydrogenistein (DHGE) and dihydrodaidzein (DHDE) was assayed using liquid chromatography MS. Self-reported T2D incident cases were confirmed using a validated questionnaire. Higher urinary excretion of daidzein and genistein was associated with a lower risk of T2D in the combined cohorts. Comparing extreme tertiles of the urinary markers, the OR of T2D were 0·71 (95 % CI 0·55, 0·93) for daidzein and 0·74 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·97) for genistein, although the test for linear trend was not significant for genistein (Ptrend=0·03 and 0·15, respectively). DMA, DHDE and DHGE were non-significantly associated with a lower T2D risk. The inverse association of daidzein with T2D risk was stronger among post-menopausal women who did not use hormone replacement therapy (Pinteraction=0·001): the OR was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·97) comparing extreme tertiles among these women. In conclusion, urinary excretion of isoflavones was associated with a lower T2D risk in US women, especially among post-menopausal women who did not use hormone. Further research is warranted to replicate these observations among western populations with similarly low overall isoflavone intake.
A numerical study was conducted to analyse the performance of different turbulence models and different turbulence intensities and turbulence length scales specified for the boundary condition of the inflow to the internal compression flow field of a typical supersonic inlet. The effect of the back-pressure ratio on the properties of the flow field was also investigated. Computational results obtained by the commercial software FLUENT, which is used to solve the full two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, were validated through both graphical and quantitative comparisons with previously published experimental data. The two-equation models that were considered in this study are the RNG k-ε, realisable k-ε, standard k-ε, and SST k-ω turbulence models. The RNG k-ε model had the best performance among the four models and predicted good wall pressure distributions. The best agreement between the predicted results and experimental data was obtained when either the default values of the freestream turbulence intensity and length scale in the FLUENT solver were used, or the empirical formula was used to calculate the two parameters of the freestream turbulence properties. The shock wave pattern varied between the oblique mode and the fully developed normal mode with increasing back-pressure ratio, and the unstart phenomenon occurred when the back-pressure ratio was sufficiently high.
We examined longitudinal associations of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and megalin (LRP2; LDL receptor-related protein-2) gene polymorphisms with central adiposity. We used data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), an ongoing prospective open cohort study. Study participants consisted of non-Hispanic white adults residing in Baltimore city, with one or more visits at age ≥50 years, and complete data (n 609–617). Repeated assessments on waist circumference (WC) and waist:hip ratio (WHR) were available. Multiple linear mixed models were used to estimate mid-follow-up age central adiposity level and annual rate of change with cut-points set at the sex-specific 80th percentile. The four binary outcomes were: ‘elevated central adiposity’ (ECA-WC and ECA-WHR) and ‘significant increase in central adiposity’ (SICA-WC and SICA-WHR). SNP for VDR (four SNP: (1) rs11568820 (CdX-2:T/C); (2) rs1544410 (BsmI:G/A); (3) rs7975232 (ApaI:A/C); (4) rs731236 (TaqI:G/A)) and Megalin (three SNP: (1) rs3755166:G/A; (2) rs2075252:C/T; (3) rs4668123:C/T) genes were selected. SNP latent classes (SNPLC) and SNP haplotypes (SNPHAP) were created. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that, in men, higher ECA-WHR odds were associated with SNPLC Megalin2:rs3755166[–]/rs2075252[TT]/rs4668123[T–] (v. Megalin1:rs3755166[–]/rs2075252[CC]/rs4668123[–]) (OR 2·87; 95 % CI 1·15, 7·12; P = 0·023) and that SNPLC Megalin3:rs3755166[–]/rs2075252[CT]/rs4668123[–] (v. Megalin1) was linked to lower SICA-WC odds (OR 0·48; 95 % CI 0·26, 0·88; P = 0·019) (P > 0·05 for sex × SNPLC). In women, VDR3 SNPHAP (GAA:bAT) was related to lower odds of ECA-WC (OR 0·37; 95 % CI 0·16, 0·87; P = 0·023) (P < 0·05 for sex × SNPHAP), VDR1 SNPHAP (GCA:baT) was associated with greater odds and VDR3 SNPHAP (GAA:bAT) with lower odds of SICA-WC (P > 0·05 for sex × SNPHAP). Vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms were associated with central adiposity status and change. Future mechanistic studies are needed to confirm those polymorphisms' biological significance to central adiposity.
We study the semiclassical limit of the least energy solutions to the nonlinear Dirac equation
for x ∈ ℝ3. We prove that the equation has least energy solutions for all ħ > 0 small, and, in addition, that the solutions converge in a certain sense to the least energy solution of the associated limit problem as ħ → 0.
Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between an overall fatty acid (FA) profile and CHD risk. The aim of the present study was to examine a novel index that summarises individual FA levels based on FA affinity and fluidity in relation to CHD risk in men. In a prospective nested case–control study, FA in plasma and erythrocytes were measured in 459 CHD cases and 879 matched controls. Lipophilic index (LI) was computed by summing the products between FA levels and melting point of each FA to reflect the overall FA lipophilicity. Among controls, higher plasma LI was significantly correlated with adverse profiles of blood lipids, inflammatory markers and adiponectin. After multivariate adjustment for age, smoking, BMI and other CHD risk factors, plasma LI was significantly associated with an increased risk of CHD: the relative risk was 1·61 (95 % CI 1·03, 2·53; P for trend = 0·04) comparing extreme quintiles. This association was attenuated to 1·21 (95 % CI 0·48, 3·09; P for trend = 0·77) after adjusting for plasma levels of total trans-FA, long-chain n-3 FA and polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio. Erythrocyte LI was not significantly associated with CHD risk. The present data indicate that a novel LI is associated with an adverse profile of cardiovascular risk markers and increased risk of CHD in men; its usefulness as a complement of individual FA in assessing disease risk needs to be elucidated in future studies.
In this contribution, we study the increase in metalorganic-low pressure chemical vapor deposited (MO-LPCVD) ZnO thin films conductivity by hydrogen plasma post-treatment. We show that this improvement is linked to defect passivation at grain boundaries, decreasing the electron traps density and resulting in the almost complete suppression of the electron scattering at grain boundaries. For a 2 μm thick non-intentionally doped ZnO layer, electron mobility reaches after treatment values close to 60 cm2V-1s-1 (corresponding to an increase of 100%), with a carrier density still as low as 3 x1019 cm-3 (+1.5 x1019 cm-3). Such layers have an absorbance below 2-3% in the range of 400 to 1100 nm making them among the most transparent and conductive materials reported so far. In addition, we demonstrate that hydrogen plasma post-treated ZnO layers can be used as front electrode for producing highly transparent and conductive electrodes. Eventually, it is shown that hydrogen plasma treatment can also be used on the complete thin film solar cell stack (back contact and silicon device) to improve the cell performances.
Fe deficiency and Fe-deficiency anaemia are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Traditional clinical markers of Fe status can be skewed in the presence of inflammation, meaning that a patient's Fe status can be misinterpreted. Additionally, Fe absorption is known to be down-regulated in patients with active IBD. However, whether this is the case for quiescent or mildly active disease has not been formally assessed. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between Fe absorption, Fe requirements and standard haematological indices in IBD patients without active disease. A group of twenty-nine patients with quiescent or mildly active IBD and twenty-eight control subjects undertook an Fe absorption test that measured sequential rises in serum Fe over 4 h following ingestion of 200 mg ferrous sulphate. At baseline, serum Fe, transferrin saturation, non-transferrin-bound Fe (NTBI), ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor were all measured. Thereafter (30–240 min), only serum Fe and NTBI were measured. Fe absorption did not differ between the two groups (P = 0·9; repeated-measures ANOVA). In control subjects, baseline haematological parameters predicted Fe absorption (i.e. Fe requirements), but this was not the case for patients with IBD. Fe absorption is normal in quiescent or mildly active IBD patients but standard haematological parameters do not accurately predict Fe requirements.
The study's objectives were to investigate the prevalence, incidence, persistence, and associated risk factors of syphilis in female sex workers (FSWs) in Kaiyuan City, Yunnan, China. Three serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted and biological specimens were collected and tested for HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and drug use. The logistic Generalized Estimating Equation regression model was used to identify risk factors for prevalent syphilis. The prevalence of syphilis was 7·5%, 8·4% and 8·8%, respectively, in the three survey periods. Estimated syphilis incidence was 1·07 cases/100 person-years, and the persistence of syphilis per person at 6 months was 90·4%. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with syphilis were age, lower education level, number of clients in a week, inconsistent condom use with clients, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and Chlamydia trachomatis. Persistent syphilis in this population of FSWs is a serious public health concern.