Skip to main content Accessibility help

Predictive simulations of operation scenarios for EAST with METIS code

  • Y. C. Li (a1) (a2), M. H. Li (a1), B. J. Ding (a1), J. F. Artaud (a3), Y. Peysson (a3), A. Ekedahl (a3), M. Wang (a1), X. J. Wang (a1), H. D. Xu (a1), J. F. Shan (a1) and F. K. Liu (a1)...


Upgraded heating and current drive (H/CD) systems have been equipped on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). With the upgraded H/CD systems, the operation space of EAST is extended, and the ability to achieve higher performance is improved. In this paper, a 0.5 dimension transport code named Minute Embedded Tokamak Integrated Simulator (METIS) is applied to predict the EAST operation space and to assess the current drive capability of the 4.6 GHz lower hybrid current drive system. Predictive simulation of several EAST scenarios, including steady-state high confinement mode (H-mode), advanced regime, high normalized beta and high electron temperature, are also performed with the available H/CD systems. The simulation results provide a guidance for forthcoming advanced EAST experiments.


Corresponding author

Email address for correspondence:


Hide All
Amicucci, L., Cardinali, A., Castaldo, C., Cesario, R., Galli, A., Panaccione, L., Paoletti, F., Schettini, G., Spigler, R. & Tuccillo, A. 2016 Current drive for stability of thermonuclear plasma reactor. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58, 014042.
Artaud, J. F., Basiuk, V., Imbeaux, F., Schneider, M., Garcia, J., Giruzzi, G., Huynh, P., Aniel, T., Albajar, F., Ane, J. M. et al. 2010 The CRONOS suite of codes for integrated tokamak modelling. Nucl. Fusion 50, 043001.
Asp, E., Weiland, J., Garbet, X., Mantica, P., Parail, V., Suttrop, W. & Contributors, E.-J. 2005 JETTO simulations of $T_{e}/T_{i}$ effects on plasma confinement. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47, 505.
Bonoli, P. T. & Englade, R. C. 1986 Simulation-model for lower hybrid current drive. Phys. Fluids 29, 2937.
Cardinali, A., Castaldo, C., Cesario, R., Santini, F., Amicucci, L., Ceccuzzi, S., Galli, A., Mirizzi, F., Napoli, F. & Panaccione, L. 2017 Role of the lower hybrid spectrum in the current drive modeling for DEMO scenarios. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59, 074002.
Cesario, R., Amicucci, L., Cardinali, A., Castaldo, C., Marinucci, M., Panaccione, L., Santini, F., Tudisco, O., Apicella, M. L., Calabro, G. et al. 2010 Current drive at plasma densities required for thermonuclear reactors. Nat. Commun. 55, 1.
Cesario, R., Cardinali, A., Castaldo, C., Paoletti, F. & Mazon, D. 2004 Modeling of a lower-hybrid current drive by including spectral broadening induced by parametric instability in tokamak plasmas. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 175002.
Decker, J., Peysson, Y., Artaud, J. F., Nilsson, E., Ekedahl, A., Goniche, M., Hillairet, J. & Mazon, D. 2014 Damping of lower hybrid waves in large spectral gap configurations. Phys. Plasmas 21, 092504.
Ding, B. J., Li, M. H., Li, Y. C., Wang, M., Liu, F. K., Shan, J. F., Li, J. G. & Wan, B. N. 2017 Studies of challenge in lower hybrid current drive capability at high density regime in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. J. Plasma Phys. 83, 595830105.
Erents, S. K., Stangeby, P. C., Labombard, B., Elder, J. D. & Fundamenski, W. 2000 Simple relations between scrape-off layer parameters of high recycling diverters. Part I: the relation between ‘upstream’ density and temperature. Nucl. Fusion 40, 295.
Eriksson, L. G., Hellsten, T. & Willen, U. 1993 Comparison of time-dependent simulations with experiments in ion-cyclotron heated plasmas. Nucl. Fusion 33, 1037.
Eriksson, L. G. & Porcelli, F. 2001 Dynamics of energetic ion orbits in magnetically confined plasmas. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, R145.
Fisch, N. J. 1978 Confining a tokamak plasma with rf-driven currents. Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 873.
Fisch, N. J. 1985 Conductivity of rf-heated plasma. Phys. Fluids 28, 245.
Fisch, N. J. & Boozer, A. H. 1980 Creating an asymmetric plasma resistivity with waves. Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 720.
Garbet, X., Mantica, P., Angioni, C., Asp, E., Baranov, Y., Bourdelle, C., Budny, R., Crisanti, F., Cordey, G., Garzotti, L. et al. 2004 Physics of transport in tokamaks. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46, B557.
Giruzzi, G. 1987 Impact of electron trapping on rf current drive in tokamaks. Nucl. Fusion 27, 1934.
Giruzzi, G., Artaud, J. F., Joffrin, E., Garcia, J. & Ide, S.2012 Integrated modelling of JT-60SA scenarios with the METIS code. In 39th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics and 16th International Congress on Plasma Physics, Stockholm, Sweden, P5.018.
Giruzzi, G., Barbato, E., Bernabei, S. & Cardinali, A. 1997 Measurement of the hot electrical conductivity in the PBX-M tokamak. Nucl. Fusion 37, 673.
Hu, C. D., Xie, Y. H., Xie, Y. L., Liu, S., Xu, Y. J., Liang, L. Z., Jiang, C. C., Li, J. & Liu, Z. M. 2016 Performance of positive ion based high power ion source of EAST neutral beam injector. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 02B301.
Janev, R. K., Boley, C. D. & Post, D. E. 1989 Penetration of energetic neutral beams into fusion plasmas. Nucl. Fusion 29, 2125.
Kupfer, K. & Moreau, D. 1992 Wave chaos and the dependence of LHCD efficiency on temperature. Nucl. Fusion 32, 1845.
Kupfer, K., Moreau, D. & Litaudon, X. 1993 Statistical-theory of wave-propagation and multipass absorption for current drive in tokamaks. Phys. Fluids B 5, 4391.
Li, J., Guo, H. Y., Wan, B. N., Gong, X. Z., Liang, Y. F., Xu, G. S., Gan, K. F., Hu, J. S., Wang, H. Q., Wang, L. et al. 2013 A long-pulse high-confinement plasma regime in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. Nat. Phys. 9, 817.
Liu, C. S. & Tripathi, V. K. 1986 Parametric-instabilities in a magnetized plasma. Phys. Rep. 130, 143.
Liu, F. K., Ding, B. J., Li, J. G., Wan, B. N., Shan, J. F., Wang, M., Liu, L., Zhao, L. M., Li, M. H., Li, Y. C. et al. 2015 First results of LHCD experiments with 4.6 GHz system toward steady-state plasma in EAST. Nucl. Fusion 55, 123022.
Liu, F. K., Li, J. G., Shan, J. F., Wang, M., Liu, L., Zhao, L. M., Hu, H. C., Feng, J. Q., Yang, Y., Jia, H. et al. 2016 Development of 4.6 GHz lower hybrid current drive system for steady state and high performance plasma in EAST. Fusion Engng Des. 113, 131.
Liu, Z. X., Gao, X., Liu, S. C., Ding, S. Y., Xia, T. Y., Zhang, T., Zhang, S. B., Wang, Y. M., Han, X., Li, J. G. et al. 2013 H-mode power threshold and confinement in a molybdenum wall with different magnetic configurations on the EAST tokamak. Nucl. Fusion 53, 073041.
Mahdavi, M. A., Maingi, R., Groebner, R. J., Leonard, A. W., Osborne, T. H. & Porter, G. 2003 Physics of pedestal density profile formation and its impact on H-mode density limit in burning plasmas. Phys. Plasmas 10, 3984.
Peysson, Y. & Shoucri, M. 1998 An approximate factorization procedure for solving nine-point elliptic difference equations – application for a fast 2-D relativistic Fokker–Planck solver. Comput. Phys. Commun. 109, 55.
Porter, G. D., Davies, S., Labombard, B., Loarte, A., McCormick, K., Monk, R., Shimada, M. & Sugihara, M. 1999 Analysis of separatrix plasma parameters using local and multi-machine databases. J. Nucl. Mater. 266, 917.
Sauter, O., Angioni, C. & Lin-Liu, Y. R. 1999 Neoclassical conductivity and bootstrap current formulas for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime. Phys. Plasmas 6, 2834.
Snipes, J. A. & Database, I. H.-m. T. 2000 Latest results on the H-mode threshold using the international H-mode threshold database. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 42, A299.
Stangeby, P. C. 2000 The Plasma Boundary of Magnetic Fusion Devices. Institute of Physics Publishing.
Stix, T. H. 1975 Fast-wave heating of a 2-component plasma. Nucl. Fusion 15, 737.
Wakatani, M., Mukhovatov, V. S., Burrell, K. H., Connor, J. W., Cordey, J. G., Esipchuk, Y. V., Garbet, X., Lebedev, S. V., Mori, M., Toi, K. et al. 1999 Chapter 2: plasma confinement and transport. Nucl. Fusion 39, 2175.
Waltz, R. E., Staebler, G. M., Dorland, W., Hammett, G. W., Kotschenreuther, M. & Konings, J. A. 1997 A gyro-Landau-fluid transport model. Phys. Plasmas 4, 2482.
Wan, Y. X., Team, H.-. & Team, H.-U. 2000 Overview of steady state operation of HT-7 and present status of the HT-7U project. Nucl. Fusion 40, 1057.
Wesson, J. 2011a Tokamak, p. 250. Oxford University Press.
Wesson, J. 2011b Tokamak, pp. 290299. Oxford University Press.
Xu, H. D., Wang, X. J., Liu, F. K., Zhang, J., Huang, Y. Y., Shan, J. F., Wu, D. J., Hu, H. C., Li, B., Li, M. H. et al. 2016 Development and preliminary commissioning results of a long pulse 140 GHz ECRH system on EAST tokamak (invited). Plasma Sci. Technol. 18, 442.
Zhao, Y. P., Zhang, X. J., Mao, Y. Z., Yuan, S., Xue, D. Y., Deng, X., Wang, L., Ju, S. Q., Cheng, Y., Qin, C. M. et al. 2014 EAST ion cyclotron resonance heating system for long pulse operation. Fusion Engng Des. 89, 2642.
MathJax is a JavaScript display engine for mathematics. For more information see



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed