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The nature and content of intellectual property (IP) law, which is heavily contingent on the state of technology and on social and market developments, has always been subject to ongoing transitions. How those transitions are effected and the shape they take is crucial to the ability of IP to achieve its stated goals and provide the necessary climate for investment in creativity, innovation and brand differentiation. Yet the need for change can run headlong into a desire for coherence. A search for coherence tests the limits of the concept of “intellectual property,” is imperiled by overlaps between different IP regimes, and calls for a unifying normative theme. This volume assembles contributors from across IP and the globe to explore these questions, including whether coherence is desirable. It should be read by anyone interested in understanding the conceptual underpinnings of one of the most important and dynamic areas of the law.
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) post-stroke is frequent but may go undetected, which highlights the need to better screen cognitive functioning following a stroke.
We examined the clinical utility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in detecting cognitive impairment against a gold-standard neuropsychological battery.
We assessed cognitive status with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests in 161 individuals who were at least 3-months post-stroke. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to identify two cut points for the MoCA to maximize sensitivity and specificity at a minimum 90% threshold. We examined the utility of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, a processing speed measure, to determine whether this additional metric would improve classification relative to the MoCA total score alone.
Using two cut points, 27% of participants scored ≤ 23 and were classified as high probability of cognitive impairment (sensitivity 92%), and 24% of participants scored ≥ 28 and were classified as low probability of cognitive impairment (specificity 91%). The remaining 48% of participants scored from 24 to 27 and were classified as indeterminate probability of cognitive impairment. The addition of a processing speed measure improved classification for the indeterminate group by correctly identifying 65% of these individuals, for an overall classification accuracy of 79%.
The utility of the MoCA in detecting cognitive impairment post-stroke is improved when using a three-category approach. The addition of a processing speed measure provides a practical and efficient method to increase confidence in the determined outcome while minimally extending the screening routine for VCI.
To present our data evaluating the feasibility of simultaneous cochlear implantation with resection of acoustic neuroma.
This paper describes a case series of eight adult patients with a radiologically suspected acoustic neuroma, treated at a tertiary referral centre in Newcastle, Australia, between 2012 and 2015. Patients underwent cochlear implantation concurrently with removal of an acoustic neuroma. The approach was translabyrinthine, with facial nerve monitoring and electrically evoked auditory brainstem response testing. Standard post-implant rehabilitation was employed, with three and six months’ follow-up data collected. The main outcome measures were: hearing, subjective benefit of implant, operative complications and tumour recurrence.
Eight patients underwent simultaneous cochlear implantation with resection of acoustic neuroma over a 3-year period, and had 25–63 months’ follow up. There were no major complications. All patients except one gained usable hearing and were daily implant users.
Simultaneous cochlear implantation with resection of acoustic neuroma has been shown to be a safe treatment option, which will be applicable in a wide range of clinical scenarios as the indications for cochlear implantation continue to expand.
Impairments in social behavior and cognition, such as the ability to identify others’ emotional state, are important features in schizophrenia. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) and are nonapeptides that influence social cognition and behavior. Previous studies have shown that the administration of intranasal AVP or OXT may affect the ability to recognize facial emotions. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a single dose of AVP or OXT on social cognition in patients with schizophrenia. The secondary objective of the study was to test for sex-specific effects of intranasal AVP and OXT administration on social cognition.
In this double-blind, placebo-control, cross-over study, 34 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder, received a dose of AVP, OXT or placebo in three separate meetings. Forty-five minutes after administration, subjects performed facial emotion recognition tasks.
There were no significant main effects of hormone administration on the ability to recognize facial emotions between treatment conditions. However, AVP administration resulted in sex-specific differences in emotion recognition. Specifically, in men, AVP administration reduced the ability to recognize angry faces. In women, AVP administration reduced the ability to recognize sad faces and improved the ability to recognize fearful faces.
These findings indicate that intranasal AVP may affect the recognition of facial emotions differently in men and women. Thus, AVP may increase the differences between men and women on social cognition.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Understanding of factors related to chronic pain in elderly is limited.
Objectives and aims
To estimate the prevalence of pain categories based on spreading of pain on the body and to investigate how such spreading is related to demographic variables, pain intensity, comorbidities and medication in an elderly general population in southeastern Sweden.
A total of 6611 adults aged ≥ 65 years participated (mean age = 76.2; SD = 7.4). Pain categories were assessed by a self-reported postal questionnaire covering 45 anatomical predefined pain regions along with demographics, pain intensity during previous seven days, comorbidities and medication. Poisson regression models with robust error variance were used for data analyzing.
The prevalence of pain spreading categories was: chronic local pain (CLP) 16%; chronic regional pain medium (CRP-Medium) 17%; chronic regional pain heavy (CRP-Heavy) 5% and chronic widespread pain (CWSP) 2%. Overall, increased prevalence for CRP-Heavy and CWSP in subjects 75–79 years old compared to those 65–69, 70–74, 80–84 and ≥ 85 years were revealed. In men, 75–79 years old, CRP-Heavy was more common than in the other pain categories. In women, 75–79 years old CWSP, was more common than in the other pain categories. Pain intensity was strongly associated with all pain categories (P < 0.001). CLP was associated with trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, prescribed and non-prescribed analgesics. CRP-Medium was associated with rheumatoid arthritis, CRP-Heavy with rheumatoid arthritis and lung diseases and CWSP with rheumatoid arthritis and prescribed analgesics (P < 0.001).
Our findings elucidate heterogeneity of pain in elderly which has to be further investigated.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
There is a lack of research on subtypes of chronic pain (CP) characteristics in the elderly.
To scrutinize major subgroups based on pain aspects and psychological factors on an elderly population.
To determine possible differences between the derived subgroups with respect to pain aspects and anxiety-depression symptoms, health aspects and health care costs.
A cross-sectional study was implemented. A large sample of 2300 individuals (M = 75.9 years, SD = 7.4) participated. Self-reported postal measurements regarding pain intensity, spreading of pain, anxiety and depression (General well-being schedule [GWBS]), and pain catastrophizing [PCS]) were used as classification variables. A two-step cluster analysis was employed. We further investigated whether the derived subgroups experienced different quality of life and general health. Calculations regarding health care costs were also performed.
Two major subgroups were identified: one low symptom severity subgroup (Cluster 1; n = 1326; 58%) and one high symptom severity subgroup (Cluster 2; n = 974; 42%). There were statistical significant differences on pain intensity, spreading of pain, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing between the two subgroups (P < 0.001). Significant lower levels for quality of life and general health (P < 0.001) were found for the high symptom severity subgroup. Health care costs in the high symptom severity subgroup were significantly higher than those of the low symptom severity subgroup (P < 0.001).
Our findings exhibit the necessity for subgroup-specific treatment services for improving pain management and reducing health care costs in the elderly.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experience a disproportionate burden from chronic psychotic disorders (CPDs), which are the most disabling conditions among people aged 10–24 in Sub-Saharan Africa. Poor medication adherence is seen in approximately half of individuals with CPDs in Sub-Saharan Africa, and is a major driver of relapse. A CPD treatment approach that combines the use of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medications with a brief and practical customised adherence-enhancement behavioural intervention (CAE-L) was recently developed and tested for use in the USA.
To use a qualitative cross-sectional analysis to gather information on potentially modifiable barriers to management of CPDs, and assess attitudes about LAIs from community participants in Tanzania. Findings were intended to refine the CAE-L curriculum for use in Tanzania.
In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with 44 participants (patients with CPD, caregivers, mental healthcare providers). All interviews and focus groups were audiotaped, translated, transcribed and analysed using content analysis, with an emphasis on dominant themes.
Findings indicated that promoting medication adherence and management of CPDs in the Tanzanian setting needs to consider the individual with CPD, the family, the healthcare setting and the broader community context.
Qualitative findings enabled the study team to better understand the real-time barriers to medication adherence, LAI use and management of CPDs more broadly. Refinement of the CAE-L is expected to pave the way for an intervention trial for individuals with CPDs that is culturally and linguistically appropriate to the Tanzanian setting.
While echocardiographic parameters are used to quantify ventricular function in infants with single ventricle physiology, there are few data comparing these to invasive measurements. This study correlates echocardiographic measures of diastolic function with ventricular end-diastolic pressure in infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis.
Data from 173 patients enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle enalapril trial were analysed. Those with mixed ventricular types (n = 17) and one outlier (end-diastolic pressure = 32 mmHg) were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total sample size of 155 patients. Echocardiographic measurements were correlated to end-diastolic pressure using Spearman’s test.
Median age at echocardiogram was 4.6 (range 2.5–7.4) months. Median ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 7 (range 3–19) mmHg. Median time difference between the echocardiogram and catheterisation was 0 days (range −35 to 59 days). Examining the entire cohort of 155 patients, no echocardiographic diastolic function variable correlated with ventricular end-diastolic pressure. When the analysis was limited to the 86 patients who had similar sedation for both studies, the systolic:diastolic duration ratio had a significant but weak negative correlation with end-diastolic pressure (r = −0.3, p = 0.004). The remaining echocardiographic variables did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure.
In this cohort of infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, most conventional echocardiographic measures of diastolic function did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure at cardiac catheterisation. These limitations should be factored into the interpretation of quantitative echo data in this patient population.
Micronutrient supplementation is recommended in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). However, there is limited data on its therapeutic impacts. This study evaluated the association between vitamin A supplementation and mortality outcomes in EVD patients.
This retrospective cohort study accrued patients with EVD admitted to five International Medical Corps run Ebola Treatment Units (ETU) in two countries from 2014-2015. Protocolized treatments with antimicrobials and micronutrients were used at all ETUs. However, due to resource limitations and care variations, only a subset of patients received vitamin A. Standardized data on demographics, clinical characteristics, malaria status, and Ebola virus RT-PCR cycle threshold (CT) values were collected. The outcome of interest was mortality compared between cases treated with 200,000 International Units of vitamin A on care days one and two and those not. Propensity scores (PS) based on the first 48-hours of care were derived using the covariates of age, duration of ETU function, malaria status, CT values, symptoms of confusion, hemorrhage, diarrhea, dysphagia, and dyspnea. Treated and non-treated cases were matched 1:1 based on nearest neighbors with replacement. Covariate balance met predefined thresholds. Mortality proportions between cases treated and untreated with vitamin A were compared using generalized estimating equations to calculate relative risks (RR) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI).
There were 424 cases analyzed, with 330 (77.8%) being vitamin A-treated cases. The mean age was 30.5 years and 57.0% were female. The most common symptoms were diarrhea (86%), anorexia (81%), and vomiting (77%). Mortality proportions among cases untreated and treated with vitamin A were 71.9% and 55.0%, respectively. In a propensity-matched analysis, mortality was significantly lower among cases receiving vitamin A (RR = 0.77 95%; CI:0.59-0.99; p = 0.041).
Early vitamin A supplementation was associated with reduced mortality in EVD patients and should be provided routinely during future epidemics.
Given the challenges in accurately identifying unexposed controls in case–control studies of diarrhoea, we examined diarrhoea incidence, subclinical enteric infections and growth stunting within a reference population in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, Kenya site. Within ‘control’ children (0–59 months old without diarrhoea in the 7 days before enrolment, n = 2384), we examined surveys at enrolment and 60-day follow-up, stool at enrolment and a 14-day post-enrolment memory aid for diarrhoea incidence. At enrolment, 19% of controls had ⩾1 enteric pathogen associated with moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (‘MSD pathogens’) in stool; following enrolment, many reported diarrhoea (27% in 7 days, 39% in 14 days). Controls with and without reported diarrhoea had similar carriage of MSD pathogens at enrolment; however, controls reporting diarrhoea were more likely to report visiting a health facility for diarrhoea (27% vs. 7%) or fever (23% vs. 16%) at follow-up than controls without diarrhoea. Odds of stunting differed by both MSD and ‘any’ (including non-MSD pathogens) enteric pathogen carriage, but not diarrhoea, suggesting control classification may warrant modification when assessing long-term outcomes. High diarrhoea incidence following enrolment and prevalent carriage of enteric pathogens have implications for sequelae associated with subclinical enteric infections and for design and interpretation of case–control studies examining diarrhoea.
Brain tumor behavior is driven by aberrations in the genome and epigenome. Many of these changes, such as IDH mutations in diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG), are common amongst the same class of tumour and can be incorporated into the diagnostic criteria. However, any given tumor may have other, less common genomic aberrations that are essential for its biological behavior and may inform on underlying aberrant cellular pathways, and potential therapeutic agents. Precision oncology is a genomics-based approach which profiles these alterations to better manage cancer patients and has established itself within the practice of oncology and is slowly making its way into neuro-oncology. The BC Cancer’s Personalized OncoGenomics (POG) program has profiled 16 adult tumours originating from the central nervous system using whole genome and transcriptome analysis (WGTA), for the first time, within a meaningful clinical timeframe/setting. As expected, primary genomic drivers were consistent with their respective diagnoses, though secondary drivers were found to be unique to each tumour. Although these analyses did not result in altered clinical management for these patients, primarily due to availability of drug or clinical trials, they highlight the heterogeneity of secondary drivers in cancers and provide clinicians with meaningful biological information. Lastly, the data generated by POG has highlighted the frequency and complexity of novel driver fusions which are predicted to behave similarly to canonical driver events in their respective tumours. The information available to clinicians through POG has provided paramount knowledge into the biology of each unique tumour.
Introduction: Survival from cardiac arrest has been linked to the quality of resuscitation care. Unfortunately, healthcare providers frequently underperform in these critical scenarios, with a well-documented deterioration in skills weeks to months following advanced life support courses. Improving initial training and preventing decay in knowledge and skills are a priority in resuscitation education. The spacing effect has repeatedly been shown to have an impact on learning and retention. Despite its potential advantages, the spacing effect has seldom been applied to organized education training or complex motor skill learning where it has the potential to make a significant impact. The purpose of this study was to determine if a resuscitation course taught in a spaced format compared to the usual massed instruction results in improved retention of procedural skills. Methods: EMS providers (Paramedics and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT)) were block randomized to receive a Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) course in either a spaced format (four 210-minute weekly sessions) or a massed format (two sequential 7-hour days). Blinded observers used expert-developed 4-point global rating scales to assess video recordings of each learner performing various resuscitation skills before, after and 3-months following course completion. Primary outcomes were performance on infant bag-valve-mask ventilation (BVMV), intraosseous (IO) insertion, infant intubation, infant and adult chest compressions. Results: Forty-eight of 50 participants completed the study protocol (26 spaced and 22 massed). There was no significant difference between the two groups on testing before and immediately after the course. 3-months following course completion participants in the spaced cohort scored higher overall for BVMV (2.2 ± 0.13 versus 1.8 ± 0.14, p=0.012) without statistically significant difference in scores for IO insertion (3.0 ± 0.13 versus 2.7± 0.13, p= 0.052), intubation (2.7± 0.13 versus 2.5 ± 0.14, p=0.249), infant compressions (2.5± 0.28 versus 2.5± 0.31, p=0.831) and adult compressions (2.3± 0.24 versus 2.2± 0.26, p=0.728) Conclusion: Procedural skills taught in a spaced format result in at least as good learning as the traditional massed format; more complex skills taught in a spaced format may result in better long term retention when compared to traditional massed training as there was a clear difference in BVMV and trend toward a difference in IO insertion.
Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between close proximity to detonated blast munitions and cognitive functioning in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans. Methods: A total of 333 participants completed a comprehensive evaluation that included assessment of neuropsychological functions, psychiatric diagnoses and history of military and non-military brain injury. Participants were assigned to a Close-Range Blast Exposure (CBE) or Non-Close-Range Blast Exposure (nonCBE) group based on whether they had reported being exposed to at least one blast within 10 meters. Results: Groups were compared on principal component scores representing the domains of memory, verbal fluency, and complex attention (empirically derived from a battery of standardized cognitive tests), after adjusting for age, education, PTSD diagnosis, sleep quality, substance abuse disorder, and pain. The CBE group showed poorer performance on the memory component. Rates of clinical impairment were significantly higher in the CBE group on select CVLT-II indices. Exploratory analyses examined the effects of concussion and multiple blasts on test performance and revealed that number of lifetime concussions did not contribute to memory performance. However, accumulating blast exposures at distances greater than 10 meters did contribute to poorer performance. Conclusions: Close proximity to detonated blast munitions may impact memory, and Veterans exposed to close-range blast are more likely to demonstrate clinically meaningful deficits. These findings were observed after statistically adjusting for comorbid factors. Results suggest that proximity to blast should be considered when assessing for memory deficits in returning Veterans. Comorbid psychiatric factors may not entirely account for cognitive difficulties. (JINS, 2018, 24, 466–475)
Therapy for sexual problems is not solely based on findings from scientific studies; much of it has to do with intuitive knowledge that comes from personal and clinical experience. The author suggests that an ideal way to begin education about helping with patients' sexual identity, sexual function and relational concerns is to consider why sex is important. Answering this question illuminates the subtle roles sexual behaviour play in our lives. These roles are explained by providing clinically based responses to twelve questions: How are adults nurtured in sexual relationships? How is psychological intimacy created? What is learnt over time through sex? What accounts for the pleasures of sex? Why is sex important? Why is sexual experience unstable? What is a couple's sexual equilibrium? What is sensuality? Is a life of sexual pleasure possible? What is sexual health? What are the sources of distress about sex? How do these concepts facilitate therapy?
• Understand how nurturance is maintained in adult sexual relationships over the life cycle
• Specify the roles that a satisfying sexual life plays within individuals' private subjective lives
• Conceptualise the psychological and interpersonal accomplishment represented by the maintenance of evolving sexual activity throughout life
The Square Kilometre Array will be an amazing instrument for pulsar astronomy. While the full SKA will be sensitive enough to detect all pulsars in the Galaxy visible from Earth, already with SKA1, pulsar searches will discover enough pulsars to increase the currently known population by a factor of four, no doubt including a range of amazing unknown sources. Real time processing is needed to deal with the 60 PB of pulsar search data collected per day, using a signal processing pipeline required to perform more than 10 POps. Here we present the suggested design of the pulsar search engine for the SKA and discuss challenges and solutions to the pulsar search venture.
Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a well-established treatment for chronic neuropathic pain in the lower limbs. Upper limb pain comprises a significant proportion of neuropathic pain patients, but is often difficult to target specifically and consistently with paresthesias. We hypothesized that the use of dorsal nerve root stimulation (DNRS), as an option along with SCS, would help us better relieve pain in these patients. Methods: All 35 patients trialed with spinal stimulation for upper limb pain between July 1, 2011, and October 31, 2013, were included. We performed permanent implantation in 23/35 patients based on a visual analogue scale pain score decrease of ≥50% during trial stimulation. Results: Both the SCS and DNRS groups had significant improvements in average visual analogue scale pain scores at 12 months compared with baseline, and the majority of patients in both groups obtained ≥50% pain relief. The majority of patients in both groups were able to reduce their opioid use, and on average had improvements in Short Form-36 quality of life scores. Complication rates did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions: Treatment with SCS or DNRS provides meaningful long-term relief of chronic neuropathic pain in the upper limbs.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with long-term changes in daily life functioning, yet the neuroanatomical correlates of these changes are poorly understood. This study related outcome assessed across several domains to brain structure derived from quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixty individuals spanning a wide range of TBI severity participated 1-year post-injury as part of the Toronto TBI study. Volumetric data over 38 brain regions were derived from high resolution T1-weighted MRI scans. Functioning was assessed with a battery of self- and significant-other rated measures. Multivariate analysis (partial least squares) was used to identify shared variance between the neuroimaging and outcome measures. TBI was associated with item endorsement on outcome questionnaires without strong evidence for severity or focal lesion effects. Prefrontal midline, cingulate, medial temporal, right inferior parietal and basal ganglia/thalamic volumes were associated with measures of initiative, energization, and physical complaints. In the chronic stage of TBI, self-initiation, energization, and physical complaints related to a specific pattern of volume loss in midline and lateral regions known to be involved in motivation, apathy, and attention. These results suggest that crucial functional changes in chronic TBI may be associated with volume loss in established midline-frontal and attentional circuits. (JINS, 2015, 21, 650–655)