Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Aim 1: To evaluate whether psoas muscle size on CT imaging can be used as univariate predictor for increased risk of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients 65 years or older with rib fractures. Primary outcomes will be 30 day mortality. Secondary outcomes will include length of stay, 30 day readmission rate, need for operative/procedural intervention, ICU days, ventilator days, discharge to rehabilitation. Aim 2: An eventual goal of the project will be to use the results of the single variable psoas size study to inform the development of a predictive model for readmission rate in this population based on clinical variables present at admission. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This retrospective cohort study will utilize the Maine Trauma Registry to conduct a database review for all persons 65 years of age and older admitted to Maine Medical Center between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2017 with rib fracture as diagnosed by CT imaging. Psoas caliber will be measured on admission CT. Patient outcomes will be assessed via EMR review. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Anticipate finding a relationship between decreased psoas caliber and increase in 30 day mortality and post trauma complications. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: If a relationship is demonstrated between decreased psoas caliber and poor outcomes in elderly patients with rib fractures, this early indicator could be used to identify those patients at most risk, for whom targeted interventions may make the greatest difference. Knowing a measure of frailty could also help guide goals of care discussions, because it would allow clinicians to have a more detailed understanding of a patient’s baseline. Those patients identified as frail could be admitted to an ICU level of care and more closely monitored and treated. Alternatively, some frail patients and their families may choose to focus more on comfort and quality of life after achieving a better understanding of a patient’s frailty and risk, changing the direction of care provided. Being able to identify the higher risk patients with an objective measure would allow clinicians to provide more personalized medicine.
Written for anaesthesia trainees, this comprehensive text covers all the MCQ preparation required for both the Primary and Final FRCA exams. Broken down into five sections, there are 150 questions for each of the physics, pharmacology, anatomy, and physiology sections, and a fifth section of 400 questions covering clinical anaesthesia. The first four sections of 150 questions match the Primary exam and are laid out to follow its format. The fifth clinical section covers the entire clinical syllabus. The authors are educators in anaesthesia and surgery and their wealth of experience has been brought together in this text to benefit the next generation of anaesthetists. Covering the entire syllabus, with 1,000 expertly distributed questions, this is the most comprehensive text available for MCQ preparation for both parts of the FRCA.