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Using frequency-modulated continuous wave radar data from the 32nd Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition in 2015/16, subsurface profiles were obtained along an East Antarctic inland traverse from Zhongshan station to Dome A, and four distinct regions were selected to analyze the spatiotemporal variability in historical surface mass balance (SMB). Based on depth, density, and age data from ice cores along the traverse, the radar data were calibrated to yield average SMB data. The zone 49–195 km from the coast has the highest SMB (235 kg m−2 a−1). The 780–892 km zone was most affected by the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age, and the SMB during ad 1454–1836 (71 kg m−2 a−1) was only one-quarter of that in the 20th century. The SMB in the 1080–1157 km zone fluctuates the most, possibly due to erosion or irregular deposition of snow by katabatic winds in low SMB areas with surface elevation fluctuations. Dome A (1157–1236 km) has the lowest SMB (29 kg m−2 a−1) and did not decrease during Little Ice Age. Understanding the spatiotemporal variability of SMB in a larger space can help us understand the complex climate history of Antarctica.
One critical issue in network real-time kinematic (NRTK) is the interpolation of atmospheric delay for user stations. Some classic interpolation algorithms, such as linear interpolation method (LIM), ignore the strong correlation between tropospheric delay and height factors, and the interpolation accuracy is poor in areas with large height difference. To solve this problem, a troposphere modelling method based on error compensation, namely ECDIM (Error Compensation-Based DIM), is proposed, and this method can be applied to both conventional single Delaunay triangulated network (DTN) and multi-station scenarios. The results of California Real Time Network (CRTN) with large height difference show that compared with LIM, the overall modelling accuracy with ECDIM has been improved by 50.1% to 67.3%, and especially for low elevation satellites (e.g., 10–20 degree), the accuracy is increased from tens of centimetres to a few centimetres. At user end, the positioning error in up direction with LIM has an obvious systematic deviation, and the fix rate of epoch is relatively low. This situation has been improved significantly after using ECDIM. The results of Tianjin Continuously Operating Reference System (TJCORS) show that in areas with small height difference, both methods have achieved high precision interpolation accuracy, and the positioning accuracy with ECDIM in up direction is improved by 21.2% compared with LIM.
Rosa x odorata (sect. Chinenses, Rosaceae) is an important species distributed only in Yunnan Province, China. There is an abundance of wild variation within the species. Using 22 germplasm resources collected from the wild, as well as R. chinensis var. spontanea, R. chinensis ‘Old Blush’ and R. lucidissima, this study involved morphological variation analysis, inter-trait correlation analysis, principal component analysis and clustering analysis based on 16 morphological traits. This study identified a high degree of morphological diversity in R. x odorata germplasm resources and the variation coefficients had a distribution range from 18.00 to 184.04%. The flower colour had the highest degree of variation, while leaflet length/width had the lowest degree of variation. Inter-trait correlation analysis revealed that there was an extremely significant positive correlation between leaflet length and leaflet width. There was also a significant positive correlation between the number of petals and duration of blooming, and the L* and a* values of flower colour were significantly negatively correlated. Principal component analysis screened five principal components with the highest cumulative contribution rate (81.679%) to population variance. Among the 16 morphological traits, style length, sepal width, flower diameter, flower colour, leaflet length and leaflet width were important indices that influenced the morphology of R. x odorata. This study offers guidance for the further development and utilization of R. x odorata germplasm resources.
Hispanics often have disparities at the end of life. They are more likely to die full code and less likely to have discussions regarding prognosis and do not resuscitate (DNR)/do not intubate (DNI), despite studies showing Hispanic values comfort over the extension of life. Barriers to patient-centered care include language,socioeconomic status and health literacy.
We evaluated the impact of palliative care (PC) consults on the change of code status and hospice referrals, comparing seriously ill Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients.
A retrospective cohort study of all white and Hispanic patients referred to the PC service of a county hospital from 2006 to 2012. We evaluated ethnicity, language, code status at admission and after PC consult, and hospice discharge. Chi-squared tests were used to analyze characteristics among three groups: non-Hispanic white, English-speaking Hispanic, and Spanish-speaking Hispanic patients.
Of 925 patients, 511 (55%) were non-Hispanic white, 208 (23%) were English-speaking Hispanic, and 206 (22%) were Spanish-speaking Hispanic patients. On admission, there was no statistically significant difference in code status among the three groups (57%, 64%, and 59% were full code, respectively, p = 0.5). After PC consults, Spanish-speaking Hispanic patients were more likely to change their code status to DNR/DNI when compared with non-Hispanic white and English-speaking Hispanic patients (44% vs. 32% vs. 28%, p = 0.05). Spanish-speaking Hispanic patients were more likely to be discharged to hospice when compared with English-speaking Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites (33%, 29%, and 23%, respectively, p = 0.04).
Significance of results
Spanish-speaking Hispanic patients were more likely to change from full code to DNR/DNI compared with non-Hispanic white and English-speaking Hispanic patients, despite similar code status preferences on admission. They were also more likely to be discharged to hospice. PC consults may play an important role in helping patients to align their care with their values and may prevent unwanted aggressive interventions at the end of life.
Accumulating studies have found structural and functional abnormalities of the striatum in bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, changes in intrinsic brain functional connectivity dynamics of striato-cortical circuitry have not been investigated in BD and MDD. This study aimed to investigate the shared and specific patterns of dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) variability of striato-cortical circuitry in BD and MDD.
Brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 128 patients with unmedicated BD II (current episode depressed), 140 patients with unmedicated MDD, and 132 healthy controls (HCs). Six pairs of striatum seed regions were selected: the ventral striatum inferior (VSi) and the ventral striatum superior (VSs), the dorsal-caudal putamen (DCP), the dorsal-rostral putamen (DRP), and the dorsal caudate and the ventral-rostral putamen (VRP). The sliding-window analysis was used to evaluate dFC for each seed.
Both BD II and MDD exhibited increased dFC variability between the left DRP and the left supplementary motor area, and between the right VRP and the right inferior parietal lobule. The BD II had specific increased dFC variability between the right DCP and the left precentral gyrus compared with MDD and HCs. The MDD had increased dFC variability between the left VSi and the left medial prefrontal cortex compared with BD II and HCs.
The patients with BD and MDD shared common dFC alteration in the dorsal striatal-sensorimotor and ventral striatal-cognitive circuitries. The patients with MDD had specific dFC alteration in the ventral striatal-affective circuitry.
Development of high energy density solid-state batteries with Li metal anodes has been limited by uncontrollable growth of Li dendrites in liquid and solid electrolytes (SEs). This, in part, may be caused by a dearth of information about mechanical properties of Li, especially at the nano- and micro-length scales and microstructures relevant to Li batteries. We investigate Li electrodeposited in a commercial LiCoO2/LiPON/Cu solid-state thin-film cell, grown in situ in a scanning electron microscope equipped with nanomechanical capabilities. Experiments demonstrate that Li was preferentially deposited at the LiPON/Cu interface along the valleys that mimic the domain boundaries of underlying LiCoO2 (cathode). Cryogenic electron microscopy analysis of electrodeposited Li revealed a single-crystalline microstructure, and in situ nanocompression experiments on nano-pillars with 360–759 nm diameters revealed their average Young's modulus to be 6.76 ± 2.88 GPa with an average yield stress of 16.0 ± 6.82 MPa, ~24x higher than what has been reported for bulk polycrystalline Li. We discuss mechanical deformation mechanisms, stiffness, and strength of nano-sized electrodeposited Li in the framework of its microstructure and dislocation-governed nanoscale plasticity of crystals, and place it in the parameter space of existing knowledge on small-scale Li mechanics. The enhanced strength of Li at small scales may explain why it can penetrate and fracture through much stiffer and harder SEs than theoretically predicted.
Lithium is an ideal battery anode, with a theoretical specific capacity of 3860 mAh/g; replacing the conventional graphitic anode in Li-ion batteries with Li can increase energy density by ~50%. A significant drawback of Li anodes is dendrite formation during cycling, which can lead to short circuiting (a safety hazard and cell death) and to “dead Li,” which drastically reduces cycle life. Virtually all approaches to supress Li dendrite growth have not proven to be consistently successful. Preventing electrolyte and cell failure requires a more sophisticated understanding of Li dendrite growth kinetics and mechanics. Few experiments that probe mechanical behavior of electrodeposited Li exist. Most experiments on mechanical properties have focused on thin films, Li foils, and focused ion beam-carved Li. We developed in situ experimental methodology that allows one to electrochemically charge small-scale battery cells and to observe, in real-time, the formation of Li dendrites and to probe their mechanical response. Experiments reveal: (1) Li nano-deposits are single crystalline and typically shaped as faceted pillars with 300-800nm diameters, and (2) strengths of Li nanopillars are 16.0 ± 6.82 MPa, which is 24x greater than bulk. This strength enhancement can be explained in terms of the ubiquitous “smaller is stronger size effect” in nano-sized single-crystalline metals. This work expands the existing strength versus size property space for Li and helps explain why dendrites can penetrate through much stiffer and harder ceramic solid electrolytes, than what has been theorized.
In recent years, intracranial thrombectomy stent has been an important method to treat ischemic stroke caused by acute thrombosis. In this paper, a new intracranial thrombectomy stent with a fish scale-like structure was designed and its mechanical properties were studied by a finite element method. The porosity of all stents was more than 80%. The space occupation ratio (SOR) of the stents increased linearly with the increase of strut thickness, while the strut width had little effect on SOR. The maximum equivalent stress and strain, the directional deformation and overall radial load of the stent decreased with the increase of strut thickness, however, the strut width has little impact on these parameters. The stents with 0.2 mm strut width and the thickness of 0.15 and 0.20 mm had better radial load performance, and the stent with 0.2 mm strut width and 0.15 mm strut thickness had better contact performance with the vessel wall and displayed better flexibility. Therefore, the present study provides a theoretical basis for the design of new intracranial thrombectomy stent.
The effect of working memory training (WM-T) has been found to transfer to emotional wellbeing, despite some debate on whether an affective component in training is necessary to achieve specific emotion-related benefits. These novel cognitive trainings have not yet been tested in highly anxious individuals, who have deficits in implicit and explicit emotional regulation and should be the potential beneficiaries of these trainings.
We designed two types of mobile phone-based training applications: (1) WMT and (2) an emotional working memory training (EWM-T) that comprised negative face distraction. Ninety-eight participants (33, WM-T; 35, EWM-T; 30, Control group) with high trait anxiety completed the 21-day intervention or placebo program and conducted pre- and post-test procedures, including questionnaires, emotional regulation and emotional Stroop tasks alongside electroencephalogram recording. Late positive potential (LPP) in emotion regulation task and P3 in the emotional Stroop task were adopted as neutral indicators for the explicit and implicit affective regulation/control processing.
Those who had received training (WM-T and EWM-T) showed enhanced explicit regulation (indexed by reduced LPP during reappraisal) compared with the control. Besides, individuals in EWM-T showed reduced behavioral attention bias and a decline of P3 in response to negative faces in an emotional Stroop task. The altered neural indicators were correlated with corresponding behavior indexes that contributed to the anxiety alleviation.
The general WM-T was effective in enhancing explicit emotional regulation, while training with emotional add-in further improved implicit emotional control. (E)WM-T shows potential as a beneficial intervention for the anxiety population.