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A number of copy number variants (CNVs) have been suggested as
susceptibility factors for schizophrenia. For some of these the data
remain equivocal, and the frequency in individuals with schizophrenia is
To determine the contribution of CNVs at 15 schizophrenia-associated loci
(a) using a large new data-set of patients with schizophrenia
(n = 6882) and controls (n = 6316),
and (b) combining our results with those from previous studies.
We used Illumina microarrays to analyse our data. Analyses were
restricted to 520 766 probes common to all arrays used in the different
We found higher rates in participants with schizophrenia than in controls
for 13 of the 15 previously implicated CNVs. Six were nominally
significantly associated (P<0.05) in this new
data-set: deletions at 1q21.1, NRXN1, 15q11.2 and
22q11.2 and duplications at 16p11.2 and the Angelman/Prader–Willi
Syndrome (AS/PWS) region. All eight AS/PWS duplications in patients were
of maternal origin. When combined with published data, 11 of the 15 loci
showed highly significant evidence for association with schizophrenia
We strengthen the support for the majority of the previously implicated
CNVs in schizophrenia. About 2.5% of patients with schizophrenia and 0.9%
of controls carry a large, detectable CNV at one of these loci. Routine
CNV screening may be clinically appropriate given the high rate of known
deleterious mutations in the disorder and the comorbidity associated with
these heritable mutations.
At the IAU XXVI General Assembly in 2006, the Division I decided to create the Working Group on Astrometry by Small Ground-Based Telescopes (WG-ASGBT). Its scientic goals are to foster the follow-up of small bodies detected by the large surveys including the NEOs; to set-up a dedicated observation network for the follow-up of objects which will be detected by Gaia; to contribute to the observation campaigns of the mutual events of natural satellites, stellar occultations, and binary asteroids; and to encourage teaching astrometry for the next generation. The present report gives the main activities carried out in these areas with small telescopes (diameter less than 2m).
Our Working Group studies massive, luminous stars, with historical focus on early-type (OB) stars, but extending in recent years to include massive red supergiants that evolve from hot stars. There is also emphasis on the role of massive stars in other branches of astrophysics, particularly regarding starburst galaxies, the first stars, core-collapse gamma-ray bursts, and formation of massive stars.
We have initiated an extensive program of molecular analysis of extraterrestrial organic matter isolated from a broad range of meteorites (spanning multiple classes, groups, and petrologic types), including recent molecular spectroscopic analyses of the organic matter in the Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples. The results of these analyses clearly reveal the signature of multiple reaction pathways that transformed extraterrestrial organic matter away from its primitive roots. The most significant molecular transformation occurred in the post-accretionary phase of the parent body. However, each of the various chemical transformation trajectories point unambiguously back to a common primitive origin. Applying a wide range of spectroscopic techniques we find that the primitive organic precursor is striking in its chemical complexity exhibiting a broad array of oxygen- and nitrogen-bearing functional groups. The π-bonded carbon exists as predominately highly substituted single ring aromatics, there exists no evidence for abundant, large, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We find that the molecular structure of primitive extraterrestrial organics is consistent with synthesis from small reactive molecules, e. g. formaldehyde, whose random condensation and subsequent rearrangement chemistry at low temperatures leads to a highly cross-linked macromolecule.
We present a time-resolved magneto-optical (MO) imaging study of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) in high-frequency alternating current (AC) regime. The evolution of the magnetic flux density distribution in YBa2Cu3O7-d (YBCO) thin film samples is studied in small steps of the phase of the applied AC current. The flux distribution at 10 K exhibits instabilities including flux jumps and flux creep. A quantitative analysis of the data allows us to obtain the current density evolution. The current profile changes considerably with the phase differently from the prediction of the critical state model. These observations can be explained by the higher self-field at the sample edge and the effects of flux creep.
A crystal which can be in two possible phase states is considered. During tensile extension the crystal is deformed elastically. After a certain amount of elastic strain a phase transformation begins. For each fixed level of strain an equilibrium mesostructure is established, which corresponds to a minimum in the free energy of the crystal. The equilibrium mesostructure consists of plane, parallel layers of a product phase separated by layers of an initial phase. The product phase itself consists of two or more different domains (twins) forming plane, parallel alternations. The volume fractions of the phases and of different twin components in the product phase are functions of strain and temperature. Above a critical temperature the product phase is a single domain (untwinned). The stress-strain curve which reflects the evolution of the equilibrium mesostructure is calculated. For deformation under a strain control the calculated equilibrium stress-strain curve has a section with negative slope that corresponds to a negative Young's modulus. If deformation proceeds under stress control, hysteretic stress-strain curves on loading and unloading will result from a section with negative slope.
Achen and Snidal's deductive theory of deterrence contributes very little to an understanding of the uses and limitations of deterrence strategy as an instrument of foreign policy. Lacking operationalization, their “rational deterrence theory” is incapable of predicting the outcome of individual cases. Furthermore, it has not yet addressed the need (i) to reconceptualize the problem of deterrence for different levels of conflict; (2) to refine the assumption of “rationality”; (3) to deal with the phenomenon of equifinality; (4) to develop a framework of strategic interaction between Initiator and Defender acknowledging that an Initiator often has multiple options for challenging the status quo from which to choose an action that meets his cost-benefit criteria; (5) to find a way of taking into account decision-making variables that, as case studies have demonstrated, often affect deterrence outcomes; and (6) to broaden the conceptualization of deterrence strategy to encompass the possible use of positive inducements as a means of discouraging challenges to a status quo situation.
Shortly after James Forrestal resigned as Secretary of Defense in late March 1949, the nation was shocked to learn that he was under treatment for a severe mental illness. Within a few months Forrestal committed suicide. This tragic occurrence, coming after Forrestal's highly successful career in government, directly challenged the long-standing mental-health mythology prevalent in Washington. The essence of the myth, as noted by Albert Deutsch at the time, was the belief that “no Very Important Person, under any circumstances, can possibly suffer from a psychosis.” The denial of this possibility in official Washington was of a piece with widely shared beliefs that to suffer a mental illness was a disgrace that automatically and permanently rendered one unfit for public office.
The system of multiple advocacy attempts to convert intraorganizational conflicts over policy into a balanced system of policy analysis and debate. This requires the executive to (1) structure and manage the policy-making system to ensure that there are advocates to cover the range of interesting policy options on a given issue; (2) equalize or compensate for disparities among the actors in the resources needed for effective advocacy; (3) identify and correct possible “malfunctions” in the policy-making process before they can have a harmful effect on the executive's choice of policy. Nine types of malfunctions are identified in this paper via critical diagnosis of U.S. foreign policy making in cases in which the executive had to decide questions of commitment, intervention, or escalation. Responsibility for identifying and correcting such malfunctions and for managing multiple advocacy effectively should be clearly fixed with the Special Assistant for National Security Affairs. However, the Special Assistant should not combine the role of “custodian-manager” of the policy-making system with the additional tasks of (a) policy adviser to the President; (b) public spokesman for existing policies; (c) “watch-dog” of the President's personal power stakes; or (d) implementer of policy decisions already taken. The attempt to do so invites serious role conflicts that can undermine the Special Assistant's performance of the all-important task of custodian.
The type of comprehensive conceptual scheme presented by Professor Smith in the foregoing paper is, in the writer's opinion, the most useful framework currently available for studying the relationship between opinions and personality. The paper draws upon a major work by Smith and his col