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The two-dimensional flow induced by the breaking of modulated wave trains is numerically investigated using the open source software Gerris (Popinet, J. Comput. Phys., vol. 190, 2003, pp. 572–600; J. Comput. Phys., vol. 228, 2009, pp. 5838–5866. The two-phase flow is modelled by the Navier–Stokes equations for a single fluid with variable density and viscosity, coupled with a volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique for the capturing of the interface dynamics. The breaking is induced through the Benjamin–Feir mechanism, by adding two sideband disturbances to a fundamental wave component. The evolution of the wave system is simulated starting from the initial condition until the end of the breaking process, and the role played by the initial wave steepness is investigated. As already noted in previous studies as well as in field observations, it is found that the breaking is recurrent and several breaking events are needed before the breaking process finally ceases. The down-shifting of the fundamental component to the lower sideband is made irreversible by the breaking. At the end of the breaking process the magnitude of the lower sideband component is approximately 80 % of the initial value of the fundamental one. The time histories of the energy content in water and the energy dissipation are analysed. The whole breaking process dissipates a fraction of between twenty and twenty-five per cent of the pre-breaking energy content, independently of the initial steepness. The energy contents of the different waves of the group are evaluated and it is found that after the breaking, the energy of the most energetic wave of the group decays as
The study reported in this Research Communication compared retail milks’ FA profiles from two neighbouring countries, estimated the potential contributions of these milks and a designer milk (achieved by changing the diet of the dairy cow) to the recommended human dietary intake of FA, and predicted (based on the milk FA profile) methane emission from dairy cows. Retail milks in Estonia and Latvia were purchased from supermarkets monthly for one year. To compare the FA composition of retail milk with designer milk with an increased PUFA content, the bulk milk FA profile from a separate field trial was used. Milk FA concentrations of the two neighbouring countries were affected by state, season and their interaction, while the main influence on all these factors were different feeding practices (grazing availability, forage to concentrate ratio and legume-rich silages vs. maize silages). Three cups (600 mL; fat content 2·5 g/100 g) of Estonian, or Latvian retail milk or designer milk per day contributed more to the recommended intakes of saturated FA (SFA) (42·5, 42·7, 38·7%, respectively) than other FA. Compared to the retail milks, α-linolenic acid estimated intake was almost doubled by designer milk consumption (19·7% of adequate intake) without influencing summed intakes of SFA and trans FA. There were state and seasonal differences in the predicted methane outputs of dairy cattle based on retail milk FA. Although the FA profiles of retail milks in the two neighbouring countries were affected by state and season, an appreciable increase in human dietary intakes of beneficial fatty acids from milk, and concomitant reduction in methane emissions from dairy cows, can be achieved only by targeted feeding.
Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are currently conceptualized as distinct disorders. However, the relationship between these two disorders has been revisited in recent years due to evidence that they share phenotypic and genotypic expressions. This study aimed to identify ASD traits in patients with schizophrenia, and to define their demographic, psychopathological, cognitive and functional correlates.
Seventy-five schizophrenia patients (20 females, mean age 42 ± 12) were evaluated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Participants were also assessed with clinical, neuropsychological, and psychosocial functioning measures.
Of the 75 patients, 47 were negative to all the autism scales administered (ADOS-TOT-NEG), 21 patients were positive to the ADOS Language sub-domain (ADOS-L-POS), 21 patients were positive to the ADOS Reciprocal Social Interaction (RSI) sub-domain (ADOS-RSI-POS), 14 patients were positive to the ADOS Total scale (ADOS-TOT-POS), and nine patients were positive to the ADI-R scale (ADI-R-POS). Demographic (duration of illness), psychopathological (negative symptoms and general psychopathology), and cognitive (working memory and processing speed) differences emerged between schizophrenic patients with and without ASD traits, while no differences in psychosocial functioning were detected. Results of this study indicate the existence, in a sample of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, of a distinct group of subjects with ASD features, characterized by specific symptomatological and cognitive profile.
These findings may contribute to better characterize patients with schizophrenia in order to develop new procedures and therapeutic tools in a more personalized perspective.
Migration has been reported to be associated with higher prevalence of mental disorders and suicidal behaviour.
To examine the prevalence of emotional and behavioural difficulties, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among migrant adolescents and their non-migrant peers.
A school-based survey was completed by 11 057 European adolescents as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study.
A previous suicide attempt was reported by 386 (3.6%) adolescents. Compared with non-migrants, first-generation migrants had an elevated prevalence of suicide attempts (odds ratio (OR) 2.08; 95% CI 1.32–3.26; P=0.001 for European migrants and OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.06–3.27; P=0.031 for non-European migrants) and significantly higher levels of peer difficulties. Highest levels of conduct and hyperactivity problems were found among migrants of non-European origin.
Appropriate mental health services and school-based supports are required to meet the complex needs of migrant adolescents.
This paper aims to evaluate the impact of Italy's unification on its economic growth from 1861 to the outbreak of World War II. This historical analysis attempts to prove that the process of legislative harmonization intrinsic to the unification had a positive effect on Italy's GDP because legislative uniformity facilitates economic transactions. Moreover a uniform and more effective legislation would have caused less litigation and therefore favoured economic growth, thanks to smoother relations between economic agents.
The increased use of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to investigate cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia fostered interest in its sensitivity in the context of family studies. As various measures of the same cognitive domains may have different power to distinguish between unaffected relatives of patients and controls, the relative sensitivity of MCCB tests for relative–control differences has to be established. We compared MCCB scores of 852 outpatients with schizophrenia (SCZ) with those of 342 unaffected relatives (REL) and a normative Italian sample of 774 healthy subjects (HCS). We examined familial aggregation of cognitive impairment by investigating within-family prediction of MCCB scores based on probands’ scores.
Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze group differences in adjusted MCCB scores. Weighted least-squares analysis was used to investigate whether probands’ MCCB scores predicted REL neurocognitive performance.
SCZ were significantly impaired on all MCCB domains. REL had intermediate scores between SCZ and HCS, showing a similar pattern of impairment, except for social cognition. Proband's scores significantly predicted REL MCCB scores on all domains except for visual learning.
In a large sample of stable patients with schizophrenia, living in the community, and in their unaffected relatives, MCCB demonstrated sensitivity to cognitive deficits in both groups. Our findings of significant within-family prediction of MCCB scores might reflect disease-related genetic or environmental factors.
This article maps the rise of EU spending conditionality in the 2014–20 financial period and shows how the study of this novel type of conditionality adds to the dominant legal discourse on conditionality in the EU. It also suggests that the rise of conditionality may signal more profound transformations in the deep tissue of the EU, expressed by a transition towards a conditionality-based culture within the EU internal relationships.
A remarkable stela from Montoro, southern Spain, is unique in its morphology, epigraphic traits and landscape context. A programme of chemical characterisation, digital imaging, and geo-lithological and epigraphic analyses were conducted to determine its age and significance, and the results were integrated with data from archaeological investigations of the surrounding area. This multi-faceted approach allowed the stela to be interpreted within the context of early interactions between literate Mediterranean societies of the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age and non-literate Iberian societies. A key outcome of this research is a wider understanding of the complex patterns in the use and perception of early scripts.
ABSTRACT.This contribution examines the mainly textual evidence for the use of ships in military contexts by the maritime kingdoms of the Levant, the predecessors of the Phoenician city-states, in the Late Bronze Age (c. 1500–1200 BC). Ships were used to transport troops, conduct raids and blockade harbours, but there is no indication of purpose-built warships, or fleets that were dedicated solely to military activities.
RÉSUMÉ.Cette contribution analyse les preuves, principalement textuelles, de l'utilisation de navires à des fins militaires par les royaumes maritimes du Levant, prédécesseurs des cités-États phéniciennes, à la fin de l'Âge du bronze (c. 1500–1200 av. J.-C.). Si les navires étaient utilisés pour le transport des troupes, les perquisitions et le blocus des ports, il n'existe aucune indication témoignant de l'existence de vaisseaux spécialement construits ou de flottes uniquement dédiées aux activités militaires.
Phoenicians rightly hold a place in our collective memory as the paradigm of a sailing, trading and enterprising people. Their expertise in matters of seamanship and shipbuilding was evident to their contemporaries and their skill was sought by those who had more limited access to the sea. As an example, amongst others, we might recall that a general of the Assyrian king Assurbanipal (668–627 BC), when operating in a waterlogged territory in southern Babylon in the middle of the seventh century BC, requested his lord to send seventy tree trunks along with twenty Sidonians in order to have ships built. Between the eighth and seventh centuries, the Phoenicians managed to build large, perfectly fitted merchant ships of 20 to 30 metres in length, with a beam of 6 to 7 metres. They were capable of constructing even larger warships.
Phoenician mastery of nautical matters was the result of a centuries-old tradition. Five or six centuries earlier Syria-Palestine had already achieved remarkably developed techniques in shipbuilding. For example, the Uluburun shipwreck, found off the southern coast of Turkey and dating from the end of the fourteenth century BC, was 15 to 16 metres long.
Systems of multiple current sheets arise in various situations in natural plasmas, such as at the heliospheric current sheet in the solar wind and in the outer heliosphere in the heliosheath. Previous three-dimensional simulations have shown that such systems can develop turbulent-like fluctuations resulting from a forward and inverse cascade in wave vector space. We present a study of the transition to turbulence of such multiple current sheet systems, including the effects of adding a magnetic guide field and velocity shears across the current sheets. Three-dimensional hybrid simulations are performed of systems with eight narrow current sheets in a triply periodic geometry. We carry out a number of different analyses of the evolution of the fluctuations as the initially highly ordered state relaxes to one which resembles turbulence. Despite the evidence of a forward and inverse cascade in the fluctuation power spectra, we find that none of the simulated cases have evidence of intermittency after the initial period of fast reconnection associated with the ion tearing instability at the current sheets. Cancellation analysis confirms that the simulations have not evolved to a state which can be identified as fully developed turbulence. The addition of velocity shears across the current sheets slows the evolution in the properties of the fluctuations, but by the end of the simulation they are broadly similar. However, if the simulation is constrained to be two-dimensional, differences are found, indicating that fully three-dimensional simulations are important when studying the evolution of an ordered equilibrium towards a turbulent-like state.
Although acid leaching of shell carbonates prior to 14C assay is usually desirable, under some circumstances it can worsen contamination by preferentially dissolving unaltered shell and thus increasing the proportion of secondary carbonate. The risk can be eliminated by monitoring the progress of leaching with the help of microscopy and x-ray diffraction.
Radiocarbon dating of mollusks and barnacles from fossil shoreline deposits in the Persian Gulf and on the coast of Iranian Makran is being used to assess the extent and rate of recent crustal deformation in the area. Samples are selected with the help of x-ray diffraction and of light and scanning electron microscopy; whenever possible, two or more ages are determined for each locality on monospecific samples. Age/height values have been used to compute local uplift rates by allowing for sea-level fluctuations, but eustatic controversy can be avoided by limiting the analysis to fault chronology and to relative vertical movements between dated sections. Short counting times on large, carefully pretreated samples would supply the numerous, cheap, low-resolution ages required to follow up the preliminary results obtained by the survey.
This Article aims to constructively analyze the emerging constitutional dialogue between the Constitutional Court of Romania (the CCR or the Court) and the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). It focuses, in particular, on the lack of a reference for a preliminary ruling from the first court, and aims to unveil the possible motives underlying this passive behavior.
Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness are early predictors of CVD. Intervention studies have suggested that diet is related to vascular health, but most prior studies have tested individual foods or nutrients and relied on small samples of younger adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and vascular health in a large cross-sectional analysis. In 5887 adults in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts, diet quality was quantified with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index (DGAI-2010). Endothelial function was assessed via brachial artery ultrasound and arterial stiffness via arterial tonometry. In age-, sex- and cohort-adjusted analyses, a higher DGAI-2010 score (greater adherence) was modestly associated with a lower resting flow velocity, hyperaemic response, mean arterial pressure, carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and augmentation index, but not associated with resting arterial diameter or flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In multivariable models adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, only the association of a higher DGAI-2010 score with a lower baseline flow velocity and augmentation index persisted (β = − 0·002, P= 0·003 and β = − 0·05 ± 0·02, P< 0·001, respectively). Age-stratified multivariate-adjusted analyses suggested that the relationship of higher DGAI-2010 scores with lower mean arterial pressure, PWV and augmentation index was more pronounced among adults younger than 50 years. Better adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, particularly in younger adults, is associated with a lower peripheral blood flow velocity and arterial wave reflection, but not FMD. The present results suggest a link between adherence to the Dietary Guidelines and favourable vascular health.
The mausoleum of Gasr Doga in the Tarhuna area was a grand funerary monument erected, by a member of the local Libico-Punic élite, in a strategic position on the limits of the provincial territory. Its architectural articulation recalls the dynastic Numidian monuments, while its decoration shows elements of the local tradition combined with motifs imported from Italy. In Late Antiquity and the Islamic period the mausoleum was surrounded by a fortified village, almost entirely built of spolia coming from the mausoleum itself. In an attempted reconstruction, the elevation of the third storey is discussed alongside other problems concerning the original layout of the structure.