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The aim of the current study was to examine the heterogeneity of functional outcomes in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients and related clinical, neurocognitive and sociodemographic factors using a cluster analytic approach.
A large sample of FEP patients (N = 209) was functionally reassessed 10 years after the first contact with an early intervention service. Multiple baseline, 3-year and 10-year follow-up variables were explored.
The cluster analysis emphasized the existence of six independent clusters of functioning: one cluster was normal overall (42.16%), two clusters showed moderate interpersonal (9.63%) or instrumental (12.65%) deficits, two clusters showed more severe interpersonal (12.05%) or interpersonal and instrumental (13.85%) deficits and there was a significantly overall impaired cluster (9.63%). Cluster comparisons showed that several baseline and follow-up factors were differentially involved in functional outcomes.
The current study demonstrated that distinct clusters of functioning in FEP patients can be identified. The fact that a variety of profiles was observed contributes to a better understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity characterizing FEP patients and has clinical implications for developing individualized treatment plans.
Earthquakes may lead to a reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders (RSSAD). On September 7, 19, and 23, 2017, Mexico was struck by many severe earthquakes. The aim of this study was to examine whether there was an increase in the number of consultations and RSSAD in a psychiatric emergency department in Mexico City after these earthquakes.
We studied retrospectively the diagnosis and triage assessment from a Mexican psychiatric emergency department database from September 1 to November 30, 2017, and analyzed RSSAD and the number of consultations after the earthquakes.
A total of 1,811 psychiatric emergency consultations were registered from the period of study. A total of 141 consultations represented RSSAD. There was a significant increase of RSSAD after the September 23, 2017, earthquake. The triage assessment revealed that the urgency of the consultations was higher immediately after the earthquakes.
Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, may trigger diverse RSSAD leading to increased emergency consultations, especially when those disasters are repetitive. Mental health professionals should be adequately trained and sensitized for possible acute disaster victims. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:686–690).
This research evidences the impact of Materials Science and Engineering Clubs as an outreach effort to expand the education and training required for a competitive Nanotechnology workforce beyond traditional STEM areas. An engineering perception questionnaire was implemented as a pre-test/post-test to track student perceptions and goals throughout the academic year to identify trends amongst gender and school level groups. Findings (107 students) show a perceived increase in student knowledge and interest for different fields of study, based on pre/post-test responses, with differences amongst gender and school level groups (middle school and high school). Also, significant differences in students’ aspirations for higher education degree were found among school level and gender. Results show that over 20% of participants increased their aspirations to higher education degrees and their interests in pursuing STEM degrees at end of the academic year. Specific findings on engineering perceptions and perceived level of knowledge and interest in science, engineering, materials, and nanotechnology as a result of club participation and student’s educational aspirations, expectations and future study plans are discussed along with implications for future STEM education.
We present a paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction based on microfaunal assemblages preserved at Lezetxiki II Cave (Arrasate, Basque Country, Iberian Peninsula) and synthesize previously published and new chronological work from the cave to better understand the environmental history of the region. The stratigraphic sequence of this short gallery ranges from the end of the middle Pleistocene to the middle Holocene and has great micropaleontological relevance for the Iberian Peninsula, especially because it contains the most ancient small vertebrate remains found in the Cantabrian region, likely deposited during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 7–6. Thirty-two small vertebrate taxa, including two extinct species, were identified. Environmental reconstruction based on small vertebrates suggests an open landscape at the base of the sequence (three lower levels) that progressively changed to woodland in the upper levels. Other paleoenvironmental data suggest a similar interpretation of the environmental history of the region, and although some uncertainty in the environmental reconstruction and chronology still exists, our data provide a richly detailed record of small vertebrates from an area that likely represented an important late Quaternary migration corridor for species traveling between the Iberian Peninsula and European continent.
Evidence of crystallization by particle attachment in synthetic materials is described in numerous contributions. However, efforts to establish the contribution of the particle attachment mechanism to inorganic crystallization in natural environments have barely begun. Here, we show, for the first time, evidence that confirms oriented particle attachment as a crystal growth mechanism that is relevant in sedimentary environments. In these natural settings, oriented particle attachment operates during the formation of highly anisotropically structured clay minerals, which constitute one of the most extensively distributed groups of minerals in the Earth's crust. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that the clay minerals aggregation process occurs in different manners. Smectites aggregate by semi-oriented attachment, while kaolinite, sepiolite and palygorskite aggregate by oriented attachment.
This paper analyzes the research strategies of three different cases in the study of human genetics in Mexico – the work of Rubén Lisker in the 1960s, INMEGEN's mapping of Mexican genomic diversity between 2004 and 2009, and the analysis of Native American variation by Andrés Moreno and his colleagues in contemporary research. We make a distinction between an approach that incorporates multiple disciplinary resources into sampling design and interpretation (unpacking), from one that privileges pragmatic considerations over more robust multidisciplinary analysis (flattening). These choices have consequences for social, demographic, and biomedical practices, and also for accounts of genetic variation in human populations. While the former strategy unpacks fine-grained genetic variation – favoring precision and realism, the latter tends to flatten individual differences and historical depth in lieu of generalization.
There is a need to expand the fundamental skills in science and engineering to include innovation & entrepreneurship (I&E) skills as core competencies. To better prepare the future Nanotechnology workforce, the University of Puerto Rico-Mayagüez Nanotechnology Center, broadened the educational content beyond traditional skills in science and engineering. The Center, offers a rich educational program for materials and nano scientists that aims to create the next generation of knowledgeable, experienced professionals, and successful entrepreneurs, who can develop value-added innovations that can spur economic growth and continue to impact the quality of life for society. Within the educational program an Entrepreneurship Education Co-Curricular Program (EEP) incorporates I&E training into the Materials Science, Nanotechnology, STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) faculty and student experiences. The EEP consists of a two-year series of workshops that seek to develop an entrepreneurial mindset, including five key topics: 1) Generation of Ideas, 2) Entrepreneurial Vision, 3) Early Assessment of Ideas, 4) Identification of Opportunities, and 5) Strategic Thinking. The EEP goals, target audience, and implementation strategy, is described with an evaluation tool to assess the program’s success in developing an entrepreneurial mindset.
Cortical thickness measurement offers an index of brain development processes. In healthy individuals, cortical thickness is reduced with increasing age and is related to cognitive decline. Cortical thinning has been reported in schizophrenia. Whether cortical thickness changes differently over time in patients and its impact on outcome remain unanswered.
Data were examined from 109 patients and 76 healthy controls drawn from the Santander Longitudinal Study of first-episode schizophrenia for whom adequate structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were available (n = 555 scans). Clinical and cognitive assessments and MRIs were acquired at three regular time points during a 3-year follow-up period. We investigated likely progressive cortical thickness changes in schizophrenia during the first 3 years after initiating antipsychotic treatment. The effects of cortical thickness changes on cognitive and clinical variables were also examined along with the impact of potential confounding factors.
There were significant diagnoses × scan time interaction main effects for total cortical thickness (F1,309.1 = 4.60, p = 0.033) and frontal cortical thickness (F1,310.6 = 5.30, p = 0.022), reflecting a lesser thinning over time in patients. Clinical and cognitive outcome was not associated with progressive cortical changes during the early years of the illness.
Cortical thickness abnormalities do not unswervingly progress, at least throughout the first years of the illness. Previous studies have suggested that modifiable factors may partly account for cortical thickness abnormalities. Therefore, the importance of implementing practical actions that may modify those factors and improve them over the course of the illness should be highlighted.
Entrepreneurial attitudes of individuals are determined by different variables, some of them related to the cognitive and personality characteristics of the person, and others focused on contextual aspects. The aim of this study is to review the essential dimensions of enterprising personality and develop a test that will permit their thorough assessment. Nine dimensions were identified: achievement motivation, risk taking, innovativeness, autonomy, internal locus of control, external locus of control, stress tolerance, self-efficacy and optimism. For the assessment of these dimensions, 161 items were developed which were applied to a sample of 416 students, 54% male and 46% female (M = 17.89 years old, SD = 3.26). After conducting several qualitative and quantitative analyses, the final test was composed of 127 items with acceptable psychometric properties. Alpha coefficients for the subscales ranged from .81 to .98. The validity evidence relative to the content was provided by experts (V = .71, 95% CI = .56 - .85). Construct validity was assessed using different factorial analyses, obtaining a dimensional structure in accordance with the proposed model of nine interdependent dimensions as well as a global factor that groups these nine dimensions (explained variance = 49.07%; χ2/df = 1.78; GFI= .97; SRMR = .07). Nine out of the 127 items showed Differential Item Functioning as a function of gender (p < .01, R2 >.035). The results obtained are discussed and future lines of research analyzed.
Discerning dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common and challenging differential diagnoses at the memory clinic. Although the neuropsychiatric manifestations have been widely reported as one of the main key points in the differential diagnosis between these two diseases, to date no neuropsychiatric questionnaire has been specifically devised for this purpose.
We administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology in Alzheimer's Disease (CUSPAD) to a memory clinic sample of 80 patients with probable DLB and 85 age- and severity-matched patients with probable AD. Diagnosis of probable DLB was supported with a positive dopamine transporter SPECT scan. We examined the usefulness of these two neuropsychiatric tools designed for AD in the differential diagnosis between DLB and AD. We also investigated the correlations between psychotic symptoms and measures of cognitive and functional decline.
Auditory hallucinations were very specific of DLB and were usually preceded by visual hallucinations. Misinterpretation of real visual stimuli (illusions) was more frequent in DLB. Delusions were both quantitatively and qualitatively different between DLB and AD: delusional misidentifications were significantly more characteristic of DLB, while paranoid delusions did not show specificity for DLB.
Neuropsychiatric tools are useful to discriminate DLB from AD. Hallucinations and delusions are not only more frequent in DLB than in AD but also have distinct qualitative characteristics and patterns of progression that can help clinicians to make a more accurate differential diagnosis.
In vitro and in vivo experiments were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of laboratory-made di-d-fructose dianhydride (DFA)-enriched caramels. The DFA-enriched caramels were obtained from d-fructose (FC), d-fructose and sucrose (FSC), or d-fructose and β-cyclodextrin (FCDC). In the in vitro experiment, raftilose and all caramels increased (P<0.05) l-lactate concentration and decreased (P<0.05) pH. Total short-chain fatty acid concentration was higher (P<0.05) than controls in tubes containing raftilose, FSC, FCDC and commercial sucrose caramel (CSC). Raftilose, and all caramels tested except FSC and FC (1%), increased (P<0.01) lactobacilli log10 number of copies compared with the non-additive control. FSC, FCDC and CSC increased (P<0.01) the bifidobacteria number of copies as compared with controls. All additives, except FCDC, decreased (P<0.01) Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale log number of copies. Compared with controls, raftilose, FC and CSC led to lower (P<0.01) Escherichia–Shigella and enterobacteria. For the in vivo experiment, a total of 144 male 1-day-old broiler chickens of the Cobb strain were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments for 21 days. Dietary treatments were control (commercial diet with no additive), inulin (20 g inulin/kg diet) and FC (20 g FC/kg diet). Final BW of birds fed FC diet was higher (P<0.01) than controls or inulin-fed birds, although feed: gain values were not different. Feed intake of chickens fed FC was higher (P<0.01) than that of inulin-fed birds but not statistically different from controls. Crop pH values were lower (P<0.01) in birds fed FC diet as compared with control diet, with inulin-fed chickens showing values not different from control- or FC-fed birds. Lower (P<0.05) lactobacilli number of copies was determined in the crop, ileum and caeca of birds fed the inulin diet compared with the control diet. Inulin supplementation also resulted in lower (P<0.05) C. coccoides/E. rectale, bacteroides and total bacteria in caecal contents. Addition of FC to broiler diets gave place to lower (P<0.05) enterobacteria and Escherichia–Shigella in crop and caecal contents compared with controls. The bacteroides number of copies increased (P<0.05) as compared with controls in the ileum, but decreased (P<0.05) in the caeca of chickens fed the FC diet. Energy, ADF, NDF and non-starch polysaccharides faecal digestibilities were greater (P<0.05) than controls in chickens fed diets containing inulin or FC. Fat digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in FC-fed birds compared with controls or inulin-fed chickens. In conclusion, DFA-enriched caramels tested here, particularly FC, may represent a type of new additives useful in poultry production.
We study the theoretical properties of the regular spacings found in the oscillation spectra of δ Scuti stars. A linear relation between the large separation and the mean density is predicted to be found in the low-frequency domain (i.e. radial orders spanning from 1 to 8, approximately) of the main-sequence δ Scuti stars' oscillation spectrum. This implies an independent direct measure of the average density of δ Scuti stars, analogous to that of the Sun, and places tight constraints on the mode identification and hence on the stellar internal structure and dynamics, and allows a determination the radii of planets orbiting around δ Scuti stars with unprecedented precision. This opens the way for studying the evolution of regular patterns in pulsating stars, and its relation to stellar structure and evolution.
Knowledge of the factors determining species distributions is essential for developing conservation strategies. Sandgrouse Pterocles alchata and P. orientalis are threatened in Spain, the stronghold of European populations. Spatial modelling was used to: (1) assess the relative importance of abiotic, anthropogenic and geographical factors in the distribution of both sandgrouse species, (2) determine the most important anthropogenic predictors for each species occurrence, and (3) identify areas where conservation efforts should be prioritized. Abiotic and anthropogenic factors explained most of the variation in sandgrouse distributions. Both species were associated with arid flatlands, arable land cover being the most important anthropogenic variable determining their distribution. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the main driver of agricultural management in Europe, and may thus have a direct effect on sandgrouse distributions. P. orientalis exhibited broader habitat tolerance than P. alchata; the latter species tolerates warmer climates. Consequently, the network of core and marginally suitable areas identified for each species differs, and connectivity between the populations of these areas seems unlikely. Potential future changes in sandgrouse distribution will probably be directed principally by the synergistic effects of climate change and expected land-use transformations resulting from the new CAP and ongoing population growth, urbanization and infrastructure development.
The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants’ employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers’ qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers’ effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions.
We study different aspects of the connections between local theory of Banach spaces and the problem of the extension of bilinear forms from subspaces of Banach spaces. Among other results, we prove that if X is not a Hilbert space then one may find a subspace of X for which there is no Aron–Berner extension. We also obtain that the extension of bilinear forms from all the subspaces of a given X forces such X to contain no uniform copies of ℓpn for p ∈ [1, 2). In particular, X must have type 2 − ϵ for every ϵ > 0. Also, we show that the bilinear version of the Lindenstrauss–Pełczyński and Johnson–Zippin theorems fail. We will then consider the notion of locally α-complemented subspace for a reasonable tensor norm α, and study the connections between α-local complementation and the extendability of α*-integral operators.
The investigation of post-AGB objects (proto-planetary nebulae) is very important from the standpoint of physical and chemical changes occurring during the late stages of stellar evolution. The Toruń catalogue of Galactic post-AGB and related objects is an evolutive catalogue containing astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic data as well as HST images for all known post-AGB objects and candidates in our Galaxy. This free-access catalogue can serve as an ideal tool to study different groups of post-AGB objects, especially due to the fact that all information is gathered in one place. The second release of our catalogue introduces a simple classification scheme of post-AGB objects and includes a significant number of new objects, photometric data, spectra and images. Here, using objects from the catalogue we consider the problem of the termination of the AGB phase.