To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Shallow granular avalanches on slopes close to repose exhibit hysteretic behaviour. For instance, when a steady-uniform granular flow is brought to rest it leaves a deposit of thickness
on a rough slope inclined at an angle
to the horizontal. However, this layer will not spontaneously start to flow again until it is inclined to a higher angle
, or the thickness is increased to
. This simple phenomenology leads to a rich variety of flows with co-existing regions of solid-like and fluid-like granular behaviour that evolve in space and time. In particular, frictional hysteresis is directly responsible for the spontaneous formation of self-channelized flows with static levees, retrogressive failures as well as erosion–deposition waves that travel through the material. This paper is motivated by the experimental observation that a travelling-wave develops, when a steady uniform flow of carborundum particles on a bed of larger glass beads, runs out to leave a deposit that is approximately equal to
. Numerical simulations using the friction law originally proposed by Edwards et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 823, 2017, pp. 278–315) and modified here, demonstrate that there are in fact two travelling waves. One that marks the trailing edge of the steady-uniform flow and another that rapidly deposits the particles, directly connecting the point of minimum dynamic friction (at thickness
) with the deposited layer. The first wave moves slightly faster than the second wave, and so there is a slowly expanding region between them in which the flow thins and the particles slow down. An exact inviscid solution for the second travelling wave is derived and it is shown that for a steady-uniform flow of thickness
it produces a deposit close to
for all inclination angles. Numerical simulations show that the two-wave structure deposits layers that are approximately equal to
for all initial thicknesses. This insensitivity to the initial conditions implies that
is a universal quantity, at least for carborundum particles on a bed of larger glass beads. Numerical simulations are therefore able to capture the complete experimental staircase procedure, which is commonly used to determine the
curves by progressively increasing the inclination of the chute. In general, however, the deposit thickness may depend on the depth of the flowing layer that generated it, so the most robust way to determine
is to measure the deposit thickness from a flow that was moving at the minimum steady-uniform velocity. Finally, some of the pathologies in earlier non-monotonic friction laws are discussed and it is explicitly shown that with these models either steadily travelling deposition waves do not form or they do not leave the correct deposit depth
Immune system markers may predict affective disorder treatment response, but whether an overall immune system marker predicts bipolar disorder treatment effect is unclear.
Bipolar CHOICE (N = 482) and LiTMUS (N = 283) were similar comparative effectiveness trials treating patients with bipolar disorder for 24 weeks with four different treatment arms (standard-dose lithium, quetiapine, moderate-dose lithium plus optimised personalised treatment (OPT) and OPT without lithium). We performed secondary mixed effects linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, smoking and body mass index to investigate relationships between pre-treatment white blood cell (WBC) levels and clinical global impression scale (CGI) response.
Compared to participants with WBC counts of 4.5–10 × 109/l, participants with WBC < 4.5 or WBC ≥ 10 showed similar improvement within each specific treatment arm and in gender-stratified analyses.
An overall immune system marker did not predict differential treatment response to four different treatment approaches for bipolar disorder all lasting 24 weeks.
When a layer of static grains on a sufficiently steep slope is disturbed, an upslope-propagating erosion wave, or retrogressive failure, may form that separates the initially static material from a downslope region of flowing grains. This paper shows that a relatively simple depth-averaged avalanche model with frictional hysteresis is sufficient to capture a planar retrogressive failure that is independent of the cross-slope coordinate. The hysteresis is modelled with a non-monotonic effective basal friction law that has static, intermediate (velocity decreasing) and dynamic (velocity increasing) regimes. Both experiments and time-dependent numerical simulations show that steadily travelling retrogressive waves rapidly form in this system and a travelling wave ansatz is therefore used to derive a one-dimensional depth-averaged exact solution. The speed of the wave is determined by a critical point in the ordinary differential equation for the thickness. The critical point lies in the intermediate frictional regime, at the point where the friction exactly balances the downslope component of gravity. The retrogressive wave is therefore a sensitive test of the functional form of the friction law in this regime, where steady uniform flows are unstable and so cannot be used to determine the friction law directly. Upper and lower bounds for the existence of retrogressive waves in terms of the initial layer depth and the slope inclination are found and shown to be in good agreement with the experimentally determined phase diagram. For the friction law proposed by Edwards et al. (J. Fluid. Mech., vol. 823, 2017, pp. 278–315, J. Fluid. Mech., 2019, (submitted)) the magnitude of the wave speed is slightly under-predicted, but, for a given initial layer thickness, the exact solution accurately predicts an increase in the wave speed with higher inclinations. The model also captures the finite wave speed at the onset of retrogressive failure observed in experiments.
Despite established clinical associations among major depression (MD), alcohol dependence (AD), and alcohol consumption (AC), the nature of the causal relationship between them is not completely understood. We leveraged genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and UK Biobank to test for the presence of shared genetic mechanisms and causal relationships among MD, AD, and AC.
Linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization (MR) were performed using genome-wide data from the PGC (MD: 135 458 cases and 344 901 controls; AD: 10 206 cases and 28 480 controls) and UK Biobank (AC-frequency: 438 308 individuals; AC-quantity: 307 098 individuals).
Positive genetic correlation was observed between MD and AD (rgMD−AD = + 0.47, P = 6.6 × 10−10). AC-quantity showed positive genetic correlation with both AD (rgAD−AC quantity = + 0.75, P = 1.8 × 10−14) and MD (rgMD−AC quantity = + 0.14, P = 2.9 × 10−7), while there was negative correlation of AC-frequency with MD (rgMD−AC frequency = −0.17, P = 1.5 × 10−10) and a non-significant result with AD. MR analyses confirmed the presence of pleiotropy among these four traits. However, the MD-AD results reflect a mediated-pleiotropy mechanism (i.e. causal relationship) with an effect of MD on AD (beta = 0.28, P = 1.29 × 10−6). There was no evidence for reverse causation.
This study supports a causal role for genetic liability of MD on AD based on genetic datasets including thousands of individuals. Understanding mechanisms underlying MD-AD comorbidity addresses important public health concerns and has the potential to facilitate prevention and intervention efforts.
Organic pig husbandry systems in Europe are diverse – ranging from indoor systems with concrete outside run (IN) to outdoor systems all year round (OUT) and combinations of both on one farm (POUT). As this diversity has rarely been taken into account in research projects on organic pig production, the aim of this study was to assess and compare pig health, welfare and productivity in these three systems. Animal health and welfare were assessed using direct observation and records of 22 animal-based measures, comprising 17 health-, 3 productivity- and 2 behavioural measures. These were collected in pregnant sows, weaners and fattening pigs during direct observations and from records within a cross-sectional study on 74 farms (IN: n = 34, POUT: n = 28, OUT: n = 12) in eight countries. Overall, prevalence of several animal health and welfare issues was low (e.g. median 0% for pigs needing hospitalisation, shoulder lesions, ectoparasites; <5% for runts, tail lesions, conjunctivitis). Exceptions in particular systems were respiratory problems in weaners and fatteners (IN: 60.0%, 66.7%; POUT: 66.7%, 60.0%), weaning diarrhoea (IN: 25.0%), and short tails in fatteners (IN: 6.5%, POUT: 2.3%). Total suckling piglet losses (recorded over a period of 12 months per farm) were high in all three systems (IN: 21.3%; POUT: 21.6; OUT: 19.2%). OUT had lower prevalences of respiratory problems, diarrhoea and lameness of sows. POUT farms in most cases kept sows outdoors and weaners and fatteners similar to IN farms, which was reflected in the results regarding several health and welfare parameters. It can be concluded, that European organic pigs kept in all three types of husbandry system showed a low prevalence of health and welfare problems as assessed by our methodology, but respiratory health and diarrhoea should be improved in weaners and fatteners kept indoors and total piglet mortality in all systems. The results provide benchmarks for organic pig producers and organisations which can be used in strategies to promote health and welfare improvement. Furthermore, in future research, the identified health and welfare issues (e.g. suckling piglet mortality, weaning diarrhoea) should be addressed, specifically considering effects of husbandry systems.
Breakthrough Listen is a 10-yr initiative to search for signatures of technologies created by extraterrestrial civilisations at radio and optical wavelengths. Here, we detail the digital data recording system deployed for Breakthrough Listen observations at the 64-m aperture CSIRO Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. The recording system currently implements two modes: a dual-polarisation, 1.125-GHz bandwidth mode for single-beam observations, and a 26-input, 308-MHz bandwidth mode for the 21-cm multibeam receiver. The system is also designed to support a 3-GHz single-beam mode for the forthcoming Parkes ultra-wideband feed. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, provide an overview of hardware and software, and present initial performance results.
The canon of John Skelton's English poems as established by modern scholarship depends on assessment of a range of evidence with different degrees of authority. What follows is an overview of that evidence, both contemporary and posthumous, and an appraisal of its relative weight.
One can begin with those ascriptions of poems to Skelton in forms, both print and manuscript, that certainly or very probably survive from the period before his death in 1529. There are eight printed editions during his lifetime of poems of which Skelton has been held to be author, by four different publishers. In their likely chronological order these are: the bouge of courte  (STC 22597) and again [c. 1510] (STC 22598); [Elynour Rummynge] [1521?] (STC 22611.5), all printed by Wynkyn de Worde; A ballade of the scottisshe kynge  (STC 22593) and a goodly garland or chapelet of laurel (1523) (STC 22610), both printed by Richard Faques; A replycacion against certayne yong scolars  (STC 22609), printed by Richard Pynson; agaynste a comely coystrowne [1527?] (STC 22611) and dyuers balettys and dyties solacyous [1528?] (STC 22604), both printed by John Rastell. Four of these editions name him as author: the garland of laurel; agaynste a comely coystrowne; A replycacion against certayne yong scolars; and dyuers balettys and dyties solacyous. All these are from the later stages of his career, when his identity as poet was firmly established, though the poems that some of them contain may have been composed and circulated much earlier than the surviving witnesses.
The situation in contemporary manuscripts is a little different. Four manuscripts that contain five of his poems name Skelton as author and can be certainly or very probably be dated before his death. The very early Upon the Dolorus Dethe … of the Mooste Honorable Erle of Northumberlande, in British Library, MS Royal 18 Dii, fols 165–6v, was composed c. 1489 (it only survives in a copy from the late 1520s). A Lawde and Prayse Made for Our Sovereigne Lord the Kyng, probably composed to celebrate the accession of Henry VIII in 1509, survives in what may be Skelton's holograph, in London, TNA, Records of the Treasury of the Receipt of the Exchequer MS E. 36–228, fols 7–8.
There is community concern about the treatment of farm animals post-farm gate, particularly animal transport and slaughter. Relationships between lamb behavioural and physiological variables on farm, stockperson, dog and lamb behavioural variables pre-slaughter and plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate in lambs post-slaughter were studied in 400 lambs. The lambs were observed in three behavioural tests, novel arena, flight distance to a human and temperament tests, before transport for slaughter. Closed-circuit television video footage was used to record stockperson, dog and lamb behaviour immediately before slaughter. Blood samples for cortisol, glucose and lactate analyses were collected on farm following the three behavioural tests and immediately post-slaughter. The regression models that best predicted plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations post-slaughter included a mixture of stockperson and dog behavioural variables as well as lamb variables both on-farm and pre-slaughter. These regression models accounted for 33%, 34% and 44% of the variance in plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations post-slaughter, respectively. Some of the stockperson and dog behaviours pre-slaughter that were predictive of the stress and metabolic variables post-slaughter included the duration of negative stockperson behaviours such as fast locomotion and lifting/pulling lambs, and the duration of dog behaviours such as lunging and barking at the lamb, while some of the predictive lamb behaviour variables included the durations of jumping and fleeing. Some of the physiological and behavioural responses to the behavioural tests on farm were also predictive of the stress and metabolic variables post-slaughter. These relationships support the well-demonstrated effect of handling on fear and stress responses in livestock, and although not direct evidence of causal relationships, highlight the potential benefits of training stockpeople to reduce fear and stress in sheep at abattoirs.
Julia Boffey, Professor of Medieval Studies in the Department of English at Queen Mary, University of London.,
A. S. G. Edwards, FSA, FEA, is Honorary Visiting Professor at the University of Kent and University College London.
In about 1520 Wynkyn de Worde published Undo Youre Dore (STC 23111.5), elsewhere titled The Squire of Low Degree, a verse narrative in couplets, with no known source, and no surviving early manuscript witnesses. Usually classified as a romance, the poem gestures in various ways to the conventional features of romance narrative, and de Worde's decision to print it may reflect his sense that the market for romances, one for which he had catered for some decades, remained a strong one. Yet in some respects de Worde's printing of The Squire of Low Degree seems to mark a pivotal point in the history of his engagement with this form, and to indicate a recognition on his part that the previous commercial appeal of the genre might be extended in different directions. Some of these new directions are thrown into relief when The Squire of Low Degree is compared with other printed romances and with other forms of verse narrative printed by de Worde during the 1520s. As we will suggest, de Worde's sense of the continuing appeal of this genre seems untypical of the general level of interest among printers in the second quarter of the sixteenth century, a point when their engagement with romance seems to have been flagging.
The plot of The Squire of Low Degree can be summarised as follows. The squire of the work's title falls in love with the King of Hungary's daughter, whom he serves with silent devotion. Although the princess discovers his love at an early stage and reciprocates it, an unscrupulous steward, who himself wishes to marry the princess, reveals their love to the king. The squire seeks permission from the king for a period of exile ‘to be proved a venterous knight’ (478). Before departing he returns to his lady's chamber to bid her farewell. But the steward has been charged by the king to be ready for such a contingency with ‘men of armes’ (416). They attack the squire, and a melée ensues in which the squire kills the steward but is himself seized by the king, who sends him into exile for seven years, in which he does ‘great chyvalry’ (886).
Julia Boffey, Professor of Medieval Studies in the Department of English at Queen Mary, University of London,
A. S. G. Edwards, Honorary Professor of Medieval Manuscripts at the University of Kent at Canterbury
The range of questions posed by the codicological and textual forms in which The Book of the Duchess (hereafter BD) survives is closely connected to the larger enigma of the context in which it originated and was first recorded in manuscript. The three surviving copies all date from around 50 years or more after Chaucer's death, and they offer no explicit information about the historical circumstances in which the poem took shape and was first transmitted. There are no forms of external evidence concerning its date or occasion of composition, and much weight has had to be placed on cryptic internal allusions in order to reconstruct a plausible occasional significance: the death from plague of John of Gaunt's first wife, Blanche, duchess of Lancaster on 12 September 1368. The poem makes no explicit allusion to her death, and only the line ‘And goode faire White she het’ (948), and a cluster of final gestures (1318–19) to Lancaster (‘long castel’), ‘St John’, and ‘Richmond’ (‘ryche hil’: John of Gaunt was earl of Richmond in Yorkshire until 1372) suggest its connections with the death of the duchess.
This internal allusion to ‘White’ is supported by some very late evidence in one manuscript. Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Fairfax 16 includes at the beginning of the poem the added note that it was ‘made by Geffrey Chawcyer at ye request of ye duke of lancastar: pitously complaynynge the deathe of ye sayd dutchesse blanche’ (fol. 130). This note, in the hand of the sixteenth-century antiquary John Stow (1525–1605), provides the earliest surviving assertion of the poem's occasion. Stow has also written the name ‘blanche’ in the margins opposite several occurrences of the word ‘white’ in the poem, at lines 905 (fol. 141v) and 948 (fol. 142); his is probably also the hand that has written ‘she ys dedde’ (fol. 147) in the margin opposite line 1298 (‘Sir quod I where is she now’, anticipating line 1309: ‘She ys ded’). Stow was both a collector of Middle English manuscripts and an antiquarian of distinction who clearly had some interest in the content of the poem and in Chaucer more generally.
We report the results of Long Baseline Array observations made in 2001 of ten southern sources proposed by Mattox et al. as counterparts to EGRET >100 MeV gamma-ray sources. Source structures are compared with published data where available and possible superluminal motions identified in several cases. The associations are examined in the light of Fermi observations, indicating that the confirmed counterparts tend to have radio properties consistent with other identifications, including flat radio spectral index, high brightness temperature, greater radio variability, and higher core dominance.
Recently much research has been carried out to enhance piglet survival by genetic improvement. Heritabilities of traits associated with piglet survival are generally low, but the genetic variation is large enough to provide improvement through breeding (Knol et al., 2002). However, correlations between some traits and/or between maternal and direct genetic effects have shown contradictory results, and not many studies have considered these effects. Reports of correlations between piglet survival traits and production traits are even fewer. The aim of this study was to estimate heritabilities of piglet survival traits and their genetic associations with other reproduction traits as well as production traits, using a Bayesian approach and appropriate models and genetic statistical procedures in order to obtain more accurate genetic parameters.
There are many studies that show that breed, gender, age and feeding regime influence animal growth rate, meat yield and composition. These factors, together with slaughter and post-slaughter conditions, are thought to influence tenderness and flavour attributes of meat (Thompson, 2002)). Low variability is highly desirable and processes such as ‘A blueprint for improved consistent quality beef’ (MLC, 1999) in the UK has attempted to improve the level and consistency of beef eating quality. This project was designed to test a package of best-practice techniques, both on-farm and in-abattoir, on the eating quality of Scottish beef as assessed by a trained sensory panel and a recruited take-home panel.
Relationships between sow nutrition, milk yield, milk composition and piglet performance during lactation have been studied in numerous experiments. However, the subsequent effects of these pre-weaning factors on post-weaning piglet performance are less well studied. Commonly a growth check in piglets in response to weaning is noted, but to date it is unknown why some piglets do better than others in this period. The present experiment explored some of the pre-weaning factors that could explain the variability in piglet post-weaning growth.
The performance of piglets from 41 litters was monitored during a lactation period of 26 days. Litter size was standardised to 10 piglets, which were not offered creep food. Piglets were weighed individually on a weekly basis from farrowing to weaning at 26 days. Daily litter milk intake was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh technique in 24 litters on 4 occasions at 5 day intervals across lactation. On the day after each of these days, the composition of milk was determined from milk samples obtained by hand milking following oxytocin injection. Litter milk intake and composition of milk were used to calculate the mean daily piglet nutrient intakes during lactation. After weaning some piglets were sacrificed for the analysis of body composition and 310 piglets out of the 41 litters were penned in litter groups in controlled environment flat decks for two weeks to monitor daily group feed intakes and weekly individual growth rates.
Newly weaned pigs frequently show high levels of oral-nasal behaviour directed towards penmates which may cause injury if taking the form of ear and tail biting. It has been suggested that such behaviours may be motivated by both behavioural and nutritional influences. This experiment was carried out to investigate whether the provision of nutrient blocks supplying minerals, trace elements and herbs could reduce penmate-directed behaviours in weaned piglets.
Starch and fat are the two major energy sources available for sow lactation diets. Fat is more energy dense and can be used to maximise energy intakes, particularly in sows with low appetite. However, the quantity of milk produced in sows has been associated with milk lactose production and the main precursor for lactose is glucose, for which dietary starch is the major source. It is therefore important to know the consequences of using a glucose deficient energy source, such as fat, compared to starch in lactation diets. The following experiment was designed to assess energy sources in lactation diets at an isocaloric level in determining sow and piglet performance, in association with the effects of dietary glucose availability on the metabolic state of the sow around peak lactation.