To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The 1950s stand out as the “Golden Years” in the collective memory of many Brazilians. Sandwiched between the authoritarian periods of the Estado Novo dictatorship led by Getúlio Vargas (1937–45) and a military dictatorship (1964–85), the decade was a time of great optimism for the country's future. Many hoped that the country would enjoy a lasting democratic system accompanied by the ever-increasing trappings of modernity. Indeed, a surge of economic growth and industrial development during Vargas's return as a democratically elected president (1951–54), followed by a massive industrialization program crowned by the construction of the ultramodern capital of Brasília under Juscelino Kubitschek (1956–61), gave true believers reason for optimism.
The US Department of Agriculture’s Summer Food Service Program and Seamless Summer Option (summer nutrition programmes (SNP)) aim to relieve food insecurity for children and teens during summer months. More needs to be known about when and where SNP are available, and how availability varies by community characteristics, particularly in rural areas where food insecurity and reduced food access are more prevalent.
The present study examined the geographic availability of SNP and summer meal uptake rates in 2016, using state-wide administrative claims data.
Public schools and SNP in California, USA.
Schools (n 8842) and SNP (n 4685).
Urban counties were more likely than rural counties to have higher summer uptake rates, calculated as the percentage of summer meals served relative to eligible students utilizing school meal programmes during the academic school year, but uptake overall was low at 18·2 % of target populations. Geographic availability analyses showed that 63·9 % of public urban schools had an SNP available within 1·6 km (1 mile), but availability was significantly higher within the proximity of larger, higher-poverty high schools with diverse or majority non-White students, and those with higher school-year breakfast participation rates. Availability of an SNP within 16 km (10 miles) of rural schools averaged 68·1 % but was significantly higher around larger schools, higher-poverty schools and those with diverse or majority non-White students.
While many communities have SNP available, much more work is needed to increase the availability of these programmes to reduce summer food insecurity for children, particularly in rural communities.
This study explores how living arrangements influence perceived quality of life in an elderly population in rural South Africa. We use data from the longitudinal World Health Organization Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health Survey (WHO-SAGE) and from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). On average, older men and women who reside in single-generation and complex-linked multigenerational households report worse quality of life than those in two-generation and linear-linked multigenerational households. However, after controlling for prior wellbeing status, we find living arrangements to have a significant impact on women's perceived quality of life only, and that it is moderated by age. We conclude that not all multigenerational arrangements are protective of older adults’ wellbeing and highlight the gendered impact of living arrangements on quality of life. These results suggest the necessity to understand how living arrangements influence the social roles of older adults and change with age.
Background: Psychological therapy services are often required to demonstrate their effectiveness and are implementing systematic monitoring of patient progress. A system for measuring patient progress might usefully ‘inform supervision’ and help patients who are not progressing in therapy. Aims: To examine if continuous monitoring of patient progress through the supervision process was more effective in improving patient outcomes compared with giving feedback to therapists alone in routine NHS psychological therapy. Method: Using a stepped wedge randomized controlled design, continuous feedback on patient progress during therapy was given either to the therapist and supervisor to be discussed in clinical supervison (MeMOS condition) or only given to the therapist (S-Sup condition). If a patient failed to progress in the MeMOS condition, an alert was triggered and sent to both the therapist and supervisor. Outcome measures were completed at beginning of therapy, end of therapy and at 6-month follow-up and session-by-session ratings. Results: No differences in clinical outcomes of patients were found between MeMOS and S-Sup conditions. Patients in the MeMOS condition were rated as improving less, and more ill. They received fewer therapy sessions. Conclusions: Most patients failed to improve in therapy at some point. Patients’ recovery was not affected by feeding back outcomes into the supervision process. Therapists rated patients in the S-Sup condition as improving more and being less ill than patients in MeMOS. Those patients in MeMOS had more complex problems.
This article considers Childe's career in Scotland, where he was Abercromby Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology at Edinburgh University 1927–1946, and assesses his impact on Scottish archaeology and the Scottish archaeological community. Matters discussed include his development of teaching programmes and resources within the university, and his association with the Edinburgh League of Prehistorians. His excavation and fieldwork at Skara Brae and elsewhere, and his publications during this span, are considered. Childe's collaborations with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland and the National Museum, especially during the Second World War, are reviewed. The archaeological achievements of some of his Edinburgh students are briefly summarized.
Three separate but related issues made an unforgettable impression on me during 1982-1985, the three years that I chaired the African Studies Program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Today, they seem daunting and no less diminished: 1) the perennial threats of severe cuts in federal Title VI funding for international language and area studies, 2) the apparent demoralization of area studies graduates owing to a gloomy job market picture, and, despite these blows, 3) the continuing, demonstrated importance of African Area Studies to our campuses and society at large.
Gordon Barclay (Figure 1.1), as many readers of this chapter will know, is a man of many interests and several passions. He spent most of his professional career in the service of archaeology within, latterly, the Scottish Government, and before that in a raft of state bodies and agencies of the Scottish Executive, and before that the Scottish Office all the way back to the old Department of the Environment of the mid-1970s. This contribution will, in keeping with the central concerns of the chapters by his friends and colleagues that are offered to him in the present volume, focus on ‘early farmer’ Gordon, as opposed to his other personas, although some of these will nonetheless, I am sure, emerge in this chapter, for several of them cross-cut with his Neolithic interests. My only qualifications for taking on this task are that I have known Gordon throughout his professional career, that I too am a lowland, east coast Scot who shares some of his mind-set, but also because I was the supervisor of Gordon's Edinburgh PhD thesis, submitted in 2001 and entitled The First Farmers: The Neolithic of East- Central Scotland. This was a doctorate awarded according to the Edinburgh rules on the basis of an extended justificatory essay setting his key research publications (over the ten years preceding 2000) on the Scottish Neolithic into wider context. It was – and readers who know the author will not be surprised to hear this – among the least troublesome theses I have ever been called on to oversee, with, in a reversal of what often happens, the supervisor being chivvied from time to time by the supervisee to hurry the administrative and other processes along. I hope the foregoing comments, however, will suffice to explain why a later prehistoric impostor pens these words. It is appropriate to note here that Gordon had intended since the early part of his professional career in the 1980s to undertake research as a part-time student with a view to submitting a doctoral dissertation on a cognate topic – initially the Neolithic of Perthshire – but had been stymied, despite the encouragement of Iain MacIvor, the then Chief Inspector of Ancient Monuments by – in Gordon's view – lukewarm, nay tepid, official support thereafter within the civil service.
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between physiological reactivity to peer stressors and physical and relational aggression. Potential moderation by actual experiences of peer maltreatment (i.e., physical and relational victimization) and gender were also explored. One hundred ninety-six children (M = 10.11 years, SD = 0.64) participated in a laboratory stress protocol during which their systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and skin conductance reactivity to recounting a relational stressor (e.g., threats to relationships) and an instrumental stressor (e.g., threats to physical well-being, dominance, or property) were assessed. Teachers provided reports of aggression and victimization. In both boys and girls, physical aggression was associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stress and heightened physiological reactivity to instrumental stress, particularly among youth higher in victimization. In girls, relational aggression was most robustly associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stressors, particularly among girls exhibiting higher levels of relational victimization. In boys, relational aggression was associated with heightened physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at higher levels of peer victimization and blunted physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at lower levels of victimization. Results underscore the shared and distinct emotional processes underlying physical and relational aggression in boys and girls.