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This paper is concerned with the resolution of an inverse problem related to the recovery of a function
from the source to solution map of the semi-linear equation
on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold
. We first study the simpler model problem, where
is the Minkowski space, and prove the unique recovery of
through the use of geometric optics and a three-fold wave interaction arising from the cubic non-linearity. Subsequently, the result is generalized to globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifolds by using Gaussian beams.
This paper explores some 220,000 medieval objects recorded in the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) online database of archaeological small finds through Geographic Information System analysis of their relationship with contemporary market sites. First, an overview of the contents of the PAS database is presented in terms of its spatial and ‘object type’ distribution. Second, the relationship of the medieval finds data against documentary evidence of commercial activity is investigated at a national level. Finally, PAS data is contextualised in its historical landscape context through case studies. It is argued that the distribution of PAS finds on the national scale can be linked with patterns of commercial activity, and that while rural and urban finds scatters have distinguishing trends, the countryside population enjoyed access to a range of sophisticated metalwork culture; also, that certain assemblages can be analysed statistically to yield new data and perspectives on local historical development.
Risk of retirement from work before statutory retirement age among employees with personality disorders is unknown.
We used diagnoses of awarded medical rehabilitations and hospitalisations to select two clinical cohorts from a population of 151,618 employees: participants in rehabilitation (total N = 1942, 233 personality disorder, 419 anxiety disorder and 1290 depression cases) and hospitalised patients (N = 1333, 354, 126 and 853, respectively). Early retirement from work was tracked through national registers during a period of 5 years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of diagnostic groups with risk of early retirement.
In models adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic position, the relative risk of early retirement for patients with personality disorders was 3.5-fold (95% CI 2.1 to 5.8) in the rehabilitation cohort and 2.3-fold (95% CI 1.6 to 3.5) in the hospital cohort compared with anxiety disorders. The corresponding hazard ratios of early retirement for personality disorders compared with depressive disorders were 1.1 (95% CI 0.8–1.5) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4–2.1), respectively.
Personality disorders increase the risk of early retirement at least to an equal extent as depression and more than twice that of anxiety disorders.
Comorbid anxiety symptoms and disorders are present in many psychiatric disorders, but methodological variations render comparisons of their frequency and intensity difficult. Furthermore, whether risk factors for comorbid anxiety symptoms are similar in patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders remains unclear.
The Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) was used to measure anxiety symptoms in psychiatric care patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SSA, n = 113), bipolar disorder (BD, n = 99), or depressive disorder (DD, n = 188) in the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium Study. Bivariate correlations and multivariate linear regression models were used to examine associations of depressive symptoms, neuroticism, early psychological trauma and distress, self-efficacy, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, and attachment style with anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups.
Frequent or constant anxiety was reported by 40.2% of SSA, 51.5% of BD, and 55.6% of DD patients; it was described as severe or extreme by 43.8%, 41.4%, and 41.2% of these patients, respectively. SSA patients were significantly less anxious (P = 0.010) and less often avoided anxiety-provoking situations (P = 0.009) than the other patients. In regression analyses, OASIS was associated with high neuroticism, symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder and low self-efficacy in all patients, and with early trauma in patients with mood disorders.
Comorbid anxiety symptoms are ubiquitous among psychiatric patients with mood or schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and in almost half of them, reportedly severe. Anxiety symptoms appear to be strongly related to both concurrent depressive symptoms and personality characteristics, regardless of principal diagnosis.
Distinguishing between symptoms of schizotypal (SPD) and borderline personality disorders (BPD) is often difficult due to their partial overlap and frequent co-occurrence. We investigated correlations in self-reported symptoms of SPD and BPD in questionnaires at the levels of both total scores and individual items, examining overlapping dimensions.
Two questionnaires, the McLean Screening Instrument (MSI) for BPD and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief (SPQ-B) for SPD, were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n = 282) from specialized psychiatric care in a study of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium. Correlation coefficients between total scores and individual items of the MSI and SPQ-B were estimated. Multivariate regression analysis (MRA) was conducted to examine the relationships between SPQ-B and MSI.
The Spearman's correlation between total scores of the MSI and SPQ-B was strong (rho = 0.616, P < 0.005). Items of MSI reflecting disrupted relatedness and affective dysregulation correlated moderately (rφ varied between 0.2 and 0.4, P < 0.005) with items of SPQ. Items of MSI reflecting behavioural dysregulation correlated only weakly with items of SPQ. In MRA, depressive symptoms, sex and MSI were significant predictors of SPQ-B score, whereas symptoms of anxiety, age and SPQ-B were significant predictors of MSI score.
Items reflecting cognitive-perceptual distortions and affective symptoms of BPD appear to overlap with disorganized and cognitive-perceptual symptoms of SPD. Symptoms of depression may aggravate self-reported features of SPQ-B, and symptoms of anxiety features of MSI. Symptoms of behavioural dysregulation of BPD and interpersonal deficits of SPQ appear to be non-overlapping.
Major mental disorders are highly disabling conditions that result in substantial socioeconomic burden. Subjective and objective measures of functioning or ability to work, their concordance, or risk factors for them may differ between disorders.
Self-reported level of functioning, perceived work ability, and current work status were evaluated among psychiatric care patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SSA, n = 113), bipolar disorder (BD, n = 99), or depressive disorder (DD, n = 188) within the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium Study. Correlates of functional impairment, subjective work disability, and occupational status were investigated using regression analysis.
DD patients reported the highest and SSA patients the lowest perceived functional impairment. Depressive symptoms in all diagnostic groups and anxiety in SSA and BD groups were significantly associated with disability. Only 5.3% of SSA patients versus 29.3% or 33.0% of BD or DD patients, respectively, were currently working. About half of all patients reported subjective work disability. Objective work status and perceived disability correlated strongly among BD and DD patients, but not among SSA patients. Work status was associated with number of hospitalizations, and perceived work disability with current depressive symptoms.
Psychiatric care patients commonly end up outside the labour force. However, while among patients with mood disorders objective and subjective indicators of ability to work are largely concordant, among those with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder they are commonly contradictory. Among all groups, perceived functional impairment and work disability are coloured by current depressive symptoms, but objective work status reflects illness course, particularly preceding psychiatric hospitalizations.
Self-reported psychosis-like experiences (PEs) may be common in patients with mood disorders, but their clinical correlates are not well known. We investigated their prevalence and relationships with self-reported symptoms of depression, mania, anxiety, borderline (BPD) and schizotypal (SPD) personality disorders among psychiatric patients with mood disorders.
The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE-42), Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), The Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI), Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief form (SPQ-B) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n=282) from specialized care. Correlation coefficients between total scores and individual items of CAPE-42 and BDI, SPQ-B, MSI and MDQ were estimated. Hierarchical multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine factors influencing the frequency of self-reported PE.
PEs are common in patients with mood disorders. The “frequency of positive symptoms” score of CAPE-42 correlated strongly with total score of SPQ-B (rho=0.63; P<0.001) and moderately with total scores of BDI, MDQ, OASIS and MSI (rho varied from 0.37 to 0.56; P<0.001). Individual items of CAPE-42 correlated moderately with specific items of BDI, MDQ, SPQ-B and MSI (rφ varied from 0.2 to 0.5; P<0.001). Symptoms of anxiety, mania or hypomania and BPD were significant predictors of the “frequency of positive symptoms” score of CAPE-42.
Several, state- and trait-related factors may underlie self-reported PEs among mood disorder patients. These include cognitive-perceptual distortions of SPD; distrustfulness, identity disturbance, dissociative and affective symptoms of BPD; and cognitive biases related to depressive or manic symptoms.
Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.
We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.
We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).
Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
Background: Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) is a psychosocial treatment designed to improve social functioning in schizophrenia by improving social cognition. Positive results have been reported from several studies, mainly from the USA, but more studies are needed to determine the feasibility of SCIT in different cultural contexts. Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the Finnish translation of SCIT in Finland. Method: This was an uncontrolled, within-group study. Thirty-three patients with psychotic disorders participated in SCIT groups and also received the standard services provided at their respective care facilities. We measured participant attendance, attrition and responses on feedback surveys. Participants also completed measures of emotion perception, Theory of Mind (ToM), attributional bias and metacognitive overconfidence both before and after SCIT. Results: The attendance rate was high, attrition was low, and the patients expressed satisfaction with SCIT. Preliminary efficacy analyses showed a statistically significant pre to posttest improvement in emotion perception and ToM, but not attributional bias or overconfidence. Conclusions: SCIT is feasible and well accepted and may remediate social cognitive dysfunction in people with psychotic disorders in Finland.
Adverse effects of antidepressants are most common at the beginning of the treatment, but possible also later. We examined the association between antidepressant use and work-related injuries taking into account the duration of antidepressant use.
Antidepressant use and work-related injuries between 2000 and 2011 were measured among 66 238 employees (mean age 43.8 years, 80% female) using linkage to national records (the Finnish Public Sector study). We analysed data using time-dependent modelling with individuals as their own controls (self-controlled case-series design).
In 2238 individuals who had used antidepressants and had a work-related injury during a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, no increase in the risk of injury was observed in the beginning of antidepressant treatment. However, an increased injury risk was seen after 3 months of treatment (rate ratio, compared with no recent antidepressant use, 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.10–1.48). This was also the case among those who had used only selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 714; rate ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.08–1.83).
Antidepressant use was not associated with an increased risk of work-related injury at the beginning of treatment. Post-hoc analyses of antidepressant trials are needed to determine whether long-term use of antidepressants increases the risk of work-related injury.
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on the conventional III-V compound semiconductors are known to exhibit internal quantum efficiencies (IQE) that are very close to unity. Ideally, the high IQE is expected to enable electroluminescent cooling with a cooling capacity of several Watts per cm2 of emitter area. One key requirement in enabling such cooling is the ability to fabricate high quality large area LEDs. However, detailed information on the performance of relevant large area devices and their yield is extremely scarce. In this report we present data on the yield and related large area scaling of InP/InGaAs LEDs by using current-voltage measurements performed on LED wafers fabricated at five different facilities. The samples were processed to contain square shaped mesas of sizes 0.25 mm2 and 16 mm2 operating as LEDs. While most of the smaller mesas showed relatively good electrical characteristics and low leakage current densities, some of them also exhibited very large leakage currents. In addition, in some cases the large area devices exhibited large, and even almost linearly behaving leakage currents. Such information on the scaling and unidealities of diodes fabricated using established fabrication technologies is crucial for the development of the optical cooling technologies relying on large area devices.
Background: The cost-effectiveness of triptans in the treatment of migraine has not been assessed since generic sumatriptan entered the Finnish market in 2008.
Methods: Using systematic review and mixed treatment comparison, the effectiveness of triptans was estimated with regard to 2-hour response, 2-hour pain-free, recurrence, and any adverse event, using published clinical data. Direct and indirect costs (2010 EUR, societal perspective) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were evaluated over one acute migraine attack using a decision-tree model.
Results: The meta-analysis combined data from fifty-six publications. The highest probability of achieving the primary outcome, “sustained pain-free, no adverse event” (SNAE), was estimated for eletriptan 40 mg (20.9 percent). Sumatriptan 100 mg was the treatment with lowest estimated costs (€20.86), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of eletriptan 40 mg compared with sumatriptan 100 mg was €43.65 per SNAE gained (€19,659 per QALY gained).
Conclusion: Depending on the decision-maker's willingness-to-pay threshold, either sumatriptan 100 mg or eletriptan 40 mg is likely to be cost-effective.
The union of Normandy and England in 1066 recast the political map of western Europe and marked the beginning of a new era in the region's international history. This book is a groundbreaking investigation of the relations and exchanges between the county of Flanders and the Anglo-Norman realm. Among other important themes, it examines Anglo-Flemish diplomatic treaties and fiefs, international aristocratic culture, the growth of overseas commerce, immigration into England and the construction of new social and national identities. The century and a half between the conquest of England by the duke of Normandy and the conquest of Normandy by the king of France witnessed major revolutions in European society, politics and culture. This study explores the history of England, northern France and southern Low Countries in relation to each other during this period, giving fresh perspectives to the historical development of north-western Europe in the Central Middle Ages.