Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Self-reported symptoms of schizotypal and borderline personality disorder in patients with mood disorders

  • I. Baryshnikov (a1), J. Suvisaari (a1) (a2), K. Aaltonen (a1) (a3), M. Koivisto (a1), P. Näätänen (a1), B. Karpov (a1), T. Melartin (a4), J. Oksanen (a2), K. Suominen (a5) (a6), M. Heikkinen (a1), T. Paunio (a1), G. Joffe (a1) and E. Isometsä (a1) (a3)...

Abstract

Background

Distinguishing between symptoms of schizotypal (SPD) and borderline personality disorders (BPD) is often difficult due to their partial overlap and frequent co-occurrence. We investigated correlations in self-reported symptoms of SPD and BPD in questionnaires at the levels of both total scores and individual items, examining overlapping dimensions.

Methods

Two questionnaires, the McLean Screening Instrument (MSI) for BPD and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief (SPQ-B) for SPD, were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n = 282) from specialized psychiatric care in a study of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium. Correlation coefficients between total scores and individual items of the MSI and SPQ-B were estimated. Multivariate regression analysis (MRA) was conducted to examine the relationships between SPQ-B and MSI.

Results

The Spearman's correlation between total scores of the MSI and SPQ-B was strong (rho = 0.616, P < 0.005). Items of MSI reflecting disrupted relatedness and affective dysregulation correlated moderately (rφ varied between 0.2 and 0.4, P < 0.005) with items of SPQ. Items of MSI reflecting behavioural dysregulation correlated only weakly with items of SPQ. In MRA, depressive symptoms, sex and MSI were significant predictors of SPQ-B score, whereas symptoms of anxiety, age and SPQ-B were significant predictors of MSI score.

Conclusions

Items reflecting cognitive-perceptual distortions and affective symptoms of BPD appear to overlap with disorganized and cognitive-perceptual symptoms of SPD. Symptoms of depression may aggravate self-reported features of SPQ-B, and symptoms of anxiety features of MSI. Symptoms of behavioural dysregulation of BPD and interpersonal deficits of SPQ appear to be non-overlapping.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 22, (Välskärinkatu 12 A), 0014 Helsinki, Finland. Tel.: +358 9 4711; fax: +358 9 47163735. E-mail address:erkki.isometsa@hus.fi (E. Isometsä).

Footnotes

Hide All
1

Tel.: +358 9 4711.

2

Tel.: +358 9 4711; fax: +358 9 47163735.

3

Tel.: +358 40 7718354.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
[1]Gunderson, J.G.Singer, M.T.Defining borderline patients: an overview. Am J Psychiatry 1975; 132(1): 110
[2]Spitzer, R.L.Endicott, J.Justification for separating schizotypal and borderline personality disorders. Schizophr Bull 1979; 5(1): 9510410.1093/schbul/5.1.95
[3]Gunderson, J.G.Zanarini, M.C.Current overview of the borderline diagnosis. J Clin Psychiatry 1987; Suppl. 48:514
[4]American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders third edition revised. III ed. 1987 Washington, DC
[5]Kwapil, T.R.Barrantes-Vidal, N.Schizotypy: looking back and moving forward. Schizophr Bull 2015; 41(Suppl. 2):S366S37310.1093/schbul/sbu186
[6]Siever, L.J.Gunderson, J.G.The search for a schizotypal personality: historical origins and current status. Compr Psychiatry 1983; 24(3): 19921210.1016/0010-440X(83)90070-6
[7]Gunderson, J.G.Borderline personality disorder: ontogeny of a diagnosis. Am J Psychiatry 2009; 166(5): 53053910.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08121825
[8]Grant, B.F.Chou, S.P.Goldstein, R.B.Huang, B.Stinson, F.S.Saha, T.D., et al.Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder: Results from the wave 2 national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions J Clin Psychiatry 2008; 69(4): 53354510.4088/JCP.v69n0404
[9]Critchfield, K.L.Clarkin, J.F.Levy, K.N.Kernberg, O.F.Organization of co-occurring axis II features in borderline personality disorder. Br J Clin Psychol 2008; 47(Pt 2):18520010.1348/014466507X240731
[10]Silk, K.R.Westen, D.Lohr, N.E.Benjamin, J.Gold, L.DSM-III and DSM-III-R schizotypal symptoms in borderline personality disorder. Compr Psychiatry 1990; 31(2): 10311010.1016/0010-440X(90)90013-I
[11]Becker, D.F.Grilo, C.M.Edell, W.S.McGlashan, T.H.Comorbidity of borderline personality disorder with other personality disorders in hospitalized adolescents and adults. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157(12): 2011201610.1176/appi.ajp.157.12.2011
[12]Pulay, A.J.Stinson, F.S.Dawson, D.A.Goldstein, R.B.Chou, S.P.Huang, B., et al.Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV schizotypal personality disorder: Results from the wave 2 national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 2009; 11(2): 536710.4088/PCC.08m00679
[13]Mohr, C.Claridge, G.Schizotypy--do not worry, it is not all worrisome. Schizophr Bull 2015; 41(Suppl. 2):S436S44310.1093/schbul/sbu185
[14]American Psychiatric Association, The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5th ed. 2013 10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
[15]Badoud, D.Billieux, J.Eliez, S.Imhof, A.Heller, P.Eytan, A., et al.Covariance and specificity in adolescent schizotypal and borderline trait expression Early Interv Psychiatry 2015; 9(5): 37838710.1111/eip.12120
[16]Benedik, E.Dobnik, S.C.Phemenological aspects of personality disorders in adult psychiatric patients. Psychiatr Danub 2014; 26(2): 127136
[17]Plakun, E.M.Muller, J.P.Burkhardt, P.E.The significance of borderline and schizotypal overlap. Hillside J Clin Psychiatry 1987; 9(1): 4754
[18]Rosenberger, P.H.Miller, G.A.Comparing borderline definitions: DSM-III borderline and schizotypal personality disorders. J. Abnorm Psychol 1989; 98(2): 16116910.1037/0021-843X.98.2.161
[19]Fonseca-Pedrero, E.Lemos-Giraldez, S.Paino, M.Sierra-Baigrie, S.Muniz, J.Relationship between schizotypal and borderline traits in college students. Span J Psychol 2012; 15(1): 30631410.5209/rev_SJOP.2012.v15.n1.37337
[20]Melartin, T.K.Haukka, J.Rytsala, H.J.Jylha, P.J.Isometsa, E.T.Categorical and dimensional stability of comorbid personality disorder symptoms in DSM-IV major depressive disorder: A prospective study. J Clin Psychiatry 2010; 71(3): 28729510.4088/JCP.08m04621blu
[21]McGlashan, T.H.Grilo, C.M.Sanislow, C.A.Ralevski, E.Morey, L.C.Gunderson, J.G., et al.Two-year prevalence and stability of individual DSM-IV criteria for schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: Toward a hybrid model of axis II disorders Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162(5): 88388910.1176/appi.ajp.162.5.883
[22]Stringer, B.van Meijel, B.Eikelenboom, M.Koekkoek, B.Licht, C.M.Kerkhof, A.J., et al.Recurrent suicide attempts in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders: the role of borderline personality traits J Affect Disord 2013; 151(1): 233010.1016/j.jad.2013.02.038
[23]Skodol, A.E.Grilo, C.M.Pagano, M.E.Bender, D.S.Gunderson, J.G.Shea, M.T., et al.Effects of personality disorders on functioning and well-being in major depressive disorder J Psychiatr Pract 2005; 11(6): 36336810.1097/00131746-200511000-00002
[24]Skodol, A.E.Grilo, C.M.Keyes, K.M.Geier, T.Grant, B.F.Hasin, D.S.Relationship of personality disorders to the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. Am J Psychiatry 2011; 168(3): 25726410.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10050695
[25]Jylha, P.Melartin, T.Rytsala, H.Isometsa, E.Neuroticism, introversion, and major depressive disorder--traits, states, or scars?. Depress Anxiety 2009; 26(4): 32533410.1002/da.20385
[26]Reich, J.Noyes, R. Jr.Coryell, W.O’Gorman, T.W.The effect of state anxiety on personality measurement. Am J Psychiatry 1986; 143(6): 760763
[27]Morey, L.C.Shea, M.T.Markowitz, J.C.Stout, R.L.Hopwood, C.J.Gunderson, J.G., et al.State effects of major depression on the assessment of personality and personality disorder Am J Psychiatry 2010; 167(5): 52853510.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09071023
[28]Karsten, J.Penninx, B.W.Riese, H.Ormel, J.Nolen, W.A.Hartman, C.A.The state effect of depressive and anxiety disorders on big five personality traits. J Psychiatr Res 2012; 46(5): 64465010.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.01.024
[29]Rosell, D.R.Futterman, S.E.McMaster, A.Siever, L.J.Schizotypal personality disorder: A current review. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2014; 16(7): 452 doi: 014-0452-1
[30]Bateman, A.W.Gunderson, J.Mulder, R.Treatment of personality disorder. Lancet 2015; 385(9969): 735743
[31]Leichsenring, F.Leibing, E.Kruse, J.New, A.S.Leweke, F.Borderline personality disorder. Lancet 2011; 377(9759): 7484
[32]Mason, O.J.The assessment of schizotypy and its clinical relevance. Schizophr Bull 2015; 41(Suppl. 2):S374S385
[33]Tyrer, P.Reed, G.M.Crawford, M.J.Classification, assessment, prevalence, and effect of personality disorder. Lancet 2015; 385(9969): 71772610.1016/S0140-6736(14)61995-4
[34]Rush, J.A.PrefaceRush, J.A.First, M.B.Blacker, D.Handbook of Psychiatric Measures 2nd ed. 2008 American Psychiatric Association
[35]Zanarini, M.C.Vujanovic, A.A.Parachini, E.A.Boulanger, J.L.Frankenburg, F.R.Hennen, J.A screening measure for BPD: the McLean screening instrument for borderline personality disorder (MSI-BPD). J Pers Disord 2003; 17(6): 568573
[36]Melartin, T.Hakkinen, M.Koivisto, M.Suominen, K.Isometsa, E.T.Screening of psychiatric outpatients for borderline personality disorder with the McLean screening instrument for borderline personality disorder (MSI-BPD). Nord J Psychiatry 2009; 63(6): 475479
[37]Raine, A.The SPQ: a scale for the assessment of schizotypal personality based on DSM-III-R criteria. Schizophr Bull 1991; 17(4): 555564
[38]Baryshnikov, I.Aaltonen, K.Koivisto, M.Näätänen, P.Karpov, B.Melartin, T., et al.Differences and overlap in self-reported symptoms of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder Eur Psychiatry 2015; 30(8): 914919
[39]World Health Organization, International classification of disease 10th ed 1992 Geneva
[40]American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 4th ed. 1994 Washington, DC
[41]Sanislow, C.A.Grilo, C.M.Morey, L.C.Bender, D.S.Skodol, A.E.Gunderson, J.G., et al.Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder: findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159(2): 284290
[42]Compton, M.T.Goulding, S.M.Bakeman, R.McClure-Tone, E.B.An examination of the factorial structure of the schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief (SPQ-B) among undergraduate students. Schizophr Res 2009; 115(2–3):286289
[43]Ma, W.F.Wu, P.L.Yang, S.J.Cheng, K.F.Chiu, H.T.Lane, H.Y.Sensitivity and specificity of the Chinese version of the schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief for identifying undergraduate students susceptible to psychosis. Int J Nurs Stud 2010; 47(12): 15351544
[44]Beck, A.T.Ward, C.H.Mendelson, M.Mock, J.Erbaugh, J.An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961; 4: 561571
[45]Nuevo, R.Lehtinen, V.Reyna-Liberato, P.M.Ayuso-Mateos, J.L.Usefulness of the beck depression inventory as a screening method for depression among the general population of Finland. Scand J Public Health 2009; 37(1): 2834
[46]Norman, S.B.Cissell, S.H.Means-Christensen, A.J.Stein, M.B.Development and validation of an overall anxiety severity and impairment scale (OASIS). Depress Anxiety 2006; 23(4): 245249
[47]Campbell-Sills, L.Norman, S.B.Craske, M.G.Sullivan, G.Lang, A.J.Chavira, D.A., et al.Validation of a brief measure of anxiety-related severity and impairment: the overall anxiety severity and impairment scale (OASIS). J Affect Disord 2009; 112(1–3):92101
[48]Evans, J.S.B.T.Over, D.E.Rationality and reasoning Hove, England: Psychology press; 1996
[49]IBM Corp. Released 2013. IBM SPSS statistics for windows, version 22.0 2013 IBM Corp Armonk, NY
[50]Fonseca-Pedrero, E.Paino-Pineiro, M.Lemos-Giraldez, S.Villazon-Garcia, U.Muniz, J.Validation of the schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief form in adolescents. Schizophr Res 2009; 111(1–3):5360
[51]Glenn, C.R.Klonsky, E.D.Emotion dysregulation as a core feature of borderline personality disorder. J Pers Disord 2009; 23(1): 2028
[52]Leung, S.W.Leung, F.Construct validity and prevalence rate of borderline personality disorder among Chinese adolescents. J Pers Disord 2009; 23(5): 494513
[53]Gunderson, J.G.The relatedness of borderline and schizophrenic disorders. Schizophr Bull 1979; 5(1): 1722
[54]Kernberg, O.F.Two reviews of the literature on borderlines: An assessment. Schizophr Bull 1979; 5(1): 5358
[55]McGlashan, T.H.The borderline syndrome. I. Testing three diagnostic systems. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983; 40(12): 13111318
[56]Siever, L.J.Torgersen, S.Gunderson, J.G.Livesley, W.J.Kendler, K.S.The borderline diagnosis. III. Identifying endophenotypes for genetic studies. Biol Psychiatry 2002; 51(12): 964968
[57]Hummelen, B.Pedersen, G.Karterud, S.Some suggestions for the DSM-5 schizotypal personality disorder construct. Compr Psychiatry 2012; 53(4): 341349
[58]Balaratnasingam, S.Janca, A.Normal personality, personality disorder and psychosis: current views and future perspectives. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2015; 28(1): 3034
[59]Barnow, S.Arens, E.A.Sieswerda, S.Dinu-Biringer, R.Spitzer, C.Lang, S.Borderline personality disorder and psychosis: A review. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2010; 12(3): 186195
[60]Dowson, J.H.Sussams, P.Grounds, A.T.Taylor, J.Associations of self-reported past “psychotic” phenomena with features of personality disorders. Comp Psychiatry 2000; 41(1): 4248
[61]Preissler, S.Dziobek, I.Ritter, K.Heekeren, H.R.Roepke, S.Social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Evidence for disturbed recognition of the emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others. Front Behav Neurosci 2010; 4:182
[62]Jahshan, C.S.Sergi, M.J.Theory of mind, neurocognition, and functional status in schizotypy. Schizophr Res 2007; 89(1–3):278286
[63]Kim, W.J.Ha, R.Y.Sun, J.Y.Ryu, V.Lee, S.J.Ha, K., et al.Autobiographical memory and its association with neuropsychological function in bipolar disorder. Compr Psychiatry 2014; 55(2): 290297

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Baryshnikov et al. supplementary material
Supplementary materials

 PDF (289 KB)
289 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Baryshnikov et al. supplementary material
Supplementary materials

 PDF (408 KB)
408 KB

Self-reported symptoms of schizotypal and borderline personality disorder in patients with mood disorders

  • I. Baryshnikov (a1), J. Suvisaari (a1) (a2), K. Aaltonen (a1) (a3), M. Koivisto (a1), P. Näätänen (a1), B. Karpov (a1), T. Melartin (a4), J. Oksanen (a2), K. Suominen (a5) (a6), M. Heikkinen (a1), T. Paunio (a1), G. Joffe (a1) and E. Isometsä (a1) (a3)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.

Self-reported symptoms of schizotypal and borderline personality disorder in patients with mood disorders

  • I. Baryshnikov (a1), J. Suvisaari (a1) (a2), K. Aaltonen (a1) (a3), M. Koivisto (a1), P. Näätänen (a1), B. Karpov (a1), T. Melartin (a4), J. Oksanen (a2), K. Suominen (a5) (a6), M. Heikkinen (a1), T. Paunio (a1), G. Joffe (a1) and E. Isometsä (a1) (a3)...
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *