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This study characterized cremated bone to better understand isotope exchanges during burial, using archeological samples. The cremated bones of Jokei, a Buddhist monk (AD 1155–1213), found in an urn from the Jisho-in Temple, Nara Prefecture, Japan, were used for the analysis. 14C dates were determined for eight of Jokei bone fragments of different colors (black, gray, and white). The white fragments had the highest x-ray diffractometry (XRD) crystallinity index (CI) values (0.89–1.05), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) splitting factor values (IRSF) of 5.3–7.1, and the lowest Ba concentrations. The calibrated date of the white bone fragments is 1152–1216 cal AD, consistent with Jokei’s lifespan, showing these fragments yield reliable 14C ages. Meanwhile, the black and gray fragments, which probably experienced lower temperatures during cremation, had lower CI and IRSF values of 0.25–0.46 and 4.2–4.9, respectively, and higher Ba concentrations. The black and gray fragments tended to show unreliable younger 14C dates and higher 87Sr/86Sr values close to the soil value due to soil contamination. The results in this study indicate that it is important to check crystallinity of apatite and soil contamination using chemical indexing methods such as Ba capture, to clarify the reliability of 14C dates for cremated bone samples.
Transnasal inferior meatal antrostomy is increasingly used for the treatment of post-Caldwell–Luc mucoceles in maxillary sinus. This study aimed to report the outcomes after inferior meatal antrostomy with a mucosal flap for recurrent mucoceles.
The records of patients who had undergone transnasal inferior meatal antrostomy with or without a mucosal flap were reviewed.
Transnasal endoscopic inferior meatal antrostomy with or without a mucosal flap was performed in 21 and 49 patients, respectively. No complications were observed. A closing of the antrostomy was found in 9 (18.4 per cent) of the 49 patients who underwent antrostomy without a mucosal flap. No closings were observed in the 21 patients who underwent antrostomy with a mucosal flap. There was a significant difference in the rate of closing for surgery with and without the mucosal flap.
Transnasal endoscopic inferior meatal antrostomy with a mucosal flap is a safe method for the treatment of post-Caldwell–Luc maxillary mucoceles that effectively prevents recurrence.
To evaluate the daily Se intake of 3- to 5-year-old Japanese children, we used seventy-two urine samples collected from fifty-three children (twenty-seven male and twenty-six female) from two cities in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. For measuring low Se concentrations with high precision, accuracy and rapidity in the 24-h urine samples, we developed an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method, that is without any chemical separation, using the short-lived 77mSe (t1/2 = 17·4 s) nuclide. The estimated Se intake of the fifty-three children was 51·5 (sd 30·2) µg/d (geometric mean: 42·7 µg/d). Ten subjects (three male and seven female), successfully provided 24-h urine samples over two or three consecutive days; their Se intake was 37·4 (sd 5·9) µg/d. Based on the logarithmically transformed data of these ten subjects, the ratio of intra-/inter-individual variances of usual Se intake was 16·7 (28·0/1·7) and geometric mean was 27·7 µg/d. The 5th to 95th percentile of usual Se intake of these ten subjects was 17·5 to 40·4 µg/d, which ranged between the recommended dietary allowance and tolerable upper intake level of Se by the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015).
Gestational nutrition is widely recognized to affect an offspring’s future risk of lifestyle-related diseases, suggesting the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. As folic acid (FA) is a nutrient essential for modulating DNA methylation, we sought to determine how maternal FA intake during early pregnancy might influence tumor sensitivity in an offspring. Dams were maintained on a FA-depleted (FA(−)) or normal (2 mg FA/kg; FA(+)) diet from 2 to 3 days before mating to 7 days post-conception, and their offspring were challenged with chemical tumorigenesis using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a)anthracene and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate for skin and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide for tongue. In both squamous tissues, tumorigenesis was more progressive in the offspring from FA(−) than FA(+) dams. Notably, in the skin of FA(−) offspring, the expression and activity of cylindromatosis (Cyld) were decreased due to the altered DNA methylation status in its promoter region, which contributed to increased tumorigenesis coupled with inflammation in the FA(−) offspring. Thus, we conclude that maternal FA insufficiency during early pregnancy is able to promote neoplasm progression in the offspring through modulating DNA methylation, such as Cyld. Moreover, we propose, for the first time, “innate” utero nutrition as the third cause of tumorigenesis besides the known causes—hereditary predisposition and acquired environmental factors.
Structural variation of LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 spinel cathode during the Li+ extraction/insertion reaction was studied using operando X-ray diffraction. It was found that the reaction in the voltage range from 3.5 to 4.9 V consisted of two consecutive two-phase reactions, where three spinel phases of LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4, Li0.5Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 and Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 were identified and the lattice volume change in the whole reaction was evaluated as 6%. The reactions were symmetric and reversible under low-current conditions, but some asymmetries were detected during high current operation. Furthermore, a two-phase reaction between cubic and tetragonal phases was observed in the low-voltage reaction at 2.1–3.5 V, where the lattice volume change was approximately 4.9%. The rate-determining step was discussed based on these operando results.
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, for the first time, describes how disaster affects the health of people. Japan is prone to natural hazards, but at the same time, Japan has achieved one of the highest life expectancies (LE) in the world. After experiencing many disasters, Japan seems to have achieved resilience against disasters. Thus, we tested a hypothesis that high LE correlates with low disaster risk.
We compared LE from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Health Observatory and the Index for Risk Management’s (INFORM) disaster risk index, or World Risk Index (WRI), of each country using JMP software. INFORM risk index varies from 0-10, while WRI varies from 0-1, where a higher value means higher disaster risk in both systems. INFORM risk index considers hazard and exposure, vulnerability, lack of coping capacity, and lack of reliability. WRI considers exposure, susceptibility, lack of coping capacity, and lack of adaptive capacity, including logarithmized LE as a part of adaptive capacity.
The overall INFORM risk index was negatively correlated with LE (p<0:0001). Although natural hazard did not correlate with LE (p=0.7), the human hazard, vulnerability, and lack of coping capacity negatively correlated with LE (p<0.0001, respectively). Health-related indicators, which confirm the vulnerability and lack of coping capacity, were negatively correlated with LE. Cluster analysis of LE and INFORM risk of six categories resulted in four clusters of countries, suggesting that health development and disaster risk reduction are independent determinants. WRI also correlated with LE, but there are many outliers compared to the INFORM risk index.
High LE can be a good complementary indicator of low disaster risk. Strategies to achieve better health that contribute to high LE are also effective and important strategies for disaster risk reduction.
Collusion is a largely unconscious, dynamic bond, which may occur between patients and clinicians, between patients and family members, or between different health professionals. It is widely prevalent in the palliative care setting and provokes intense emotions, unreflective behavior, and negative impact on care. However, research on collusion is limited due to a lack of conceptual clarity and robust instruments to investigate this complex phenomenon. We have therefore developed the Collusion Classification Grid (CCG), which we aimed to evaluate with regard to its potential utility to analyze instances of collusion, be it for the purpose of supervision in the clinical setting or research.
Situations of difficult interactions with patients with advanced disease (N = 10), presented by clinicians in supervision with a liaison psychiatrist were retrospectively analyzed by means of the CCG.
1) All items constituting the grid were mobilized at least once; 2) one new item had to be added; and 3) the CCG identified different types of collusion.
Significance of results
This case series of collusions assessed with the CCG is a first step before the investigation of larger samples with the CCG. Such studies could search and identify setting-dependent and recurrent types of collusions, and patterns emerging between the items of the CCG. A better grasp of collusion could ultimately lead to a better understanding of the impact of collusion on the patient encounter and clinical decision-making.
This study evaluated the effect of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (Calsporin®) addition to the diet on faecal characteristics and nutrient digestibility in healthy adult dogs. Sixteen Beagles received either a low-energy control diet (CON; 3.35 Mcal metabolisable energy (ME)/kg with 21.8, 27.9, and 50.3% ME as protein, fat, and nitrogen-free extractives (NFE), respectively) or the same diet supplemented with Bacillus subtilis at 1 × 109 CFU/kg diet as probiotic (PRO) for four weeks in a parallel design (eight dogs per diet). In the prior two weeks, all dogs received a high-energy diet (Advance Medium Adult, Affinity Petcare®, 3.81 Mcal ME/kg ME with 24.8, 41.2, and 34% ME protein, fat, and NFE, respectively). Faecal consistency, dry matter (DM), pH, and NH3 were analysed on fresh samples collected at the start and weekly throughout the study. Additional samples were collected for the determination of lactate and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on days 0 and 21. In week four, a five–day total faecal collection was conducted in six dogs from each diet for the determination of nutrient apparent digestibility. Dogs fed the PRO diet had more firm faeces (P = 0.011) than control dogs and a higher faecal DM content in the first two weeks (P < 0.05). Feeding the PRO diet resulted in a decline in NH3 over four weeks (P = 0.05) and in faecal pH in the first two weeks (P < 0.05) alongside an increase in SCFA content (P = 0.044), mainly acetate (P = 0.024). Faecal lactate did not differ between diets (P > 0.10). Dogs fed the PRO diet showed a higher apparent digestibility of fat (P = 0.031) and NFE (P = 0.038) compared to control dogs. Dog food supplementation with Calsporin® at 1 × 109 CFU/kg improved faecal quality, enhanced fat and carbohydrate digestibility, and contributed to the gut health of dogs by reducing gut ammonia and increasing SCFA content.
Previous studies have associated dietary patterns with diabetes risk in Western countries, but such studies among the Japanese population are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate dietary patterns associated with abnormal glucose tolerance determined by elevated glycated Hb (HbA1c) levels.
The 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) database was used for the cross-sectional study. Dietary patterns were analysed by factor analysis of twenty-five food items from the dietary intake survey and household-based semi-weighed dietary records. OR and 95 % CI for elevated HbA1c levels (≥6·5 %) according to dietary patterns were estimated using logistic regression models.
The study population comprised 9550 Japanese aged ≥40 years registered in the nationwide NHNS.
Three dietary patterns were identified: (i) high-bread and low-rice; (ii) high-meat and low-fish; and (iii) vegetable. The high-bread and low-rice pattern, characterised by high frequent consumption of bread, milk and dairy products, and fruits, and low rice intake, was associated with marginally decreased prevalence of elevated HbA1c levels (Ptrend=0·047). The vegetable pattern, characterised by vegetables, mushrooms, soyabeans and soybean products, was significantly inversely associated with elevated HbA1c levels (4th v. 1st quartile: multivariable OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·95; Ptrend=0·007).
Our findings suggest that the vegetable pattern is associated with decreased prevalence of elevated HbA1c levels among Japanese.
The tachinid fly Drino inconspicuoides (Diptera: Tachinidae) is an ovolarviparous endoparasitoid whose larvae develop in the host haemocoel and avoids the host immune system. In this study, we investigated the immune evasion mechanisms of this species during infestation in the host Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We discovered a unique ‘cloak’ that surrounded D. inconspicuoides larvae that penetrated into the host and determined through genomic polymerase chain reaction analysis that this structure originated from the host rather than the tachinid. The ‘cloak’ contained both haemocytes and fat body cells from the host, with the haemocytes assembling around the larvae first and the fat body cells then covering the haemocyte layer, following which the two mixed. Living D. inconspicuoides larvae that were wrapped in the ‘cloak’ were not melanized whereas encapsulated dead larvae were melanized, suggesting that this structure contributes to the avoidance of host immune reactions.
Stimuli-responsive degradable silica nanoparticles (NPs) are active topics of nanomaterial research, because they are expected to be low health-risk nanocarriers capable of controlled release of drugs. Among various stimuli-responsive silica NPs, disulfide bond-containing NPs show degradability by glutathione reduced form (GSH). Here, we synthesized and characterized three kinds of thiol-organosilica NPs made from 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPMS) and 3-mercaptopropyl(dimethoxy)methylsilane (MPDMS). MPMS NPs, MPDMS NPs, and MPMS–MPDMS hybrid NPs revealed that the abundance ratio of disulfide bonds to thiols increased with the increase in content rate of MPDMS in thiol-organosilica NPs. We also revealed that thiol-organosilica NPs, which have disulfide bonds, are GSH-responsive degradable silica NPs using an electron microscopy and Ellman’s tests. Furthermore, we synthesized fluorescent MPMS–MPDMS NPs, including rhodamine B, and demonstrated the GSH-responsive release of dye from the NPs. These experiments indicate the potential of thiol-organosilica NPs, which have disulfide bonds as a GSH-responsive drug carrier.
By using systematic first-principles calculation, we found that AlTlO3 compound of LiNbO3 structure shows large piezoelectric constants e33 of 10.7 C/m2 and d33 of 56.7 pC/N. These piezoelectric constants are approximately six times larger than those of LiNbO3. AlTlO3 is predicted to be stabilized above 7 GPa. On the other hand, the calculated dielectric constant ε33 shows diverged behavior around 2 GPa. This result indicates that AlTlO3 can be quenchable. Decomposition of the predicted piezoelectric constant revealed that the large piezoelectricity of AlTlO3 originates from the Tl displacement in accordance with external perturbation, which drives the ferroelectric soft mode of the corresponding paraelectric phase. However, the energy difference between the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases was small, approximately 1 meV/f.u. These insights suggest that fluctuation between ferroelectric and paraelectric phases causes large piezoelectricity in AlTlO3.
The application of microwave radiation (MWR) during materials synthesis can generate a wide range of interesting phenomena, such as rapid, low-temperature phase transitions and the formation of nonequilibrium phases. However, the underlying mechanisms by which MWR can influence processes like nucleation, crystallization, sintering, and grain growth remain unknown. A critical need for studying these mechanisms is the ability to quantitatively characterize the effects of MWR exposure on atomic structure. In this regard, synchrotron X-ray sources provide an opportunity to shed new light on electromagnetic (EM) field–assisted synthesis due to the availability of high-energy X-rays that enable a wide range of experimental characterization techniques. Here, we review the use of synchrotron X-ray sources for both ex situ and in situ studies of MWR-assisted synthesis. While many synchrotron-based tools are available to characterize the structural effects of MWR from the micron down to the atomic scale, work in this field is ongoing, and no clear consensus exists regarding the underlying mechanisms of EM field–mediated phase transitions. We discuss the instrumentation available to study field–matter interaction mechanisms and identify future needs in synchrotron characterization to better understand how EM fields can engineer advanced materials.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) is a multifunctional ubiquitin binding and editing enzyme that regulates inflammation. Genetic studies have implicated polymorphisms within the TNFAIP3 locus to the development of numerous immune-related diseases. This study evaluated the frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) within the exonic regions of the TNFAIP3 gene and an associated point mutation from the Illumina array among a predominantly Hispanic cohort.
Genomic DNA was obtained from 721 participants and sequencing of all TNFAIP3 exons and an intergenic point mutation (rs6920220) was performed. In-vitro functional assessment was performed by transfecting mutated TNFAIP3 constructs into TNFAIP3 knockout cells containing the NF-kB luciferase reporter and stimulating with TNFα. Comparative statistics were performed with Student’s t-test for continuous variables and chi-squared test for categorical variables.
Sequencing revealed two missense SNPs, rs146534657:A>G and rs2230926:T>G, both within exon 3 of TNFAIP3, which encodes the protein’s deubiquitinating enzymatic domain. Frequencies of all three point mutations differed significantly across racial groups (χ2-test, P = 0.014 to P < 0.001). Compared to Caucasians, rs146534657:A>G was overrepresented among Hispanics (odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] 4.05 [1.24−13.18]), and rs2230926:T>G was more prevalent among African-Americans (OR [95% CI] 3.65 [1.58−8.43]). In-vitro assays confirm rs146534657:A>G and rs2230926:T>G decrease the ability of TNFAIP3 to abrogate NF-κB activation by 2-fold (P < 0.01) and 1.7-fold (P < 0.01), respectively.
This study reports the frequency of rs146534657:A>G among Hispanics and is the first to evaluate its potential physiologic impact, establishing a basis for future research as a potential biomarker among this population.