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As Kristina Daugirdas points out in her article on the role of reputation in international organizations (IOs), peacekeeping operations include a multitude of actors with varying interests. These actors have competing priorities, which forces IOs to balance the needs of the actors involved in peacekeeping missions. Because IOs often depend on member states as implementing agents, this could cause IOs to suppress their own interests in favor of member states, which could ultimately negatively affect the communities in which the peacekeepers operate. This dynamic is present in UN peacekeeping operations. While Daugirdas seeks to align the incentives of the UN and the states that contribute peacekeepers so as to harness reputation as a force to encourage the good behavior of all involved, I argue that this alignment rarely happens because of IOs’ reliance on member states. Through the dynamics of UN peacekeeping operations, I show that the UN reliance on states to provide police officers and troops suppresses the UN's own interests in favor of the contributing states’ interests. I also identify a carrots and sticks approach to balancing incentives. As Paul Stephan does in his essay for this symposium, I draw on a rational-choice, actor-based theory to identify the mixed motives of the various actors who staff and operate peacekeeping missions. The framework proposed here, I contend, provides a way to better understand the sources of the tension that exist when evaluating reputation as a disciplinary tool for IOs.
There are limited outcome data in adults with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia. The purpose of this study was to describe re-operations and all-cause mortality in adults with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia.
Retrospective review of adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia who received care at the Mayo Adult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic, 1990–2016. All-cause mortality was calculated as events per 100 patient-years from the time of first presentation to the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic.
Of the 221 patients, the age at initial tetralogy of Fallot repair was 6 (5–13) years, and the age at first presentation to the clinic was 27 – 8 years. All patients had at least one right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit re-operation. There were 31 deaths (14%) at mean age of 41 – 14 years. The causes of death were end-stage heart failure (n = 17), sudden cardiac death (n=9), post-operative death after cardiac surgery (n = 2), sepsis with multi-system organ failure (n = 2), and unknown (n = 1). All-cause mortality rate was 1.7 per 100 patient-years. The risk factors for all-cause mortality were older age (>12 years) at the time of repair (hazard ratio 1.41, 95 confidence interval 1.06–2.02, p = 0.033), non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (hazard ratio 1.36, 95 confidence interval 1.17–2.47, p = 0.015), and left ventricular ejection fraction <50% (hazard ratio 1.39, 95 confidence interval 1.08–2.31, p = 0.031).
Based on a review of 221 adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia, all patients had re-operations and all-cause mortality rate was 1.7 events per 100 patient-years. The current study provides important outcomes data for risk stratification in adults with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia.
The R&D of Autonomous Transportation Systems (ATS) is hindered by the lack of industrial feedback and client's knowledge about technological possibilities. In addition, because of intellectual properties (IP) issues, technology consulting companies can't directly reuse developed functionalities with different clients. In this context, requirements reuse technics presents a good way to capitalize on their knowledge while avoiding IP issues. However, the literature review on requirements reuse processes doesn't propose methods to the application of reuse processes with little information about the system's operational context. In this paper, we present a semi-automated requirement reuse and recycle process for ATS R&D. The process helps designers’ copes with the lack of inputs from the clients. Requirements candidates are retrieved from a database using Natural Language Processing and traceability propagation. It is applied to 3 use cases with inputs less than 5 concepts from the client's needs. The results validate its efficiency through number requirements retrieved and the analysis time consumption
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for two wall-bounded flow configurations: laminar Couette flow at
and turbulent channel flow at
is the shear stress at the wall. The top wall is smooth and the bottom wall is a realistically rough superhydrophobic surface (SHS), generated from a three-dimensional surface profile measurement. The air–water interface, which is assumed to be flat, is simulated using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) approach. The two flow cases are studied with varying interface heights
to understand its effect on slip and drag reduction (
). For the laminar Couette flow case, the presence of the surface roughness is felt up to
of the channel height in the wall-normal direction. Nonlinear dependence of
is observed with three distinct regions. A nonlinear curve fit is obtained for gas fraction
as a function of
determines the amount of slip area exposed to the flow. A power law fit is obtained from the data for the effective slip length as a function of
and is compared to those derived for structured geometry. For the turbulent channel flow, statistics of the flow field are compared to that of a smooth wall to understand the effects of roughness and
. Four cases are simulated ranging from fully wetted to fully covered and two intermediate regions in between. Scaling laws for slip length, slip velocity, roughness function and
are obtained for different penetration depths and are compared to past work for structured geometry.
is shown to depend on a competing effect between slip velocity and turbulent losses due to the Reynolds shear stress contribution. Presence of trapped air in the cavities significantly alters near-wall flow physics where we examine near-wall structures and propose a physical mechanism for their behaviour. The fully wetted roughness increases the peak value of turbulent intensities, whereas the presence of the interface suppresses them. The pressure fluctuations have competing contributions between turbulent pressure fluctuations and stagnation due to asperities, the near-wall structure is altered and breaks down with increasing slip. Overall, there exists a competing effect between the interface and the asperities, the interface suppresses turbulence whereas the asperities enhance them. The present work demonstrates DNS over a realistic multiphase SHS for the first time, to the best of our knowledge.
This paper examines the relationship between debt-oriented capital structure and economic growth by analysing a panel data of 16 European countries, based on the availability of data. We find that the corporate leverage in financial and non-financial corporations affects economic growth negatively. Furthermore, the results indicate that the leverage in non-financial corporations affects economic growth more than the leverage in financial corporations. This is due to the direct relationship between economic growth and the real sector and the fact that non-financial corporations in OECD countries hold more debt as compared with financial corporations.
We analyse the asymptotic extremal growth rate of the Betti numbers of clique complexes of graphs on n vertices not containing a fixed forbidden induced subgraph H.
In particular, we prove a theorem of the alternative: for any H the growth rate achieves exactly one of five possible exponentials, that is, independent of the field of coefficients, the nth root of the maximal total Betti number over n-vertex graphs with no induced copy of H has a limit, as n tends to infinity, and, ranging over all H, exactly five different limits are attained.
For the interesting case where H is the 4-cycle, the above limit is 1, and we prove a superpolynomial upper bound.
A technique to characterize the native passivation layer (NPL) on pure lithium metal foils in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is described in this paper. Lithium is a very reactive metal, and consequently, observing and quantifying its properties in a SEM is often compromised by rapid oxidation. In this work, a pure lithium energy-dispersive x-ray spectrum is obtained for the first time in a high vacuum SEM using a cold stage/cold trap with liquid nitrogen reservoir outside the SEM chamber. A nanomanipulator (OmniProbe 400) inside the microscope combined with x-ray microanalysis and windowless energy dispersive spectrometer is used to fully characterize the NPL of lithium metal and some of its alloys by a mechanical removal procedure. The results show that the native films of pure lithium and its alloys are composed of a thin (25 nm) outer layer that is carbon-rich and an inner layer containing a significant amount of oxygen. Differences in thickness between laminated and extruded samples are observed and vary depending on the alloy composition.
The aim of this study was to examine the gender differential effects of eating habits and physical activity on overweight and obesity among school-aged adolescents in Bangladesh. Nationally representative data extracted from the 2014 Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) were utilized. The survey collected information related to physical and mental health from 2989 school-aged adolescents in Bangladesh. An exploratory data analysis and multivariate logistic regression model were employed in this study. Female adolescents were at a lower risk of being overweight or obese (AOR=0.573) than males, with a prevalence of 7.4% (males: 9.9%). The results showed that high consumption of vegetables (both: AOR=0.454; males: AOR=0.504; females: AOR=0.432), high soft drink consumption (both: AOR=2.357; males: AOR=2.929; females: AOR=1.677), high fast food consumption (both: AOR=2.777; males: AOR=6.064; females: AOR=1.695), sleep disturbance (both: AOR=0.675; males: AOR=0.590; females: AOR=0.555) and regular walking or cycling to school (both: AOR=0.472; males: AOR=0.430; females: AOR=0.557) were vital influencing factors for being overweight or obese among adolescents for both sexes. Sedentary activities during leisure time were also identified as significant predictors of being overweight or obese for males. Regular fruit and vegetable consumption, the avoidance of soft drinks and fast food, an increase in vigorous physical activity, regular attendance at physical education classes and fewer sedentary leisure time activities could all help reduce the risk of being overweight or obese for both sexes.
Delong et al. (2018) presented a theory of fair (market-consistent and actuarial) valuation of insurance liability cash-flow streams in continuous time. In this paper, we investigate in detail two practical applications of our theory of fair valuation. In the first example, we consider the fair valuation of a terminal benefit which is contingent on correlated tradeable and non-tradeable financial risks. In the second example, we consider a portfolio of unit-linked contracts contingent on a non-tradeable insurance and a tradeable financial risk. We derive partial differential equations (PDEs) which characterize the continuous-time fair valuation operators in these two examples and we find explicit solutions to these PDEs. The fair values of the liabilities are decomposed into the best estimate of the liability and a risk margin. The arbitrage-free representations of the fair values of the liabilities are derived and the dynamic hedging strategies associated with the continuous-time fair valuation operators are also established. Detailed interpretations of the results, which should be useful both for researchers and practitioners, are provided.
How to restore citizens’ trust and cooperation with the police in the wake of civil war? We report results from an experimental evaluation of the Liberian National Police’s (LNP) “Confidence Patrols” program, which deployed teams of newly retrained, better-equipped police officers on recurring patrols to rural communities across three Liberian counties over a period of 14 months. We find that the program increased knowledge of the police and Liberian law, enhanced security of property rights, and reduced the incidence of some types of crime, notably simple assault and domestic violence. The program did not, however, improve trust in the police, courts, or government more generally. We also observe higher rates of crime reporting in treatment communities, concentrated almost entirely among those who were disadvantaged under prevailing customary mechanisms of dispute resolution. We consider implications of these findings for post-conflict policing in Liberia and weak and war-torn states more generally.