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This paper presents a non-model-based collision detection algorithm for robots without external sensors and with closed control architecture. A reference signal of repetitive motion is recorded from the robot operation. To detect collisions, the reference is compared with measurements from the robot. One of the key contributions is a novel approach to optimal matching of compared signals, which is ensured by the newly developed modified Dynamic Time Warping (mDTW) method presented in this paper. One of the main improvements of the mDTW is that it enables comparing a signal with the most similar section of the other signal. Partial matching also enables online application of time warping principles and reduces the time and computation resources needed to perform matching. In addition to mDTW, two complementary decision rules are developed to identify collisions. The first rule, based on the absolute difference between compared matched samples, uses statistically determined thresholds to perform rapid detection of unambiguous collisions. The second rule is based on Eigen values of the covariance matrix of matched samples, and it employs its higher sensitivity to detect collisions with lower intensity. Results from experimental validation of the proposed collision algorithm on two industrial robots are shown.
We employ global input–output analysis to quantify amplification of exogenous disturbances in compressible boundary layer flows. Using the spatial structure of the dominant response to time-periodic inputs, we explain the origin of steady reattachment streaks in a hypersonic flow over a compression ramp. Our analysis of the laminar shock–boundary layer interaction reveals that the streaks arise from a preferential amplification of upstream counter-rotating vortical perturbations with a specific spanwise wavelength. These streaks are associated with heat-flux striations at the wall near flow reattachment and they can trigger transition to turbulence. The streak wavelength predicted by our analysis compares favourably with observations from two different hypersonic compression ramp experiments. Furthermore, our analysis of inviscid transport equations demonstrates that base-flow deceleration contributes to the amplification of streamwise velocity and that the baroclinic effects are responsible for the production of streamwise vorticity. Finally, the appearance of the temperature streaks near reattachment is triggered by the growth of streamwise velocity and streamwise vorticity perturbations as well as by the amplification of upstream temperature perturbations by the reattachment shock.
Little evidence exists to support pharmacotherapeutic strategies for heart failure management in paediatrics. A recent Europe-wide survey suggests that this translates into substantial variability in clinical practice.
To conduct a formal discussion among an expert group of paediatric cardiology physicians on controversial aspects regarding the pharmacotherapy of children heart failure, facilitate consensus, and highlight areas of agreement and disagreement.
A two-round modified Delphi process was conducted between July and August 2015. Topics addressed were predominantly selected from the results of a previous Europe-wide survey. Fourteen statements were presented for discussion grouped under three categories; Angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors: Considerations for optimal dosage; Angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors for the management of CHDs; Neurohumoral antagonists for the management of dilated cardiomyopathy-related heart failure.
A total of 13 paediatricians dedicated to cardiology from across Europe and the United States of America completed the study; of them, 92% had a working experience in the field of more than 10 years and were working in a specific paediatric cardiology unit. Agreement on the acceptance/rejection of 11 statements was achieved. Results show agreement on the importance of a set of topics relevant to the standardisation of the therapy as well as consensus upon specific therapeutic attitudes.
We have found areas of common thinking and motivation, which can provide a means of triggering scientific collaboration. Our results might also contribute to disseminate available paediatric evidence and promote reducing unjustified variability in everyday practice. Until solid evidence is available, other research methods can contribute to advancing the goal of safe and effective paediatric heart failure pharmacotherapy.
As part of comprehensive research on the ethical climate in the Serbian tourism industry, this study examines the effects of selected predictors (job department, individual values and employees’ perspective) on the perception of ethical climate types as well as the relationship between the type of ethical climate, and job satisfaction. Additionally, this study tests these goals for both managers and their subordinates. Research was conducted in 2013, on a sample of 258 employees in different small and medium tourism organizations in Serbia. The findings revealed new information on both ethical climate and job satisfaction-related factors in small and medium tourism enterprises in a non-Western, transitional economy, where ethical behavior is influenced by constant social and economic changes. Several theoretical and managerial implications and future research opportunities were derived from the findings.
Jurisprudence has up until recently largely neglected international law as a subject of philosophizing. The Nature of International Law tries to offset against this deficiency by providing a comprehensive explanatory account of international law. It does so within an analytical tradition, albeit within the one which departs from the nowadays dominant method of the metaphysically-driven conceptual analysis. Instead, it adopts the prototype theory of concepts, which is directed towards determining typical features constitutive of the nature of international law. The book's central finding is that those features are: normativity, institutionalization, coercive guaranteeing, and justice-aptness. Since typical features are context sensitive, their specificities at the international level are further elucidated. The book, finally, challenges the often raised claim that fragmentation is international law's unique feature by demonstrating that international institutional actors, particularly adjudicative ones, largely perceive themselves as officials of a unified legal order.
An analytic theory is presented of magnetic structures in collisionless, high-
plasmas. Using a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model, a stationary nonlinear solution is constructed in the form of a Kelvin–Stuart cat’s eyes chain of magnetic islands, on the spatial scale that exceeds the characteristic ion lengths. The solution is imbedded in a background current sheet and possesses both a significant plasma density perturbation trapped inside the magnetic islands and a compressional magnetic field component that is driven mostly by a current loop located at the separatrix of the islands. This theory may provide an explanation for the magnetic structures observed in the solar wind close to the Earth by the Cluster spacecraft.