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It would not be very much of an overstatement to say that modern academic writing about medieval warfare – in English, at least – began with Sir Charles Oman, whose first essay on the subject was written in 1884 and later expanded into his History of the Art of War in the Middle Ages, which went through two editions (1898 and 1924). Oman’s brisk narrative weaving together weaponry, military institutions and exemplary battles is typical of the pioneering generation of literature on the subject – and not just in English, as attested by such works as Hans Delbrück’sGeschichte der Kriegskunst im Rahmen der politischen Geschichte (three editions between 1900 and 1920) and Ferdinand Lot’s L’Art militaire et les armées au Moyen Age en Europe et dans le Proche Orient (1946). Another characteristic shared by all of these early surveys is their lack of interest in the world beyond Europe, except to the extent that Europeans came into contact with that world through encounters such as the Crusades (as suggested by the wording of Lot’s title).
The Tang dynasty, which lasted from 618 to 907, was typical of China’s great imperial regimes in that it owed its creation to successful military action and saw its subsequent fortunes shaped to a very great extent by events on the battlefield; when its military power waned the dynasty faltered, and when that power had dissipated completely it fell. In the Tang, as under earlier and later dynasties, the ruling elites were intensely interested in matters of military policy and strategy, with military expenditures claiming the largest portion of the state’s revenues. For the Tang, as for all of the other dynasties, the image of Confucian sage kings ruling by moral suasion, without reference to force of arms, belongs to the realm of myth rather than reality.
Volume II of The Cambridge History of War covers what in Europe is commonly called 'the Middle Ages'. It includes all of the well-known themes of European warfare, from the migrations of the Germanic peoples and the Vikings through the Reconquista, the Crusades and the age of chivalry, to the development of state-controlled gunpowder-wielding armies and the urban militias of the later middle ages; yet its scope is world-wide, ranging across Eurasia and the Americas to trace the interregional connections formed by the great Arab conquests and the expansion of Islam, the migrations of horse nomads such as the Avars and the Turks, the formation of the vast Mongol Empire, and the spread of new technologies – including gunpowder and the earliest firearms – by land and sea.
The aim of this study is to determine the species of parasite that infected the population of Brussels during the Medieval and Renaissance periods, and determine if there was notable variation between different households within the city. We compared multiple sediment layers from cesspits beneath three different latrines dating from the 14th–17th centuries. Helminths and protozoa were detected using microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We identified Ascaris sp., Capillaria sp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Entamoeba histolytica, Fasciola hepatica, Giardia duodenalis, Taenia sp. and Trichuris sp. in Medieval samples, and continuing presence of Ascaris sp., D. dendriticum, F. hepatica, G. duodenalis and Trichuris sp. into the Renaissance. While some variation existed between households, there was a broadly consistent pattern with the domination of species spread by fecal contamination of food and drink (whipworm, roundworm and protozoa that cause dysentery). These data allow us to explore diet and hygiene, together with routes for the spread of fecal–oral parasites. Key factors explaining our findings are manuring practices with human excrement in market gardens, and flooding of the polluted River Senne during the 14th–17th centuries.
Existing research has suggested children of caregivers with histories of exposure to trauma are at heightened risk for victimization, but few studies have explored potential mechanisms that explain this intergenerational transmission of risk. With data from peri-urban households in Lima, Peru (N = 402), this study analyzes parenting behaviors in the relation between caregivers’ trauma history and child victimization for children aged 4–17. Results indicated caregivers’ trauma history and negative parenting behaviors related to child victimization, and negative parenting behaviors mediated this relation. Positive parenting behaviors did not have significant direct effects and were not mediators of risk transmission. Parenting behaviors did not moderate the relation between caregiver and child victimization, suggesting parenting behaviors may not buffer or exacerbate intergenerational transmission. Post-hoc analyses revealed family type (e.g., single, cohabitating/married) exerted significant direct and moderating effects on child risk, interacting with positive parenting. Families with married/cohabitating caregivers reported overall lower levels of child victimization; however, the relation between positive parenting and victimization was slightly stronger for children in single-parent families. Results highlight potential pathways of the intergenerational cycle of victimization and suggest high-risk families in Peru may benefit from parenting supports, especially pertaining to remediation of negative parenting behaviors.
The KIBRA rs17070145 “CC” and the CLSTN2 rs6439886 “TT” genotypes have been associated with poor episodic memory performance in healthy persons. Episodic memory is also impaired in depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that depressed persons with the “CC/TT” genotype combination would perform worse in comparison to other KIBRA and CLSTN2 combinations.
To examine the effects of KIBRA and CLSTN2 on episodic memory performance in nondepressed and depressed elderly persons (60+).
Genotyping from peripheral blood samples and episodic memory testing were performed in the population-based SNAC-K study. All non-demented participants (n = 2332) were categorized according to depression status (nondepressed/depressed) following ICD-10 criteria. Dichotomous variables were used for KIBRA (any T/CC) and CLSTN2 (any C/TT).
A three-factor MANCOVA revealed no main effects, but two significant interaction effects for episodic memory performance. Post hoc test for KIBRA × CLSTN2 revealed that persons with the “CC/TT” genotype exhibited poorer performance on free recall and recognition. Further, the three-way interaction (KIBRA × CLSTN2 × depression) showed that the negative effect of the “CC/TT” genotype was most pronounced among depressed persons Depressed “CC/TT” consistently performed at the lowest level.
The combination of the KIBRA “CC” and the CLSTN2 “TT” genotypes was associated with poorer episodic memory performance in both nondepressed and depressed persons. Depression in combination with the “CC/TT” genotype was especially disadvantageous for episodic memory performance. This supports the view that effects of specific SNPs on performance may be most easily disclosed at suboptimal levels of cognitive ability, e.g. in depression.
Impaired illness awareness or insight into illness (IIA) is a common feature of schizophrenia that contributes to medication nonadherence and poor clinical outcomes. Neuroimaging studies suggest IIA may arise from interhemispheric imbalance in frontoparietal regions, particularly in the posterior parietal area (PPA) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). In this pilot study, we examined the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on brain regions implicated in IIA.
Eleven patients with schizophrenia with IIA (≥3 PANSS G12) and 10 healthy controls were included. A crossover design was employed where all participants received single-session bi-frontal, bi-parietal, and sham stimulation in random order. For each condition, we measured (i) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to an illness awareness task pre- and post-stimulation, (ii) regional cerebral blood-flow (rCBF) prior to and during stimulation, and (iii) changes in illness awareness.
At baseline, patients with schizophrenia showed higher BOLD-response to an illness awareness task in the left-PPA compared to healthy controls. Bi-parietal stimulation reduced the interhemispheric imbalance in the PPA compared to sham stimulation. Relatedly, bi-parietal stimulation increased rCBF beneath the anode (21% increase in the right-PPA), but not beneath the cathode (5.6% increase in the left-PPA). Bi-frontal stimulation did not induce changes in rCBF. We found no changes in illness awareness.
Although single-session tDCS did not improve illness awareness, this pilot study provides mechanistic justification for future investigations to determine if multi-session bi-parietal tDCS can induce sustained changes in brain activity in the PPA in association with improved illness awareness.
The four centuries from the breakdown of Han authority after 184 ce to the conquest of southern China by the Sui dynasty in 589 are by far the longest period of disunity and division that China has experienced since it was first brought under unified imperial rule by the Qin dynasty in 221 bce. Like other ages of division in Chinese history, the Six Dynasties period was marked by frequent, if not incessant, warfare, as a plethora of rival political authorities sought aggrandizement at the expense of their neighbors, and the most powerful and ambitious among them aimed to re-create, under their own authority, the lost imperial unity of Han times. As in other such periods, from the Warring States of the fourth century bce to the warlord era of the early twentieth century, division and conflict were conducive to the emergence of new military techniques and new methods of organizing both the state and its armies for success in war.
Hydraulic processes within and beneath glacial bodies exert a far-reaching control on ice flow through their influence on basal sliding. Within the subglacial system, rapid changes in these processes may excite resonances whose interpretation requires an understanding of the underlying wave mechanics. Here, we explore these mechanics using observations from a kHz-sampled pressure sensor installed in a borehole directly above the hard granite bedrock of a temperate mountain glacier in Switzerland. We apply a previously established theory of wave propagation along thin, water-filled structures such as water-filled voids, basal water layers, or hydraulic fractures. Within such structures, short-wavelength waves experience restoring forces due to compressibility and are composed of sound waves. Long-wavelength resonances, in contrast, experience restoring forces due to elasticity and are composed of anomalously dispersed crack waves or Krauklis waves. Our borehole observations confirm the occurrence of both sound and crack waves within the basal water layer. Using both the resonance frequencies and attenuation of recorded crack waves we estimate thickness, aperture and length of the resonating basal water layer patch into which we drilled. We demonstrate that high-frequency observations of subglacial hydraulic processes provide new insights into this evolving dynamic system.