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Hydraulic processes within and beneath glacial bodies exert a far-reaching control on ice flow through their influence on basal sliding. Within the subglacial system, rapid changes in these processes may excite resonances whose interpretation requires an understanding of the underlying wave mechanics. Here, we explore these mechanics using observations from a kHz-sampled pressure sensor installed in a borehole directly above the hard granite bedrock of a temperate mountain glacier in Switzerland. We apply a previously established theory of wave propagation along thin, water-filled structures such as water-filled voids, basal water layers, or hydraulic fractures. Within such structures, short-wavelength waves experience restoring forces due to compressibility and are composed of sound waves. Long-wavelength resonances, in contrast, experience restoring forces due to elasticity and are composed of anomalously dispersed crack waves or Krauklis waves. Our borehole observations confirm the occurrence of both sound and crack waves within the basal water layer. Using both the resonance frequencies and attenuation of recorded crack waves we estimate thickness, aperture and length of the resonating basal water layer patch into which we drilled. We demonstrate that high-frequency observations of subglacial hydraulic processes provide new insights into this evolving dynamic system.
Very little work has examined potential moderating effects in the link between prenatal intimate partner violence (IPV) and infant adjustment, especially in the first critical weeks following delivery. The current study evaluated the protective role of breastfeeding in the relationship between prenatal IPV and infant temperament at 4 months. Pregnant women (n = 82) were interviewed during pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 4 months postpartum. It was hypothesized that (a) prenatal IPV would predict infant temperament outcomes at the 4-month postpartum visit, and (b) breastfeeding continuation at 6 weeks acts as a protective factor such that breastfed infants will be less affected by the risk posed by prenatal IPV. Results indicated direct and negative effects of prenatal IPV on positive affectivity/surgency and orienting/regulatory capacity at 4 months. A significant moderating effect of breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum was identified. Mothers who were not breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum demonstrated the expected negative relationship between prenatal IPV exposure and infant adjustment, but if mothers were breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum, the relationship between IPV exposure and infant positive affectivity/surgency and orienting/regulatory capacity was not significantly different from zero. Results indicate a significant protective effect of breastfeeding in the intergenerational transmission of risk for infants born to mothers exposed to IPV.
In order to evaluate interventions promoting social health in people with dementia it is essential to have reliable and valid measures. The present review aims to provide an overview of available instruments for the assessment of two domains of social health in community-dwelling people with mild dementia, i.e., the ability to manage life with some degree of independence (self-management) and participation in social activities.
An electronic search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Characteristics of the instruments, feasibility and psychometric properties of the instruments included are reported on.
We identified eight instruments measuring aspects of self-management and three instruments measuring social participation. Validity and reliability of self-management instruments varied between moderate and good. Little information was found on the psychometric properties of the instruments for social participation. In general, feasibility and responsiveness data regarding application in community-dwelling people with dementia were scarce for both types of instruments.
Future research into assessment tools for social health should focus on the development of instruments for self-management that also cover the areas of coping with and adapting to the emotional consequences of the disease; instruments for social participation covering the involvement in social interactions that are experienced as meaningful by the person; and on the psychometric properties and responsiveness of instruments. More attention should also be given to the feasibility (ease of use) of these instruments for people with mild dementia, professionals, and researchers.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Background: To determine whether exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) in CSF of patients with FTD can serve as diagnostic biomarkers, we assessed miRNA expression in the Genetic FTD Initiative (GENFI) cohort and in sporadic FTD. Methods: GENFI participants were either carriers of a pathogenic mutation or at risk of carrying a mutation because a first-degree relative was a symptomatic mutation carrier. Exosomes were isolated from CSF of 23 -pre-symptomatic and 15 symptomatic mutation carriers, and 11 healthy non-mutation carriers. Expression of miRNAs was measured using qPCR arrays. MiRNAs differentially expressed in symptomatic compared to pre-symptomatic mutation carriers were evaluated in 17 patients with sporadic FTD, 13 patients with sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and 10 healthy controls (HCs). Results: In the GENFI cohort, miR-204-5p and miR-632 were significantly decreased in symptomatic compared to pre-symptomatic mutation carriers. Decrease of miR-204-5p and miR-632 revealed receiver operator characteristics with an area of 0.89 [90% CI: 0.79-0.98] and 0.81 [90% CI: 0.68-0.93], and when combined an area of 0.93 [90% CI: 0.87-0.99]. In sporadic FTD, only miR-632 was significantly decreased compared to sporadic AD and HCs. Decrease of miR-632 revealed an area of 0.89 [90% CI: 0.80-0.98]. Conclusions: Exosomal miR-204-5p and miR-632 have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for genetic FTD and miR-632 also for sporadic FTD.
Nanoenergetic composites are of overwhelming interest to the Department of Defense because of the higher power output and the ability to finely tune the ignition thresholds of these composites. Recently, several variants of a nanoaluminum-poly(perfluorinated methacrylate) (AlFA) have been synthesized and optimized for a variety of applications including reactive warhead liners and bullet spotters. While conventional techniques such as thermal analysis and bomb calorimetry can be used to characterize the reaction mechanism and energy output of AlFA composites, characterizing their dynamic behaviour is more challenging. Bullet spotter applications require a material to be impact sensitive at very low velocities, yet be adequately insensitive. Several live-fire tests were conducted which revealed the AlFA50 material reacted consistently upon target impact at high velocities, but unreliably at very low velocities. In an effort to better understand the fundamental impact ignition mechanism and to determine the impact velocity threshold of AlFA50 a series of Taylor gas gun experiments were conducted. It was determined that the light-initiation mechanism was consistent with a pinch mechanism, and that the ignition velocity threshold was near 74 m/s. Based on these results, it was hypothesized that the addition of a filler material could be used to sensitize the AlFA50, and that Asay shear impact testing could be used to determine a more optimal shape of such inclusions. Experiments performed using the Asay shear impact test setup confirmed the pinch ignition mechanism, but observations also revealed that the size of the pinch point was important. Finally, it was shown that the addition of large glass beads (> 1mm in diameter) was effective at sensitizing the AlFA50 material at high and low velocities, with ignition observed at impact velocities as low as 35 m/s.
The aim of this study is to explore how community-dwelling older people with cognitive problems and their care-givers (dyads) perceive their own social participation, how care-givers evaluate the social participation of the people they care for and what factors they perceive as influential. In this qualitative study, we performed 13 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with dyads who participated in the Social Fitness Programme. We used content analysis to analyse the interviews thematically. Social participation perceptions include changes over time and a discrepancy in perspectives. All the people with cognitive problems and most care-givers perceived a decreased social participation. Most people with cognitive problems answered that they were satisfied, in contrast to most care-givers who were dissatisfied with the decreased social participation of the people they cared for. Analysing the influencing factors resulted in five themes: behavioural, physical, social environmental, physical environmental and activity-related. People with cognitive problems and their care-givers displayed a discrepancy in social participation perspectives. This becomes a major dilemma, especially for younger care-givers. A key element is a sometimes deliberate choice of people with cognitive problems to refrain from social participation to protect themselves from the consequences of cognitive problems and from encounters with others. This highlights the dynamics of social participation as an interaction between personal factors and the social and physical environment in which social participation occurs.
Objectives: Peer-review publication is a critical step to the translation and dissemination of research results into clinical practice guidelines, health technology assessment (HTA) and payment policies, and clinical care. The objective of this study was to examine current views of journal editors regarding: (i) The value of real-world evidence (RWE) and how it compares with other types of studies; (ii) Education and/or resources journal editors provide to their peer reviewers or perceive as needed for authors, reviewers, and editors related to RWE.
Methods: Journal editors’ views on the value of RWE and editorial procedures for RWE manuscripts were obtained through telephone interviews, a survey, and in-person, roundtable discussion.
Results: In total, seventy-nine journals were approached, resulting in fifteen telephone interviews, seventeen survey responses and eight roundtable participants. RWE was considered valuable by all interviewed editors (n = 15). Characteristics of high-quality RWE manuscripts included: novelty/relevance, rigorous methodology, and alignment of data to research question. Editors experience challenges finding peer reviewers; however, these challenges persist across all study designs. Journals generally do not provide guidance, assistance, or training for reviewers, including for RWE studies. Health policy/health services research (HSR) editors were more likely than specialty or general medicine editors to participate in this study, potentially indicating that HSR researchers are more comfortable/interested in RWE.
Conclusions: Editors report favorable views of RWE studies provided studies examine important questions and are methodologically rigorous. Improving peer-review processes across all study designs, has the potential to improve the evidence base for decision making, including HTA.
Health technology assessment (HTA) bodies often rely heavily upon evidence from peer-review publications to inform their recommendations. Since journal editors attitudes likely influence the types of study designs that are accepted through the peer-review process and on to publication, journal editors serve as gatekeepers to translation of evidence, including real word evidence (RWE), into practice. Given past skepticism of RWE study designs, journal editors perceptions of and possible biases toward RWE are important to understand as they may impact dissemination and, therefore, uptake of research findings. The objective of this study was to examine current views of journal editors regarding the: (i) value of RWE studies and (ii) challenges editors face in managing, reviewing, and publishing RWE manuscripts.
Journal editors representing general medicine (GM), specialty medicine (SM), health policy/services research (HSR) were invited to participate in a telephone interview, a survey, and an in-person, roundtable discussion.
In total, seventy-nine journals were approached, resulting in: 15 interviews (GM = 2; SM = 5; HSR = 8), 17 survey responses (GM = 2; SM = 6; HSR = 9) and 8 roundtable participants. RWE was viewed favorably by interviewed editors (n = 15). Characteristics of high-quality RWE manuscripts included: research question novelty/relevance, rigorous methodology, alignment of data with question, and the extent data-source advantages are optimized. Similar manuscript review processes and challenges were voiced for RWE and other study designs. HSR editors were more likely than SM or GM editors to participate, potentially indicating these researchers are more comfortable or interested in RWE. A possible study limitation was that editors favorable toward RWE may have been more likley to participate.
Peer-review journal editors appear to have favorable views regarding RWE studies and can be accelerators to dissemination of RWE findings. However, they do report that studies and processes could be improved. One suggested improvement included a checklist for editors to speed rejections and improve communications with authors.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for depression, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Animal studies have shown that electroconvulsive shock induced neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus.
To summarise volumetric magnetic resonance imaging studies investigating the effects of ECT on limbic brain structures.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess volumetric changes of each side of the hippocampus and amygdala before and after ECT. Standardised mean difference (SMD) was calculated.
A total of 8 studies (n = 193) were selected for our analyses. Both right and left hippocampal and amygdala volumes increased after ECT. Meta-regression analyses revealed that age, percentage of those responding and percentage of those in remission were negatively associated with volume increases in the left hippocampus.
ECT increased brain volume in the limbic structures. The clinical relevance of volume increase needs further investigation.
I first met Michael Katz on a clear, cool autumn afternoon in 1970. I was an uncertain first-year graduate student at the University of Toronto intending to complete a doctorate in British history with a project on antisocialism. Feeling confused, anxious, and unsatisfied by my courses, I began to share my concerns with fellow students. One of them, who became a lifelong friend (and editor), suggested that I contact that “young professor up the street” in history of education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education who worked in the new social history. Having read Thernstrom, Tilly, E. P. Thompson, Eric Hobsbawm, Barrington Moore, and so forth, in a senior honors seminar, I drew up my courage and went to meet Michael.
The internal energy distributions of reactants in shocked interstellar clouds are discussed. Rate coefficients appropriate for the oxygen chemistry of shocks differ significantly from those deduced by simple extrapolation of thermal measurements. A one-fluid MHD shock model examines nonthermal effects for a 10 km s−1 shock propagating through clouds of initial densities of 10 and 105 cm−3, using oxygen-hydrogen reaction rates that are specific to the vibrational, rotational, and fine structure temperatures of the reactants.
During the Tang period (618–907), war and the preparations for war significantly influenced the shape of the Chinese empire and the lives of its people. That influence can be found on at least four levels. The first of these is the state’s demand for military service, which imposed a variety of burdens upon a significant percentage of the population. The second is the state’s demand for cash, fabric, grain and other financial and material resources to meet the needs of the military establishment, a demand that affected the whole of the taxpaying population. Third is the loss and destruction caused directly by warfare, especially massive internal conflicts such as the rebellions of An Lushan and Huang Chao. Fourth, and most far-reaching and diffuse, is the range of cultural reactions to military affairs, from the emphatic embrace of martial attitudes and behaviors to their emphatic rejection.
The nature and state of the family has long been a major concern in the United States. It has been apparent in the literature and criticism since the Puritan arrival in the seventeenth century and may be followed thereafter. However, the family has not been a major concern of American historians. As Edward Saveth reminds us, in the 1962 Presidential Address of the American Historical Association, Carl Bridenbaugh spoke of the need for research in the neglected field of American family history and suggested that the profession assign a priority to this general area. Saveth, in 1969, concluded that “apart from some impressive work in historical demography, the situation has not altered.”