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Rabbit commercial maternal lines are usually selected for litter size (LS) and paternal lines for growth rate (GR). Line OR_LS was selected by ovulation rate (OR) and LS to improve LS more efficiently. In this study, growth traits of line OR_LS were evaluated by estimating the correlated response on weaning weight (WW), slaughter weight (SW) and GR during fattening period as well as their variability (DWW, DSW and DGR, respectively). Data were analyzed using Bayesian inference methods. Heritability estimates were low for growth traits (0.09, 0.13 and 0.14 for WW, SW and GR, respectively) and negligible for growth traits variability (0.01, 0.004 and 0.01 for DWW, DSW and DGR, respectively). Moderate common litter effect ratio (c2; 0.35, 0.28 and 0.27) and low maternal effect ratio (m2; 0.11, 0.05 and 0.01) were obtained for WW, SW and GR, respectively. Both c2 and m2 were lower at slaughter than at weaning. In addition, low common litter effect and negligible maternal effect were observed for growth traits variability. Genetic correlations between LS and both growth traits and their variability were close to zero. Positive genetic correlations were observed between OR and growth traits (0.19, 0.38 and 0.36 for WW, SW and GR, respectively) as well as between OR and growth traits variability (0.35, 0.62 and 0.20 for DWW, DSW and DGR, respectively). Positive correlated responses in both periods were obtained for growth traits, WW, SW and GR (0.037, 0.156 and 0.110 kg, respectively). The correlated response found in growth traits might be due to the positive genetic correlations between OR and these traits. However, selection for OR and LS using independent culling levels did not modify the growth traits variability. Therefore, no negative consequences on growth traits can be expected in current commercial maternal lines.
This is a retrospective cohort study based on data from five nursing homes which aims to appraise how physical and cognitive characteristics of nursing home residents were associated with the use of restraints, and to provide information on their prevalence in Spain. The goal was to assess, in a visual way, the possible interactions between the nursing homes residents’ characteristics and their association with the use of restraints. Motivation, risk factors, characteristics of the residents analysed by validated rating systems that assess mobility, level of dependence, cognitive condition and nutritional status, and their association with the use of restraints, were described by means of linear and non-linear multivariate approaches in the form of self-organised maps. Findings showed that the prevalence of restraints was high when compared to other developed countries. The visual analysis reinforced the knowledge that a greater impairment was associated with the use of restraints and vice versa. However, the residents’ characteristics were not always associated with the use of restraints. Subjective factors seem to play a relevant role in decision-making, so it is important to assess risk factors continuously and determine the actual need for the use of restraints from an individual perspective by basing the criteria on specific objectives, and on consistent, reproducible and reliable methods. Initiatives to minimise these subjective factors should be promoted. Likewise, a clear definition of physical restraints should be offered at each centre. In addition, effective legislation that clearly states the need, alternatives and motivation for the use of restraints is needed.
This paper investigates the reasons why provincial issuing banks in Spain maintained high reserves in the 19th century and the effects this had. The introduction of banknotes into the economy meant that convertibility had to be guaranteed. If convertibility was respected, this gave banks a good reputation and made them reliable. The Palmer Rule was a control mechanism stating that a well-managed bank should keep one-third of its liabilities as cash in hand and two-thirds in securities. In Spain the banking system, constituted in the mid-19th century, was characterised by a plurality of issuing banks. Regulations required reserves only to secure notes, with no mention of reserve requirements for banks’ other types of liabilities. However, Spanish provincial banks of issue adopted the Palmer Rule. The Bank of Spain did not follow the same path.
Resilience is the ability of an animal to return soon to its initial productivity after facing diverse environmental challenges. This trait is directly related to animal welfare and it plays a key role in fluctuations of livestock productivity. A divergent selection experiment for environmental variance of litter size has been performed successfully in rabbits over ten generations. The objective of this study was to analyse resilience indicators of stress and disease in the divergent lines of this experiment. The high line showed a lower survival rate at birth than the low line (−4.1%). After correcting by litter size, the difference was −3.2%. Involuntary culling rate was higher in the high than in the low line (+12.4%). Before vaccination against viral haemorrhagic disease or myxomatosis, concentration of lymphocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), complement C3, serum bilirubin, triglycerides and cholesterol were higher in the high line than in the low line (difference between lines +4.5%, +5.6 µg/ml, +4.6 mg/ml, +7.9 mmol/l, +0.3 mmol/l and +0.4 mmol/l). Immunological and biochemical responses to the two vaccines were similar. After vaccination, the percentage of lymphocytes and CRP concentration were higher in the low line than in the high one (difference between lines +4.0% and +13.1 µg/ml). The low line also showed a higher increment in bilirubin and triglycerides than the high line (+14.2 v. +8.7 mmol/l for bilirubin and +0.11 v. +0.01 mmol/l for triglycerides); these results would agree with the protective role of bilirubin and triglycerides against the larger inflammatory response found in this line. In relation to stress, the high line had higher basal concentration of cortisol than the low line (+0.2ng/ml); the difference between lines increased more than threefold after the injection of ACTH 1 to 24, the increase being greater in the high line (+0.9 ng/ml) than in the low line (+0.4 ng/ml). Selection for divergent environmental variability of litter size leads to dams with different culling rate for reproductive causes and different kits’ neonatal survival. These associations suggest that the observed fitness differences are related to differences in the inflammatory response and the corticotrope response to stress, which are two important components of physiological adaptation to environmental aggressions.
Species of the genus Tylodelphys (Diplostomidae) have a cosmopolitan distribution. Metacercariae of these species infect the eye, brain, pericardial sac or body cavity of fish second intermediate hosts, and the adults are found in piscivorous birds of many orders. An unnamed species of Tylodelphys from the eyes of bullies (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) was characterized molecularly and morphologically as a metacercaria in a previous study, in which it was predicted that the adult of this species would be found in the Australasian crested grebe. Two specimens of this bird became available and specimens of the unnamed Tylodelphys species were, indeed, found in them, confirmed by identity of genetic sequence data. Found to differ morphologically from its congeners, the new species is here described as Tylodelphys darbyi n. sp. Three species are closest to the new species in morphology: Tylodelphys glossoides, T. immer and T. podicipina robrauschi. Compared with T. darbyi n. sp. these three species are slightly larger and possess longer eggs. Tylodelphys glossoides also differs in having a wider oral sucker and T. podicipina robrauschi in having comma- or kidney-shaped pseudosuckers and an ovary that reaches a larger size, along with higher upper limits for body width, hind body and sucker width, holdfast and oesophagus length, and pharynx, pseudosucker and testes length and width. Tylodelphys immer also differs from T. darbyi n. sp. in having a shorter ventral sucker and the largest pseudosuckers of any Tylodelphys species.
Completed suicide (CS) is a leading cause of death worldwide and its rates are available for most developed countries. On the other hand, attempted suicide (AS) is a risk factor for CS but there are limited data on its rates in various countries. In constructing a ratio for AS/CS rates, most would agree that for CS, the denominator should be the annual suicide rate (per 100 000). As for the ratio's numerator (AS) per 100 000, there are three possible calculations: (1) annual prevalence from population surveys, (2) annual prevalence from national clinical registers or (3) lifetime prevalence from population surveys. We think that the first possibility would probably be the best choice but, unfortunately, surveys providing the annual prevalence of AS are lacking for most countries. Annual prevalence from national registers is also lacking for most countries and is contaminated by under-reporting. Therefore, in this editorial, we are left with only the last option, a ratio for lifetime prevalence of AS (per 100 000) divided by annual rate of CS (per 100 000). This ratio for AS/CS rates appears to differ substantially across countries worldwide but presents no big regional differences other than two remarkable exceptions, one per continent. In Europe, Spain and France had greater ratios (174.4 and 152.5, respectively) than Italy (64.1). In Asia/Pacific, New Zealand has a higher ratio (345.9) compared with China (75.8) and Japan (76.9). The ratio for AS/CS rates could be a good index for implementing evidence-informed decision-making regarding suicidal behaviour (SB) among health service managers, and for helping them in the allocation of health resources for the prevention of SB.
A divergent selection experiment on litter size variability (high and low lines) was performed in rabbits over seven generations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlated responses to selection in body condition and fat reserves mobilisation. Litter size variability was estimated as phenotypic variance of litter size within female after correcting for the year-season and the parity-lactation status effects. A total of 226 females were used in this study, of which 158 females were used to measure body condition and energy mobilisation. Body condition was measured as BW and perirenal fat thickness. Females were stimulated with the adrenergic isoproterenol. Mobilisation capacity of fat reserves was measured by the lipolytic potential, defined as the increment in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels from basal concentration until adrenergic stimulation at mating, delivery and 10 days after delivery of the second reproductive cycle. Females were classified as survivor or non-survivor when they were culled for sanitary reasons or died before the third kindling. Data were analysed using Bayesian methodology. Survivor females presented higher BW than the non-survivor females at delivery (238 g, P=1.00) and 10 days after delivery (276 g, P=1.00). They also showed higher perirenal fat thickness at 10 days after delivery (0.62 mm, P=1.00). At delivery, basal NEFA levels was lower in survivor than non-survivor females (−0.18 mmol/l, P=1.00), but their lipolytic potential (∆NEFA) was higher (0.08 mmol/l, P=0.94). Body weight was similar between lines in survivor females. Perirenal fat thickness was lower in the high line than in the low line at delivery (−0.23 mm, P=0.90) and 10 days after delivery (−0.28 mm, P=0.92). The high line exhibited higher NEFA (0.10 mmol/l, P=0.93) and lower ∆NEFA (−0.08 mmol/l, P=0.92) than the low line at delivery. The low line showed a favourable correlated response to selection on body condition and fat reserves mobilisation. In conclusion, the low line selected for litter size variability seems to adapt better to adverse conditions, as it has a greater capacity to mobilise energy reserves at delivery than the high line. Females that adequately manage their body reserves and perform energy mobilisation correctly have a lower risk of dying or being culled.
Farmer profit depends on the number of slaughter rabbits. The improvement of litter size (LS) at birth by two-stage selection for ovulation rate (OR) and LS could modify survival rate from birth to slaughter. This study was aiming to estimate direct and correlated response on LS traits and peri- and postnatal survival traits in the OR_LS rabbit line selected first only for OR (first period) and then for OR and LS using independent culling levels (second period). The studied traits were OR, LS measured as number of total born, number of kits born alive (NBA) and dead (NBD), and number of kits at weaning (NW) and young rabbits at slaughter (NS). Prenatal survival (LS/OR) and survival at birth (NBA/LS), at weaning (NW/NBA) and at slaughter (NS/NW) were also studied. Data were analysed using Bayesian inference methods. Heritability for LS traits were low, 0.07 for NBA, NW and NS. Survival traits had low values of heritability 0.07, 0.03 and 0.03 for NBA/LS, NW/NBA and NS/NW, respectively. After six generations of selection by OR (first period), a small increase in NBD and a slight decrease in NBA/LS were found. However, no correlated responses on NW/NBA and NS/NW were observed. After 11 generations of two-stage selection for OR and LS (second period), correlated responses on NBA, NW and NS were 0.12, 0.12 and 0.11 kits per generation, respectively, whereas no substantial modifications on NBA/LS, NW/NBA and NS/NW were found. In conclusion, two-stage selection improves the number of young rabbits at slaughter without modifying survival from birth to slaughter.
Parasite distribution patterns in lotic catchments are driven by the combined influences of unidirectional water flow and the mobility of the most mobile host. However, the importance of such drivers in catchments dominated by lentic habitats are poorly understood. We examined parasite populations of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from a series of linear-connected lakes in northern Norway to assess the generality of lotic-derived catchment-scale parasite assemblage patterns. Our results demonstrated that the abundance of most parasite taxa increased from the upper to lower catchment. Allogenic taxa (piscivorous birds as final host) were present throughout the entire catchment, whereas their autogenic counterparts (charr as final hosts) demonstrated restricted distributions, thus supporting the theory that the mobility of the most mobile host determines taxa-specific parasite distribution patterns. Overall, catchment-wide parasite abundance and distribution patterns in this lentic-dominated system were in accordance with those reported for lotic systems. Additionally, our study highlighted that upper catchment regions may be inadequate reservoirs to facilitate recolonization of parasite communities in the event of downstream environmental perturbations.
Identifying patients at increased risk of suicide remains a challenge today. It has been reported that 10% of patients committing a suicide attempt end up dying and that both the risk and the severity of clinical symptomatology increase with the number of attempts. Within the framework of selective and indicated prevention, it is essential to identify the group of patients with an increased risk of recurrence. The objective of this study is to identify factors predicting suicide attempt relapse to improve the decision making process in the therapeutic approach to suicidal behavior. The methodology employed was a longitudinal design aimed at identifying factors, in a binary logistic regression model (stepwise), predicting the repetition of suicidal behavior among a sample of 417 participants aged between 8 and 17 years old, at the six months follow-up. A statistically significant model χ2(3, N = 417) = 18.610; p < .001; Nagelkerke R2 = .096 including the following factors was obtained: current diagnosis of personality disorder/maladaptive personality OR = .806, p = .028, 95% CI [1.091, 4.595], personal history of self-injury OR = .728, p = .043, 95% CI [1.023, 4.192], and family history of psychopathological diagnosis OR = .925, p = .021, 95% CI [1.151, 5.530]. Considering these results, having a diagnosis of personality disorder or maladaptive personality traits, presence or history of self-harm and family history of psychopathology draws a predictive profile of autolytic attempt recurrence during the six months after the initial intervention at the emergency room.
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content and composition are relevant for the meat industry due to their effect on human health and meat organoleptic properties. A divergent selection experiment for IMF of Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was performed in rabbits during eight generations. The aim of this study is to estimate the correlated responses to selection for IMF on the fatty acid composition of LD. Response to selection for IMF was 0.34 g/100 g of LD, representing 2.4 phenotypic SD of the trait. High-IMF line showed 9.20% more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 0.39%, 9.97% and 10.3% less n-3, n-6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), respectively, than low-IMF line. The main MUFA and PUFA individual fatty acids followed a similar pattern, except for C18:3n-3 that was greater in the high-IMF line. We did not observe differences between lines for the percentage of total saturated fatty acids, although high-IMF line showed greater C14:0 and C16:0 and lower C18:0 percentages than low-IMF line. Heritability estimates were generally high for all fatty acids percentages, ranging from 0.43 to 0.59 with a SD around 0.08, showing an important genetic component on these traits. Genetic correlations between IMF and LD fatty acid percentages were strong and positive for C14:0, C16:1, C18:1n-9, and MUFA, ranging from 0.88 to 0.97, and strong and negative for C18:0, C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6, n-6 and PUFA, ranging from −0.83 to −0.91. These correlations were accurately estimated, with SD ranging from 0.02 to 0.06. The genetic correlations between IMF and other fatty acids were estimated with lower accuracy. In general, phenotypic and genetic correlations were of the same order. Our experiment shows that selection for IMF strongly affects the fatty acid composition of meat, due the high heritabilities of fatty acids and their high genetic correlations with IMF.
Intramuscular fat (IMF) has a large effect in the sensory properties of meat because it affects tenderness, juiciness and flavour. A divergent selection experiment for IMF in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was performed in rabbits. Since liver is the major site of lipogenesis in rabbits, the objective of this work is to study the liver metabolism in the lines of the divergent selection experiment. Intramuscular fat content, perirenal fat weight, liver weight, liver lipogenic activities and plasma metabolites related to liver metabolism were measured in the eighth generation of selection. Direct response on IMF was 0.34 g/100 g of LD, which represented 2.7 SD of the trait, and selection showed a positive correlated response in the perirenal fat weight. High-IMF line showed greater liver size and greater liver lipogenic activities of enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. We did not find differences between lines for fatty acid synthase lipogenic activity. With regard to plasma metabolites, low-IMF line showed greater plasma concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase than high-IMF line, whereas high-IMF line showed greater albumin and alanine transaminase concentrations than low-IMF line. We did not observe differences between lines for glucose, total protein and plasma concentrations. Phenotypic correlations between fat (IMF and perirenal fat weight) and liver traits showed that liver lipogenesis affects fat deposition in both, muscle and carcass. However, the mechanisms whereby liver lipogenesis affected IMF content remain to be clarified.
Research suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents have a higher risk of suicidal behaviours than their heterosexual peers, but little is known about specific risk factors.
To assess sexual orientation as a risk factor for suicidal behaviours, and to identify other risk factors among LGB adolescents and young adults.
A systematic search was made of six databases up to June 2015, including a grey literature search. Population-based longitudinal studies considering non-clinical populations aged 12–26 years and assessing being LGB as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour compared with being heterosexual, or evaluating risk factors for suicidal behaviour within LGB populations, were included. Random effect models were used in meta-analysis.
Sexual orientation was significantly associated with suicide attempts in adolescents and youths (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.60–3.20). Gay or bisexual men were more likely to report suicide attempts compared with heterosexual men (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.21–4.04). Based on two studies, a non-significant positive association was found between depression and suicide attempts in LGB groups.
Sexual orientation is associated with a higher risk of suicide attempt in young people. Further research is needed to assess completed suicide, and specific risk factors affecting the LGB population.
This study was twofold: 1) to assess parental reactions to childhood cancer throughout the oncological experience and 2) to explore associations between parents’ reactions during treatment and cancer-related distress at survival. A cross-sectional descriptive study collecting data (at survival) from retrospective (perceived social support, optimism, distress, coping in the worst situation) and current variables (general stress, distress regarding cancer, benefit finding) was carried out. Forty-one parents of childhood cancer survivors were assessed. High levels of distress (M = 9.5, SD = 1.32, range 4-10) and self-reported efforts to overcome difficulties occurring during the hospitalization (M = 7.48, SD = 3.01, range 0-10) were found. However, parents received high social support from very different sources. This could explain the satisfactory levels of optimism found (43.9% of the sample, M ≥ 16, range 9 – 24). Most parents reported to use engagement (M = 2.57, SD = 0.41, range 1-4) and help-seeking (M = 2.52, SD = 0.53, range 1-4) coping strategies to overcome difficulties. Some parents recognized to use psychological defenses when coping with the distress of cancer. However, this disengagement style was less preferred (M = 1.62, SD = 0.37, range 1-4). Finally, 22% of parents reported positive consequences and 60% reported positive and negative consequences too. When exploring how treatment experiences can influence cancer-related distress in survivorship, we observed that those who received less social support used more disengagement coping and referred higher efforts to overcome difficulties during treatment, displayed persistent distress at survival. These same parents showed higher scores on general stress. Besides, these results were not influenced by child’s sequelae at survival. These findings support the hypothesis that “the end of treatment is not the end”. Consequently, special attention should be placed in screening parents experiences throughout different milestones of cancer to design tailored interventions aimed at reducing persistent distress at survival.
Many helminth taxa have complex life cycles, involving different life stages infecting different host species in a particular order to complete a single generation. Although the broad outlines of these cycles are known for any higher taxon, the details (morphology and biology of juvenile stages, specific identity of intermediate hosts) are generally unknown for particular species. In this review, we first provide quantitative evidence that although new helminth species are described annually at an increasing rate, the parallel effort to elucidate life cycles has become disproportionately smaller over time. We then review the use of morphological matching, experimental infections and genetic matching as approaches to elucidate helminth life cycles. Next we discuss the various research areas or disciplines that could benefit from a solid knowledge of particular life cycles, including integrative taxonomy, the study of parasite evolution, food-web ecology, and the management and control of parasitic diseases. Finally, we end by proposing changes to the requirements for new species descriptions and further large-scale attempts to genetically match adult and juvenile helminth stages in regional faunas, as part of a plea to parasitologists to bring parasite life-cycle studies back into mainstream research.
Background: Pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to neurodegeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) include oxidative stress and inflammation. We conducted a preliminary study to explore these mechanisms, to discuss their link in ALS, and to determine the feasibility of incorporating this combined analysis into current biomarkers research. Methods: We enrolled 10 ALS patients and 10 controls. We measured the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxyde dismutase (SOD), and the levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and glutathione status (e.g. glutathione disulfide, GSSG/reduced glutathione, GSH). We analysed the concentrations of homocysteine, several cytokines, vitamins and metals by standard methods used in routine practice. Results: There was a significant decrease in TAS levels (p=0.027) and increase in 8-OHdG (p=0.014) and MDA (p=0.011) levels in ALS patients. We also observed a significantly higher GSSG/GSH ratio (p=0.022), and IL-6 (p=0.0079) and IL-8 (p=0.009) concentrations in ALS patients. Correlations were found between biological and clinical markers (homosysteine vs. clinical status at diagnosis, p=0.02) and between some biological markers such as IL-6 vs. GSSG/GSH (p=0.045) or SOD activity (p=0.017). Conclusion: We confirmed the systemic alteration of both the redox and the inflammation status in ALS patients, and we observed a link with some clinical parameters. These promising results encourage us to pursue this study with collection of combined oxidative stress and inflammatory markers.
In this paper we prove coincidence results concerning spaces of absolutely summing multilinear mappings between Banach spaces. The nature of these results arises from two distinct approaches: the coincidence of two a priori different classes of summing multilinear mappings, and the summability of all multilinear mappings defined on products of Banach spaces. Optimal generalizations of known results are obtained. We also introduce and explore new techniques in the field: for example, a technique to extend coincidence results for linear, bilinear and even trilinear mappings to general multilinear ones.
Among eyeflukes, Tylodelphys Diesing, 1850 includes diverse species able to infect the eyes, but also the brain, pericardial sac and body cavity of their second intermediate host. While the genus shows a cosmopolitan distribution with 29 nominal species in Africa, Asia, Europe and America, a likely lower research effort has produced two records only for all of Australasia. This study provides the first description of a species of Tylodelphys and the first record for a member of the Diplostomidae in New Zealand. Tylodephys sp. metacercaria from the eyes of Gobiomorphus cotidianus McDowall, 1975 is distinguished from its congeners as being larger in all, or nearly all, metrics than Tylodelphys clavata (von Nordmann, 1832), T. conifera (Mehlis, 1846) and T. scheuringi (Hughes, 1929); whereas T. podicipina Kozicka & Niewiadomska, 1960 is larger in body size, ventral sucker and holdfast sizes and T. ophthalmi (Pandey, 1970) has comparatively a very small pharynx and body spination. Tylodelphys sp. exhibits consistent genetic variation for the 28S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and Cox1 genes, and phylogenetic analyses confirm that it represents an independent lineage, closely related to North American species. Morphological and molecular results together support the distinct species status of Tylodephys sp. metacercaria, the formal description and naming of which await discovery of the adult. Furthermore, the validity of T. strigicola Odening, 1962 is restored, T. cerebralis Chakrabarti, 1968 is proposed as major synonym of T. ophthalmi, and species described solely on the basis of metacercariae are considered incertae sedis, except those for which molecular data already exist.
The AMIGA project carries out a multiwavelength study of the largest catalogue of isolated galaxies from the Local Universe (CIG, Karachentseva 1973). Compared to any other sample —field galaxies included— and using highly strict isolation criteria (unperturbed for at least ~3 Gyr, Verdes-Montenegro et al. 2005), all the results show that these galaxies have the lowest values of the physical magnitudes expected to be enhanced by interactions. This strongly supports isolated galaxies as ideal laboratories for the study of galaxy formation and evolution. Despite CIG galaxies show the lowest HI integrated profile asymmetry level when compared to any other sample, some cases present up to 50% HI asymmetry (Espada et al. 2011b). We aim to shed light over the causes and sources of such asymmetries with our deep radiointerferometric and optical observations of CIG targets. Since major mergers are ruled out by the isolation criteria, in this work we are addressing whether minor mergers, internal processes or primordial gas accretion are responsible for such asymmetries.
During the Middle Paleolithic period, carnivores and hominids periodically occupied the same areas at different times and each predator generated significant palimpsests, rendering difficult their archaeological interpretation. Teixoneres Cave, a carnivore den site, located in the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula, demonstrates that it is possible to overcome these problems by using a careful strategy in selecting samples for radiocarbon dating, in order to produce an accurate chronology of the site in question and certainly attest the human occupation.