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Accurate, robust and fast image reconstruction is a critical task in many scientific, industrial and medical applications. Over the last decade, image reconstruction has been revolutionized by the rise of compressive imaging. It has fundamentally changed the way modern image reconstruction is performed. This in-depth treatment of the subject commences with a practical introduction to compressive imaging, supplemented with examples and downloadable code, intended for readers without extensive background in the subject. Next, it introduces core topics in compressive imaging – including compressed sensing, wavelets and optimization – in a concise yet rigorous way, before providing a detailed treatment of the mathematics of compressive imaging. The final part is devoted to recent trends in compressive imaging: deep learning and neural networks. With an eye to the next 10–20 years of imaging research, and using both empirical and mathematical insights, it examines the potential benefits and the pitfalls of these latest approaches.
Clarifying the relationship between depression symptoms and cardiometabolic and related health could clarify risk factors and treatment targets. The objective of this study was to assess whether depression symptoms in midlife are associated with the subsequent onset of cardiometabolic health problems.
The study sample comprised 787 male twin veterans with polygenic risk score data who participated in the Harvard Twin Study of Substance Abuse (‘baseline’) and the longitudinal Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (‘follow-up’). Depression symptoms were assessed at baseline [mean age 41.42 years (s.d. = 2.34)] using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version III, Revised. The onset of eight cardiometabolic conditions (atrial fibrillation, diabetes, erectile dysfunction, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, myocardial infarction, sleep apnea, and stroke) was assessed via self-reported doctor diagnosis at follow-up [mean age 67.59 years (s.d. = 2.41)].
Total depression symptoms were longitudinally associated with incident diabetes (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07–1.57), erectile dysfunction (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.59), hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04–1.53), and sleep apnea (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13–1.74) over 27 years after controlling for age, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index, C-reactive protein, and polygenic risk for specific health conditions. In sensitivity analyses that excluded somatic depression symptoms, only the association with sleep apnea remained significant (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09–1.60).
A history of depression symptoms by early midlife is associated with an elevated risk for subsequent development of several self-reported health conditions. When isolated, non-somatic depression symptoms are associated with incident self-reported sleep apnea. Depression symptom history may be a predictor or marker of cardiometabolic risk over decades.
Treatment with antipsychotics is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers are present in patients with T2D. We previously demonstrated that the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide significantly reduced glucometabolic disturbances and body weight in prediabetic, overweight/obese schizophrenia-spectrum disorder patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine. This study aims to assess the involvement of cytokines in the therapeutic effects of liraglutide.
Serum concentrations of 10 cytokines (interferon-γ [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 1β [IL-1β], IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, and IL-13) from fasting prediabetic and normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were measured using multiplexed immunoassays. Prediabetic patients were randomized to 16 weeks of treatment with liraglutide or placebo, and cytokines were measured again at the end of the treatment.
IFN-γ (1.98 vs 1.17 pg/ml, P = .001), IL-4 (0.02 vs 0.01 pg/ml, P < .001), and IL-6 (0.73 vs 0.46 pg/ml, P < .001) were significantly higher in prediabetic (n = 77) vs NGT patients (n = 31). No significant changes in cytokine levels following treatment with liraglutide (n = 37) vs placebo (n = 40) were found.
Prediabetic vs NGT patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine or olanzapine had increased serum levels of several proinflammatory cytokines, further substantiating the link between inflammation and T2D. Treatment with liraglutide did not affect the investigated cytokines. Further testing of these findings in larger numbers of individuals is needed.
As part of the roundtable “International Institutions and Peaceful Change,” this essay examines the role of institutional soft balancing in bringing forth peaceful change in international relations. Soft balancing is understood as attempts at restraining a threatening power through institutional delegitimization, as opposed to hard balancing, which relies on arms buildup and formal alignments. We argue that soft balancing through international institutions can be an effective means to peaceful change, spanning minimalist goals, which aim at incremental change without the use of military force and war, and maximalist goals, which seek more profound change and transformation in the form of continuous interstate cooperation aimed at a more peaceful and just world order. However, the success of soft-balancing strategies in fostering peaceful change varies widely, even in today's globalized and institutionalized international environment. We explore these variations and identify three conditions for success that can inform both academic analysis and political practice: inclusion, commitment, and status recognition. We draw lessons from two historical examples: the Concert of Europe in the early nineteenth century and the League of Nations in the early twentieth century, and discuss how current threats to the liberal international order challenge soft balancing for peaceful change.
The rise of “the rest,” especially China, has triggered an inevitable transformation of the so-called liberal international order. Rising powers have started to both challenge and push for the reform of existing multilateral institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and to create new ones, such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). The United States under the Trump administration, on the other hand, has retreated from the international institutions that the country once led or helped to create, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP); the Paris Agreement; the Iran nuclear deal; the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty; the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); and the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC). The United States has also paralyzed the ability of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to settle trade disputes by blocking the appointment of judges to its appellate body. Moreover, in May 2020, President Trump announced his decision to quit the Open Skies Treaty, an arms control regime designed to promote transparency among its members regarding military activities. During the past decade or so, both Russia and the United States have been dismantling multilateral arms control treaties one by one while engaging in new nuclear buildups at home.
Stroke is a leading cause of severe and long-term disability in developed countries. Around 15 million people suffer a stroke each year, most due to modifiable risk factors. Several reviews have shown that interventions mediating eHealth technologies can reduce the risk of suffering a stroke episode, improving the control of risk factors; nevertheless, all of them conclude that new and well-designed studies are needed.
We performed a prospective, randomized, parallel group and open, pilot trial. The study was carried out based on an initial sample of forty-three patients between 18 and 80 years old who have had an ischemic stroke. The control group got conventional treatment and the intervention group got conventional treatment and the assistance of STARR (the Decision SupporT and self-mAnagement system for stRoke survivoRs), as well as commercial wearables. The principal variable of the study was to evaluate the usability of the decision support system.
At month nine, the average score on the System Usability Scale in the intervention group was 64.7 and in month 12, 67.4, exceeding in both cases the margin of acceptability (50) and in the limit of “good” (68). When we analyzed clinical factors (systolic/diastolic blood pressure) as well as the analytical parameters related to prevention of reinfarction, we observed that the intervention group had good control of blood pressure and better analytical parameters, compared to the control group.
Technological support allowed participants to feel comfortable using the devices as well as resolving technical incidences by themselves after a training period. The self-management platform can be efficient in stroke survivors’ management of their disease condition, improving analytical and clinical parameters, which eventually can influence a decrease in associated comorbidities and, therefore, improvement of the disease. However, it should be noted that this type of platform is not useful for every patient profile, and studies in this regard should be expanded.
The new species Alyxoria sierramadrensis is described from Mexico where it inhabits limestone rocks. The lichen developing from this fungus is characterized by a placodioid to subfoliose thallus with a white pruinose surface; rounded to shortly elongated ascomata with a black epruinose margin and a widely exposed, white pruinose hymenial disc; hyaline, 3-septate ascospores, 17–25 × 7–9 μm; the presence of anthraquinones rendering the medulla orange. Phylogenetic analyses of nuLSU, mtSSU and RPB2 sequences place this species in the genus Alyxoria (Lecanographaceae). This generic affiliation is surprising because all known Alyxoria species have a crustose thallus. Lecanographaceae mainly includes species without a thallus (lichenicolous taxa) or with a thin crustose thallus, the only exception being Simonyella variegata with a fruticose thallus. The new species belongs to the Alyxoria ochrocheila subgroup, which includes lichens also frequently known to have anthraquinones, white pruinose hymenial discs and 3-septate ascospores. Phylogenetic analyses further determined the systematic position of the monotypic genus Phoebus. This genus, considered as an Arthoniales of uncertain family affiliation, is shown to belong to the Lecanographaceae. With its placodioid thallus, it is another example of a lichenized fungus with a deviating morphology in thallus structure for the family, increasing the number of remarkable cases of parallel evolution of lichen growth forms within the Arthoniales. Phoebus hydrophobius is newly recorded for Mexico.
Economic ordeals are allocation mechanisms that impose non-financial ‘deadweight costs to qualify for a transfer’ (Nichols and Zeckhauser 1982: 372). Examples include long waiting times, travel and form-filling as conditions for certain healthcare services. Appropriately designed, ordeals can enhance target efficiency so that the goods being allocated better reach the intended recipients. The logic behind this is simple: ‘Say one welfare eligible would receive 100 utiles from a particular transfer, yet another would receive only 10. Then an ordeal that imposes an 11 utile loss in order to qualify for the transfer will be an effective sorting device’ (Nichols and Zeckhauser 1982: 376). In other words, recipients who would receive smaller benefits are expected to be dissuaded by the ordeal and refrain from requesting the good, whereas recipients who would receive larger benefits from the transfer are expected to seek out the good even if there is a deadweight cost. Moreover, unlike financial participation, which can similarly dissuade users with relatively little to gain from the good in question, ordeals are in no direct way financially regressive: the poor are not necessarily more dissuaded by losing time or by having to fill in a form than the rich are.
The concept of discourse has always been at the core of critical analysis in the field of discourse studies. To some extent this is explained by the connection between discourses, in a Foucauldian sense, and representations of, for instance, power relations, gender and social injustices – all in need of critical analysis. However, in research on organizational discourse, the object for critique can be the transformations of social actions within organizations rather than, for example, unequal representations (in texts). There is a well-established link between social actions and genres: genres are (or are at least part of) social actions. The overarching aim of this chapter is to discuss how genre-oriented analysis can complement other types of analysis in the broader field of critical discourse studies, and to offer critical understandings more directly related to social actions. The chapter gives an overview of two approaches to the critical analysis of genre: critical discourse analysis (CDA) and critical genre analysis (CGA). From the perspective of methodology, the chapter responds to calls for a social and affordance-driven multimodal critical discourse studies by offering a number of qualitative concepts for analyzing the genre aspects of multimodal texts. Analytical examples come from interrelated genres such as “vision and values,” “core values” and “platforms and values” from state agencies and universities in, above all, Sweden and the United States. In the context of public authorities, these genres are to be considered as emerging genres, which allows for a specific type of critical inquiry: Which are the changing social actions that these genres are part of? Are they related to internal control or to external communication and market-oriented “branding” of the public authority?
Background: Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance is essential for most infection prevention programs and continuous epidemiological data can be used to inform healthcare personal, allocate resources, and evaluate interventions to prevent HAIs. Many HAI surveillance systems today are based on time-consuming and resource-intensive manual reviews of patient records. The objective of HAI-proactive, a Swedish triple-helix innovation project, is to develop and implement a fully automated HAI surveillance system based on electronic health record data. Furthermore, the project aims to develop machine-learning–based screening algorithms for early prediction of HAI at the individual patient level. Methods: The project is performed with support from Sweden’s Innovation Agency in collaboration among academic, health, and industry partners. Development of rule-based and machine-learning algorithms is performed within a research database, which consists of all electronic health record data from patients admitted to the Karolinska University Hospital. Natural language processing is used for processing free-text medical notes. To validate algorithm performance, manual annotation was performed based on international HAI definitions from the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Sepsis-3 criteria. Currently, the project is building a platform for real-time data access to implement the algorithms within Region Stockholm. Results: The project has developed a rule-based surveillance algorithm for sepsis that continuously monitors patients admitted to the hospital, with a sensitivity of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.85–0.93), a specificity of 0.99 (0.98–0.99), a positive predictive value of 0.88 (0.83–0.93), and a negative predictive value of 0.99 (0.98–0.99). The healthcare-associated urinary tract infection surveillance algorithm, which is based on free-text analysis and negations to define symptoms, had a sensitivity of 0.73 (0.66–0.80) and a positive predictive value of 0.68 (0.61–0.75). The sensitivity and positive predictive value of an algorithm based on significant bacterial growth in urine culture only was 0.99 (0.97–1.00) and 0.39 (0.34–0.44), respectively. The surveillance system detected differences in incidences between hospital wards and over time. Development of surveillance algorithms for pneumonia, catheter-related infections and Clostridioides difficile infections, as well as machine-learning–based models for early prediction, is ongoing. We intend to present results from all algorithms. Conclusions: With access to electronic health record data, we have shown that it is feasible to develop a fully automated HAI surveillance system based on algorithms using both structured data and free text for the main healthcare-associated infections.
Funding: Sweden’s Innovation Agency and Stockholm County Council
The article argues that the impact of law enforcement efforts against corruption deserves more scholarly attention. Drawing on a mixed-methods study from Malawi in southern Africa, where a large-scale law enforcement operation has been investigating and prosecuting those involved in a 2013 corruption scandal known as ‘Cashgate’, the article explores the potential for corruption deterrence from the perspective of government officials in the Malawi civil service. Malawi provides a challenging environment for deterrence due to limited state capacity, weak law enforcement agencies and widespread corruption. Nonetheless, the research findings show that Malawian government officials perceive prosecutions and convictions to deter corruption, both with regards to the law enforcement response to Cashgate specifically and law enforcement efforts in general. The findings from Malawi suggest that law enforcement and criminal justice have the potential to make an important contribution to anti-corruption strategies in Africa and the Global South at large.
This chapter describes and discusses public and private enforcement of consumer and capital market law in Denmark. The chapter is divided into four sections. The first section focuses on enforcement of consumer law in light of Case 1. The second section focuses on enforcement of capital market law in light of Case 2. The third section includes some remarks on general procedural law in Denmark. The fourth and final section includes a conclusion and some reflections on enforcement of consumer and capital market regarding compensation for damages and skimming of profits.
No consumer cases (neither public nor private) have been filed in Denmark in the aftermath of the diesel emissions scandal. The reason seems to be a combination of insufficient resource and uncertainty of whether Danish consumers have suffered a loss due to the manipulation.
The fact in Case 1 may, however, trigger different provisions in Danish consumer regulation. Firstly, one may argue that the sale of A's manipulated motor vehicles includes false advertisement. In that case, both public sanctions and private remedies may come into play. Secondly, since the vehicles suffers from a material defect it is not in conformity with manufacturer A's obligations, which may activate different private remedies.
Below enforcement of consumer law is viewed from a public and private enforcement perspective in light of the provisions just identified and the facts in Case 1 (Sections B and C). Thereafter, the relationship between public and private enforcement is discussed (Section D).
The Danish Consumer Ombudsman (‘COM’) is the main public enforcer of consumer law in Denmark. COM is an independent public body, with a large toolbox of different public sanctions and private remedies, which may be used to ensure compliance of consumer regulation. COM will as a starting point try to solve a case by negotiation. If that is not possible, a number of different legal tools, which (fully or partially) may eliminate the consequences of the violation, may come into play. The specific sanction and remedy depends on the provisions in question.
False advertisement is a criminal offence subject to a fine. The fine may be issued administratively, but only if the prosecuted accepts the fine (bødeforelæg).
As the notion of person-centredness of health services and systems is becoming more established in national and international policy declarations and commitments, there is a need to better understand and clarify the use and usefulness of relevant strategies and approaches that seek to improve the position of individuals, their families and communities in the health system.
This book takes as a starting point the various roles people take in health systems, while recognizing that these roles overlap and may be performed simultaneously (see Chapter 1). Indeed, as Coulter (2002) suggested, the 21st-century health service user is at once “a decision-maker, a care manager, a co-producer of health, an evaluator, a potential change agent, a taxpayer and an active citizen whose voice must be heard by decision-makers” (p. 6). Viewed through this lens, a greater person focus can contribute to advancing equity, efficiency and the responsiveness of health systems.
Overcoming care fragmentation remains among the key challenges facing health systems globally (Nolte & McKee, 2008; Saini et al., 2017; Schoen et al., 2011). This has become particularly acute against the background of a changing disease burden and the rising number of people with multiple health problems. Policy-makers have recognized this challenge and countries are exploring new approaches to health care delivery to enhance the coordination of care and so better meet the needs of those with chronic and multiple health problems and optimize service use (Nolte, Knai & Saltman, 2014; Wodchis et al., 2015; World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, 2016). The focus has tended to be on the service provider side, with the introduction of innovative care models such as through strengthening multidisciplinary team work, the use of care coordinators or case managers, co-location of different providers, and shared pathways, among other developments (Nolte & Knai, 2015).