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Climate change is a key problem of the 21st century. China, as the largest emitter of greenhouse gases, has committed to stabilize its current emissions and dramatically increase the share of electricity production from non-fossil fuels by 2030. However, this is only a first step: in the longer term, China needs to aggressively strive to reach a goal of zero-emissions. Through detailed discussions of electricity pricing, electric vehicle policies, nuclear energy policies, and renewable energy policies, this book reviews how near-term climate and energy policies can affect long-term decarbonization pathways beyond 2030, building the foundations for decarbonization in advance of its realization. Focusing primarily on the electricity sector in China - the main battleground for decarbonization over the next century – it provides a valuable resource for researchers and policymakers, as well as energy and climate experts.
This chapter examines incremental transformational learning, as evidenced by the intercultural growth of advanced learners of Russian in the Russian Overseas Language Flagship (ROF); a year-long overseas immersion program. With hybrid structured and open architecture, the ROF utilizes a scaffolded environment of individualized tutorials, small-group work, direct enrollment courses, professional internships, homestays and structured reflections. The study examines IDI- and ILR data, reporting on group-level statistical comparisons of pre/post program intercultural development and language proficiency to document measureable intercultural and linguistic outcomes. The study includes student reports of disorienting dilemmas, reflections on the dilemmas, and proposed “action plans” for dealing with challenges. IDI scores indicate a shift from a mono-cultural mindset toward greater awareness of the mindsets of others and the specifics of one's own cultural lens. The analysis indicates a positive relationship between proficiency levels and the learner's intercultural development as they are better positioned to respond and behave effectively and appropriately as global professionals.
Drawing from the work of Miller and Seller, this chapter traces the roots and flowering of the transformative movement and its relationship to the educational philosophies of transmission and transaction, essentially but not exclusively predecessors to the educational philosophy of transformation. The shaping of the ways in which teachers and students have gone about the language acquisition process for centuries is examined within a paradigmatic history of foreign language teaching methods. The influence of Vygotsky, Rogers, and Mezirow has been markedly noticeable in classroom methodologies heading toward such transformative aspects as learner-centered learning (zone of proximal development, understanding the whole student, adapting for learner differences, assisting learners in self-identification and learning adaptation), student-directed instruction, student contracts, open architecture curricular design, reframing in the development of biculturalism, interactive immersion, diagnostically oriented instruction, and formative assessment.
We performed a prospective study of 501 patients, regardless of symptoms, admitted to the hospital, to estimate the predictive value of a negative nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At a positivity rate of 10.2%, the estimated negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.2% and the NPV rose as prevalence decreased during the study.