The study endeavored to assess the epidemiology, postnatal survival, and growth pattern of multiple births in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It was based on the data of 25 demographic health surveys conducted in the subcontinent since 2008. The records of 213,889 children born in the preceding 59 months of the surveys were included. The multiple birth rate was computed as the number of multiple confinements per 1,000 births. Factors associated with multiple births were identified using logistic regression and their survival pattern was assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method. The multiple birth rate was 17.1 (95% confidence interval: 17.7–16.6) and showed considerable variation across the 25 countries included in the study. Odds of multiple births were significantly increased with advanced maternal age, parity, and maternal height but not with wealth index, age at first birth, and month of birth. At the end of the fourth year of age, the cumulative survival probability was as low as 0.77 in multiple births as compared to 0.93 in their counterparts. The odds of neonatal, infant and under-five mortality were 5.55, 4.39, and 3.72 times increased in multiple births, respectively. Multiple births tend to be malnourished than singletons and the odds of wasting, stunting, and underweight were 1.31, 1.83, and 1.73 times raised, consecutively. Nevertheless, multiple births regain their weight-for-age (WFA) and height-for-age (HFA) deficits by the end of the fourth year of age. Counseling pregnant mothers with multiple gestation to give birth at a health institution and providing close medical follow-up during and after the neonatal period can improve the survival of multiple births.