Niger (Guizotia abyssinica, L.) is a desirable oilseed crop for birdseed, especially for finches (Spinus spp.) because of its high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and relatively high oil content. In 2012, phenotypic traits, seed oil and fatty acid content measurements were made on 14 plant introductions (PIs) from the United States Department of Agriculture germplasm collection. The PIs originated in Ethiopia (ten), India (three) and USA (one). The phenotypic traits analysed included seed/plant, branches/plant, capitula/plant1, average seed/capitulum and plant height. After initial assessments of the 14 PIs, three were selected for use as parents to produce two one-way and two two-way F
1 crosses for the purpose of evaluating self-incompatibility (SI). Parent and F
1 progeny seeds were planted in a greenhouse and transplanted to a field site at the East Tennessee Research and Education Center (2012, 2013 and 2014). Comparisons from 2012 showed seed oil of the 14 PIs ranging from 32.9 to 37.9% (PI 508076 (Ethiopia) and PI 509436 (India), respectively). Major fatty acids included stearic, palmitic, oleic and linoleic; with linoleic acid in highest amount. PI508079 (Ethiopia) had the best combination of seed yield, seed oil and linoleic acid content. Over 2013 and 2014, SI ranged from 91.1 to 100.0%. W6 18860 (USA) had the most self-compatibility, and the F
1 plants generated from crosses between W6 18860 and other plants tended to be self-compatible when the former was used as a pollen recipient. The results obtained from this study should be useful for niger breeding and production purposes.