Germplasm lines with resistance to the sugarbeet root maggot (SBRM) have been developed and released to the public, providing a means to generate hybrids with resistance against the most devastating insect pest of sugarbeet in North America. Effective use of this germplasm, however, requires knowledge of relative strengths of SBRM resistance between lines and knowledge of the diversity and genetic relationships between germplasm. Therefore, field studies comparing SBRM resistance of four released SBRM-resistant germplasm lines (F1015, F1016, F1024 and F1043), a SBRM-resistant parent (PI 179180) and an unreleased SBRM-resistant population (F1055) were performed, and genetic analysis of the diversity and relationships between SBRM-resistant germplasm and their available parents was conducted using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Under natural SBRM infestations, resistant germplasm exhibited significantly less SBRM damage than a susceptible control, with similar, high levels of resistance in F1016, F1024, F1043, F1055 and PI 179180 and lower resistance in F1015. SSR analysis revealed genetic similarities between F1016, F1024 and F1055, while F1015 and F1043 were genetically distinct from these lines. Among resistant genotypes, F1015 and F1043 exhibited greatest and least within-line genetic diversity, indicating greater and lesser inbreeding for F1043 and F1015, respectively. Similarities in damage ratings and genetics for F1016, F1024 and F1055 indicate that these lines are likely to be equally effective at introducing SBRM resistance into elite populations and in combining ability. In contrast, F1043, with its unique parentage and genetic dissimilarity from other resistant lines, provides a genetically distinct, but similarly effective, source of SBRM resistance.