Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send this article to your account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic devices have improved from initial, sub-1% solar power conversion efficiency to current record performance of over 7%. Rapid advances in materials processing and device physics have driven this impressive performance progress. The highest-efficiency approaches rely on a fabrication process that starts with nanocrystals in solution, initially capped with long organic molecules. This solution is deposited and the resultant film is treated using a solution containing a second, shorter capping ligand, leading to a cross-linked, non-redispersible, and dense layer. This procedure is repeated, leading to the widely employed layer-by-layer solid-state ligand exchange. We will review the properties and features of this process, and will also discuss innovative pathways to creating even higher-performing films and photovoltaic devices.
We have prepared stable ultrafine narrow dispersed copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) using a facile chemical reduction technique below room temperature (300 K), without any template. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the growth of highly crystalline Cu-NPs with an average diameter of 2.2 nm. Interestingly, these Cu-NPs demonstrate both interband electronic transitions along with usual surface plasmon resonance, a unique phenomenon previously unobserved in any noble metal nanoparticles. These Cu-NPs do not get oxidized easily and could be suitable candidates for different optical devices, heat transfer liquids, and biological applications.
Two thiophene-based semiconductors, a vapor-deposited small molecule and an amorphous polymer, as well as pentacene for comparison, show potential in enhancing the thermoelectric properties of tellurium (Te) nanowires. For vapor-deposited films, Te nanostructures form directly on glass substrates or organic semiconductor films. The resulting Te power factor (S2σ) was enhanced from 36 to 45 W/mK2 (56 for pentacene) because the bilayer provides an enhancement in Seebeck (S) without compromising conductivity (σ). For solution deposited polymer blends, we obtained power factors from a Te nanowire network that alone would not have sufficient connectivity (up to 0.1 µW/mK2). While the organics are unoptimized, they are prototypical materials for further development.
We present a quantitative in-situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) study of stress-assisted grain growth in 75 nm thick platinum thin films. We utilized notch-induced stress concentration to observe the microstructural evolution in real time. From quantitative measurements, we find that rapid grain growth occurred above 290 MPa of far field stress and ~0.14% elongation. This value is found to be higher than that required for stable interface motion but lower than the stress required for unstable grain boundary motion. We attribute such grain growth to geometrical incompatibility arising out of crystallographic misorientation in adjoining grains, or in other words, geometrically necessary grain growth.
We present the study of the synthesis of (001) nickel oxide (NiO) epitaxial nanocrystals grown on (001) strontium titanate (SrTiO3) single crystal substrates. Pulsed laser deposition of the bismuth nickel oxide (BiNiO3, BNO) perovskite precursor followed by post-deposition processing is carried out to form the NiO nanocrystals. A detailed analysis of the dimensions of nanocrystals reveals that the morphology attained differs from the thermodynamically expected equilibrium shape. The deviations from the equilibrium shape are found to follow a systematic trend where the in-plane basal dimensions, that is, the length and width of the nanocrystals grown differ in discretized dimensions. This discretization suggests that for a given interfacial area of nanocrystals there are multiple stable basal rectangular geometries attainable.
A new theta geometry was developed for microscale bending strength measurements. This new “gap” theta specimen was a modification of the arch theta specimen that enabled microscale tensile testing. The gap theta specimen was demonstrated here on single-crystal silicon, microfabricated using two different etch processes. The resulting sample strengths were described by three-parameter Weibull distributions derived from parameters determined using established arch theta strengths, assuming a specimen-geometry and -size invariant flaw distribution and an approximate loading configuration.