The oscillations, excited by a pulsed dipole antenna at the upper hybrid resonance in a weakly inhomogeneous plasma, are investigated by the Wentzel—Kramers—Brillouin (WKB) approximation. In addition to a direct component, the field at a given distance from the transmitter is shown to consist in two obliquely reflected rays when the upper hybrid frequency WT is less than twice the electron gyro-frequency WH. The analytical expressions of the frequencies of the echoes intercepted by a moving receiver are given and the influence of the reception time t, the velocity VS of the receiver and the parameters of the plasma are thus pointed out.
As distinct from previous studies, the static magnetic field B0, the velocity of the receiver, and the gradient of the electron density ∂N/∂X, are here vectors of arbitrary directions. The choice of such a general model makes it possible to interpret most of the experimental data concerning the upper hybrid resonance in the ionosphere.