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Previously, we provided an evidence that l-Leucine supplementation facilitates growth performance in suckling piglets with normal birth weight. However, it remains hitherto obscure weather breast-fed piglets displaying intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) show a similar effect in response to l-Leucine provision. In this study, 7-d-old sow-reared IUGR piglets were orally administrated with l-Leucine (0, 0·7, 1·4 or 2·1 g/kg BW) twice daily for 2 weeks. Increasing leucine levels hampered the growth performance of suckling IUGR piglets. The average daily gain of IUGR piglets was significantly reduced in 1·4 g/kg BW and 2·1 g/kg BW l-Leucine supplementation groups (P < 0·05). Except for ornithine and glutamine, the plasma concentrations of other amino acids were abated as l-Leucine levels increased (P < 0·05). Leucine supplementation led to reduction in the levels of urea, blood ammonia, blood glucose, TAG and total cholesterol, as well as an elevation in the level of LDL-cholesterol in suckling IUGR piglets (P < 0·05). In addition, 1·4 g/kg BW of l-Leucine enhanced the mRNA expression of ATB0,+, whereas decreased the mRNA abundances of CAT1, y + LAT1, ASCT2 and b0,+AT in the jejunum (P < 0·05). Concomitantly, the jejunum of IUGR piglets in l-Leucine group contains more ATB0,+ and less SNAT2 protein than in the control (P < 0·05). Collectively, l-Leucine supplementation impairs growth performance in breast-fed IUGR piglets, which may be associated with depressed nutritional conditions and alterations in the uptake of amino acids and the expression of amino acid transporters in the small intestine.
A new phenotype of obesity has been studied: normal-weight obesity (NWO), which describes individuals with normal-weight by BMI and excess body fat. Despite normal-weight, individuals with NWO have a higher cardiometabolic risk. There is still a gap in the literature on the subject, especially in adolescents, as studies with this population are scarce. This study aims to investigate the sociodemographic factors, family history of chronic non-communicable diseases, body perception, lifestyle and food consumption associated with NWO in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study, with 506 normal-weight adolescents aged 10–19 years, of both sexes. Weight and height were obtained, and BMI/age was calculated. Body fat analysis was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sociodemographic data, level of physical activity, food consumption, body self-perception and lifestyle habits were also obtained. Logistic regression with hierarchical approach was used to analyse the associations. The odds of NWO are greater with age (OR = 1·14; 95 % CI = 1·04, 1·26), lower in male adolescents (OR = 0·21; 95 % CI = 0·11, 0·41) and higher in those with a history of familial dyslipidemia (OR = 1·81; 95 % CI = 1·01, 3·28). Adolescents satisfied with their body (OR = 0·30; 95 % CI 0·16, 0·56) and physically active (OR = 0·44; 95 % CI = 0·24, 0·81) have a lower odds of NWO, compared with the others. In addition, it was observed that the odds of NWO is greater among adolescents who use sweeteners (sugar substitutes) (OR = 3·84; 95 % CI = 1·70, 8·65). The factors associated with NWO were female sex, older age, positive family history of dyslipidemia, lower body satisfaction, lower level of physical activity and greater use of sweeteners.
Small for gestational age (SGA) is typically defined as birth weight < 10th percentile for age. Limited data are available regarding the growth of SGA preterm infants in relation to feeding type. We aimed to study SGA preterm infants fed fortified mother’s own milk (MOM) or preterm formula (PF) on growth patterns and catch-up growth at discharge and 2-year corrected age (CA). Our retrospective cohort study included data from medical records and follow-up questionnaires about SGA preterm infants born at < 37 weeks fed on MOM (n 40) and PF (n 40). Weight, length/height and head circumference (HC) were collected at birth, discharge and at 2-year CA, and Δ z-scores were calculated. The MOM group had significantly larger negative change in weight and length z-scores between birth and discharge, and smaller positive change in HC z-score (–0·47 (sd 0·41) v. −0·25 (sd 0·36), P = 0·01; −0·63 (sd 0·75) v. −0·27 (sd 0·75), P = 0·03; 0·13 (sd 0·67) v. 0·41 (sd 0·55), P = 0·04, respectively). Almost half of the MOM-fed infants experienced poor length growth by discharge compared with 22 % of PF-fed infants (P = 0·03). By 2-year CA, both groups had similar positive change in weight and HC z-scores, but MOM-fed infants had a slower increase in height z-score (0·64 (sd 1·30) v. 1·33 (sd 1·33), P = 0·02), and only 40 % had achieved catch-up height compared with 68 % of the PF group (P = 0·02). Our study indicates that fortified MOM-fed SGA preterm infants may need extra nutritional support in the first 2 years of life to achieve height growth potential.
Despite significant economic growth over the past decades, poor nutritional status in India is a serious concern. The social transformation led by growth in income influences both the composition of food and the quality of diet consumed. Against this backdrop of changing lifestyles and the rise in obesity and non-communicable diseases, in this study, we examined changes in diet quality and the critical socio-economic correlates of this quality from 1983 to 2012 using three rounds of nationally representative surveys providing information on food consumption for more than 100 000 households in each round. We constructed diet quality indices at the household level using deficient and excess intake of macro and micronutrients compared with the recommended daily allowances (RDA) for different age-sex groups of the Indian population. We found that in relation to the RDA, fat consumption increased over time while protein and energy consumption decreased. The average diet quality index improved in the rural sector while it deteriorated in the urban sector. Caste and religion are significant correlates of the diet quality index. The deficiency index of nutrients decreased for poor households as they get richer; however, it increased with affluence level for the non-poor. It is suggested that the Indian Government may play a more proactive role in implementing coherent national policies in trade, food and agriculture to protect public health by promoting the demand for a healthy diet.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is characterised by the presence of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms following gluten ingestion. Recent studies suggested an association between non-celiac gluten sensitivity and the consumption of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP). This systematic review aimed to examine literature evidence on the relationship between non-celiac gluten sensitivity and FODMAP intake. A comprehensive search was carried out for randomised clinical trials addressing gastrointestinal symptoms as the primary outcome, published between 2010 and 2020 in Portuguese, English or Spanish, and indexed in Scopus, PubMed, SciELO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase or VHL (LILACS) databases. The systematic review was performed using the population, intervention, comparison and outcome (PICO) framework. A total of 1133 articles were retrieved for further assessment. Three articles were selected for systematic review, one of which included two interventions with different periods and assessments. Quality of evidence was assessed according to the GRADE protocol. The selected articles used different instruments to measure gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life, hindering comparison of data. Clinical trials identified an association between decreased gastrointestinal symptoms and FODMAP restriction. There are few studies on the topic, and those available used different instruments to assess gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life. Nevertheless, current evidence supports the gluten-free diet still represents first-line therapy. However, a FODMAP restriction can decrease gastrointestinal symptoms in individuals with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Further research is needed to confirm this finding.
Plant-based diets may increase the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency due to limited intake of animal-source foods, while dietary folate increases when adhering to plant-based diets. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the B12 and folate status of Norwegian vegans and vegetarians using dietary B12 intake, B12 and folic acid supplement use, and biomarkers (serum B12 (B12), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) and serum folate). Vegans (n 115) and vegetarians (n 90) completed a 24-h dietary recall and a FFQ and provided a non-fasting blood sample. cB12, a combined indicator for evaluation of B12 status, was calculated. B12 status was adequate in both vegans and vegetarians according to the cB12 indicator; however 4 % had elevated B12. Serum B12, tHcy, MMA concentrations and the cB12 indicator (overall median: 357 pmol/l, 9·0 µmol/l, 0·18 µmol/l, 1·30 (cB12)) did not differ between vegans and vegetarians, unlike for folate (vegans: 25·8 nmol/l, vegetarians: 21·6 nmol/l, P = 0·027). Serum B12 concentration < 221 pmol/l was found in 14 % of all participants. Vegetarians revealed the highest proportion of participants below the recommended daily intake of 2 µg/d including supplements (40 v. 18 %, P < 0·001). Predictors of higher serum B12 concentrations were average daily supplement use and older age. Folate deficiency (< 10 nmol/l) was uncommon overall (< 2·5 %). The combined indicator cB12 suggested that none of the participants was B12-depleted; however, low serum B12 concentration was found in 14 % of the participants. Folate concentrations were adequate, indicating adequate folate intake in Norwegian vegans and vegetarians.
There is limited evidence on fruit and vegetable intake in relation to cognitive function. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of quantity and variety in fruit and vegetable intake in midlife with cognitive impairment in late life. We used data from 16 737 participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based cohort study. The participants provided dietary data at recruitment at median age of 52·5 (range: 45–74) years and also participated in the third follow-up interview 20 years later at median age of 72·2 (range: 61–96) years. Quantity and variety of fruits and vegetables consumed at baseline were measured using a validated FFQ. Cognitive impairment at the third follow-up was defined using a Singapore-modified version of Mini-Mental State Examination. About 14·3 % participants had cognitive impairment. In multivariable logistic regression models, comparing extreme quartiles for intake of fruits and vegetables combined, the OR (95 % CI) associated with cognitive impairment was 0·83 (95 % CI: 0·73, 0·95; P-trend = 0·006) for quantity and 0·76 (95 % CI: 0·67, 0·87; P-trend< 0·001) for variety scores. Independently, those with increased variety of fruit intake or higher quantity of vegetable intake also had significantly 22 % and 15 % reduced odds of cognitive impairment, respectively. Finally, compared with those with low intake for both quantity and variety, those with both high quantity and variety for fruits and vegetables had 23 % reduction in odds of cognitive impairment. In conclusion, increase in quantity and variety of fruits and vegetables in midlife may reduce the risk of cognitive impairment in late life.
It has been suggested that added sugar intake is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, previous studies only focused on sugar-sweetened beverages; the evidence for associations with total added sugars and their sources is scarce. This study aimed to examine the associations of total added sugars, their physical forms (liquid v. solid) and food sources with risk of NAFLD among adults in Tianjin, China. We used data from 15 538 participants, free of NAFLD, other liver diseases, CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline (2013–2018 years). Added sugar intake was estimated from a validated 100-item FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography after exclusion of other causes of liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95 % CI for NAFLD risk with added sugar intake. During a median follow-up of 4·2 years, 3476 incident NAFLD cases were documented. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and its change from baseline to follow-up, lifestyle factors, personal and family medical history and overall diet quality, the multivariable HR of NAFLD risk were 1·18 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·32) for total added sugars, 1·20 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·33) for liquid added sugars and 0·96 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·07) for solid added sugars when comparing the highest quartiles of intake with the lowest quartiles of intake. In this prospective cohort of Chinese adults, higher intakes of total added sugars and liquid added sugars, but not solid added sugars, were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.
This study systematically reviewed the evidence on interventions seeking to improve Food and Nutrition Literacy (FNLIT) functional, interactive and critical skills in primary school-aged children. Electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Cochrane, Pro-Quest and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, pre-/post-test and case–control designs were included. The primary outcomes were three levels of FNLIT: functional, interactive and critical. All citations, full-text articles and abstract data were screened by two independent reviewers. Any conflicts were then resolved through discussion. The quality of the included studies was individually evaluated using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) quality assessment tool. Two reviewers extracted data from the included studies, and a descriptive analysis was performed. The quality of all eligible studies (n 19) was rated as moderate/weak. A wide variety of skill-building activities were introduced by programmes, including recipe skills/food preparation, food label literacy, food tasting, gardening harvesting, and supporting cultural practices and ethnic foods. Only four studies measured food literacy (FL) (food label literacy) via a valid measure. Most interventions focused on the functional level of FL, except for two programmes (one scored weak and one scored moderate). In most of the studies, delivery of intervention content was facilitated by teachers (n 15). Promising interventions were tailored to the needs and interests of students, incorporated into the existing curriculum and facilitated by teachers. The successful intervention strategies led to improvements in functional, partly interactive and critical skills. Future interventions should focus, holistically, on all aspects of FNLIT, especially interactive and critical skills.
Limited data exist regarding the role of meat consumption in early-stage colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined associations of red and processed meat intake with screen-detected colorectal lesions in immunochemical fecal occult blood test (FIT)-positive participants, enrolled in the Norwegian CRCbiome study during 2017–2021, aged 55–77 years. Absolute and energy-adjusted intakes of red and processed meat (combined and individually) were assessed using a validated, semi-quantitative FFQ. Associations between meat intake and screen-detected colorectal lesions were examined using multinomial logistic regression analyses with adjustment for key covariates. Of 1162 participants, 319 presented with advanced colorectal lesions at colonoscopy. High v. low energy-adjusted intakes of red and processed meat combined, as well as red meat alone, were borderline to significantly positively associated with advanced colorectal lesions (OR of 1·24 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·57) and 1·34 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·69), respectively). A significant dose–response relationship was also observed for absolute intake levels (OR of 1·32 (95 % CI 1·09, 1·60) per 100 g/d increase in red and processed meat). For processed meat, no association was observed between energy-adjusted intakes and advanced colorectal lesions. A significant positive association was, however, observed for participants with absolute intake levels ≥ 100 v. < 50 g/d (OR of 1·19 (95 % CI 1·09, 1·31)). In summary, high intakes of red and processed meat were associated with presence of advanced colorectal lesions at colonoscopy in FIT-positive participants. The study demonstrates a potential role of dietary data to improve the performance of FIT-based screening.
The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) published evidence-based recommendations for cancer prevention focusing on body weight, physical activity, and diet. Our aim is to evaluate whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations could reduce endometrial cancer risk. We used data from a multicentric, Italian hospital-based case–control study (1992–2006) including 454 endometrial cancer cases and 908 age-matched controls. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was measured using a score (range: 0–7) based on seven components: body mass index (BMI), physical activity and five dietary items; higher scores indicated higher adherence. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by multiple (adjusted) conditional logistic regression models including terms for major confounders and energy intake. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was inversely related to endometrial cancer risk (OR = 0·42, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0·30, 0·61 for the highest compared with the lowest score quartile), with a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing adherence. An inverse association was also observed for a score including only dietary recommendations (OR = 0·67, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·96 for the highest compared with the lowest score tertile). In stratified analyses, the association was stronger among women with a normal weight, those who were older, and consequently those in post-menopause, and those with ≥ 2 children. In conclusion, high adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations has a favourable role in endometrial cancer risk, which is not fully explained by body weight.
High fish consumption may be associated with lower inflammation, suppressing atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). Long sleep duration, as well as short sleep, may contribute to inflammation, thus facilitating ASCVD. This study investigated the overall association between fish consumption, sleep duration and leucocytes count. We conducted a cross-sectional study between April 2019 and March 2020 with a cohort of 8947 apparently healthy participants with no history of ASCVD (average age, 46·9 ± 12·3 years and 59 % males). The average frequency of fish consumption and sleep duration were 2·13 ± 1·26 d/week and 6·0 ± 0·97 h/d. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that increased fish consumption was an independent determinant of sleep duration (β = 0·084, P < 0·0001). Additionally, habitual aerobic exercise (β = 0·059, P < 0·0001) or cigarette smoking (β = −0·051, P < 0·0001) and homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (β = −0·039, P = 0·01) were independent determinants of sleep duration. Furthermore, multivariate linear regression analysis identified fish consumption as an independent determinant of leucocytes count (β = −0·091, P < 0·0001). However, a significant U-shaped curve was found between leucocytes count and sleep duration, with 6–7 h of sleep as the low value (P = 0·015). Higher fish consumption may be associated with a lower leucocytes count in the presence of adequate sleep duration and healthy lifestyle behaviors. However, long sleep duration was also related to increased inflammation, even in populations with high fish consumption. Further studies are needed to clarify the causality between these factors.
The current study aims to describe the consumption of ultra-processed foods, from 2 to 4 years old, and evaluate its association with growth outcomes during the same period. It is a prospective cohort study using data from the 2015 Pelotas-Brazil Birth Cohort. Outcomes assessed at the 2- and 4-year-old follow-ups were BMI-for-age Z-score and length/height-for-age Z-score. The exposure was a score of ultra-processed food consumption calculated at each follow-up by summing up the positive answers for the consumption of nine specific items/subgroups of ultra-processed foods: (i) instant noodles; (ii) soft drink; (iii) chocolate powder in milk; (iv) nuggets, hamburger or sausages; (v) packaged salty snacks; (vi) candies, lollipops, chewing gum, chocolate or jelly; (vii) sandwich cookie or sweet biscuit; (viii) juice in can or box or prepared from a powdered mix and (ix) yogurt. Crude and adjusted analyses between the score of ultra-processed foods and the outcomes were run using generalised estimating equations. Prevalence of consumption of ultra-processed foods increased from 2 to 4 years old, for all evaluated items/subgroups, except yogurt. In prospective analyses, higher scores of ultra-processed food consumption were associated with higher BMI-for-age Z-score and lower length/height-for-age Z-score, after adjustment for confounders. Ultra-processed food consumption, measured using a short questionnaire with low research burden, increased from 2 to 4 years old and was related to deleterious growth outcomes in early childhood. These results reinforce the importance of avoiding the consumption of these products in childhood to prevent the double burden of malnutrition and non-communicable chronic diseases throughout the life.
The objectives of this study were (1) to systematically review the literature on the association between birth weight in children born in the first and second generation and (2) to quantify this association by performing a meta-analysis. A systematic review was carried out in six databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL and LILACS), in January 2021, for studies that recorded the birth weight of parents and children. A meta-analysis using random effects to obtain a pooled effect of the difference in birth weight and the association of low birth weight (LBW) between generations was performed. Furthermore, univariable meta-regression was conducted to assess heterogeneity. Egger’s tests were used to possible publication biases. Of the 9878 identified studies, seventy were read in full and twenty were included in the meta-analysis (ten prospective cohorts and ten retrospective cohorts), fourteen studies for difference in means and eleven studies for the association of LBW between generations (twenty-three estimates). Across all studies, there was no statistically significant mean difference (MD) birth weight between first and second generation (MD 19·26, 95 % CI 28·85, 67·36; P = 0·43). Overall, children of LBW parents were 69 % more likely to have LBW (pooled effect size 1·69, 95 % CI (1·46, 1·95); I2:85·8 %). No source of heterogeneity was identified among the studies and no publication bias. The average birth weight of parents does not influence the average birth weight of children; however, the proportion of LBW among the parents seems to affect the offspring’s birth weight.
The use of dietary supplements (DS) is increasing worldwide. There is limited evidence of their intake level and mode of consumption in association with the Greek population’s dietary and lifestyle habits. Adults (n 4011, 1873 males and 2138 females) aged > 18 years old living in Greece were included in the 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Survey – HYDRIA. A dietary supplement user (DSU) was defined as anyone who reported one or more DS on either a Food Propensity Questionnaire, two 24-h dietary recalls, or a questionnaire completed during the blood sample collection examination. DS use was examined according to socio-economic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics and the participants’ health and dietary status. DS use was reported by 31 % of the population (40 % women and 22 % men), and it was higher among individuals living in urban areas, men with good self-reported health status and women with a chronic medical condition and higher consumption of fruits. The types of DS more frequently reported were multivitamins with minerals (5·4 %), Ca (5·3 %), multivitamins (4·7 %) and Fe (4·6 %). MVM supplements were preferred by men, while Ca was more frequently reported by women and participants with low education levels. Plant- and oil-based supplement use was below 5 %. Whether DS intake benefits health must be explored. It should also be assessed if dietary supplement intake is as efficient as food intake.
The aim of this review was to examine: (1) the ability of cholecystokinin (CCK) or analogues of CCK to influence satiation and changes in body weight generally and (2) the efficacy of CCK in influencing satiation and eating behaviour specifically at physiological levels of dosing. A systematic review of the literature was performed following the PRISMA 2020 guidelines in five electronic databases investigating the effect of exogenous CCK or analogues on satiation and body weight. A meta-analysis of studies that infused CCK and measured satiation via changes in food/energy intake was also conducted. A total of 1054 studies were found using the search terms which were reduced to fifteen studies suitable for inclusion. Of the twelve studies measuring the effect on the weight of food ingested or energy intake, eleven showed a decrease. An analogue of CCK which can be administered orally failed to produce any weight loss at 24 weeks. The meta-analysis found the effect of CCK on satiation dosed at physiological levels was significant with a standardised mean difference of 0·57 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·85, P < 0·0001). By comparison, CCK dosed at higher, pharmacological levels also had a significant effect with a standardised mean difference of 0·91 (95 % CI 0·46, 1·36, P < 0·0001). Eight of the ten studies in the meta-analysis combined CCK infusion with some means to facilitate stomach distension. The present review found evidence that at both physiological and pharmacological levels of dosing CCK has a significant effect on satiation but no evidence for weight loss over the long term.
There is a growing interest in the study of the degree of food processing and both health and nutritional outcomes. To that end, several definitions of the degree of processing have been proposed. However, when each of these is used on a common database of nutritional, clinical and anthropometric variables, the observed effect of high intakes of highly processed food, varies considerably.. Moreover, assigning a given food by nutritional experts, to its appropriate level of processing, has been shown to be variable. Thus, the subjective definitions of the degree of food processing and the coding of foods according to these classifications is prone to error is prone to error. Another issue that need resolution is the relative importance of the degree of food processing and the formulation of a processed food. Although correlational studies linking processed food and obesity abound, there is a need for more investigative studies.
Modern nutrition science began approximately 100 years ago in the context of nutrient deficiency diseases. Nutrition research and policy activities were framed mostly within a reductionist paradigm in which foods were analysed as being a collection of their constituent nutrients. Today, nutrition problems extend to all forms of malnutrition as well as environmental sustainability considerations and are associated with food and dietary pattern exposures. In 2009, researchers investigating the nutrition transition in Brazil proposed that industrial food processing was a key determinant of nutrition problems. The NOVA food classification system which is based on the nature, extent and purposes of food processing was developed to operationalise this proposition. The ultra-processed food (UPF) concept within NOVA is receiving much attention in relation to nutrition research and policy activities. This commentary describes the UPF concept as being fit-for-purpose in providing guidance to inform policy activities to tackle unhealthy and unsustainable diets. There is now a substantial body of evidence linking UPF exposure with adverse population and planetary health outcomes. The UPF concept is increasingly being used in the development of food-based dietary guidelines and nutrition policy actions. It challenges many conventional nutrition research and policy activities as well as the political economy of the industrial food system. Inevitably, there are politicised debates associated with UPF and it is apparent a disproportionate number of articles claiming the concept is controversial originate from a small number of researchers with declared associations with UPF manufacturers. Prominent examples of these claims are assessed.
Depression and obesity are highly prevalent and are considered inflammatory pathologies; in addition, they are also associated with dietary patterns including types of fatty acids (FA). Changes in the FA composition in the brain are determined by changes in the content and quality of dietary and serum FA. The aim of this study was to verify the relationships between serum-free FA, inflammatory processes and depressive symptoms in obese adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study that analysed a database composed of 138 post-pubertal adolescents. Data regarding the depressive symptoms, body composition, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, FA profile, leptin concentration, as well as adiponectin, IL-A, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, C-reactive protein and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels of the subjects were collected. A total of 54·6 % of the adolescents presented with depressive symptoms, and there were positive correlations between depressive symptoms and serum saturated fatty acids (SFA) content, body fat, and inflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, IL-6, and the leptin/adiponectin ratio. Moreover, the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms, suggesting that eicosatrienoic acid (C20:2n6) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6) are independently associated with depressive symptom scores and can be critical predictors of poor mental health in humans. These results point to the relationship between SFA and depressive symptoms in obese adolescents. However, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the causality between dietary SFA and depression in obese individuals.