We introduce a unified framework for solving first passage times of time-homogeneous diffusion processes. Using potential theory and perturbation theory, we are able to deduce closed-form truncated probability densities, as asymptotics or approximations to the original first passage time densities, for single-side level crossing problems. The framework is applicable to diffusion processes with continuous drift functions; in particular, for bounded drift functions, we show that the perturbation series converges. In the present paper, we demonstrate examples of applying our framework to the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck, Bessel, exponential-Shiryaev, and hypergeometric diffusion processes (the latter two being previously studied by Dassios and Li (2018) and Borodin (2009), respectively). The purpose of this paper is to provide a fast and accurate approach to estimating first passage time densities of various diffusion processes.