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Let $k$ be a field, and let ${\mathcal{C}}$ be a $k$-linear, Hom-finite triangulated category with split idempotents. In this paper, we show that under suitable circumstances, the Grothendieck group of ${\mathcal{C}}$, denoted by $K_{0}({\mathcal{C}})$, can be expressed as a quotient of the split Grothendieck group of a higher cluster tilting subcategory of ${\mathcal{C}}$. The results we prove are higher versions of results on Grothendieck groups of triangulated categories by Xiao and Zhu and by Palu. Assume that $n\geqslant 2$ is an integer; ${\mathcal{C}}$ has a Serre functor $\mathbb{S}$ and an $n$-cluster tilting subcategory ${\mathcal{T}}$ such that $\operatorname{Ind}{\mathcal{T}}$ is locally bounded. Then, for every indecomposable $M$ in ${\mathcal{T}}$, there is an Auslander–Reiten $(n+2)$-angle in ${\mathcal{T}}$ of the form $\mathbb{S}\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F4}^{-n}(M)\rightarrow T_{n-1}\rightarrow \cdots \rightarrow T_{0}\rightarrow M$ and
Assume now that $d$ is a positive integer and ${\mathcal{C}}$ has a $d$-cluster tilting subcategory ${\mathcal{S}}$ closed under $d$-suspension. Then, ${\mathcal{S}}$ is a so-called $(d+2)$-angulated category whose Grothendieck group $K_{0}({\mathcal{S}})$ can be defined as a certain quotient of $K_{0}^{\text{sp}}({\mathcal{S}})$. We will show
Moreover, assume that $n=2d$, that all the above assumptions hold, and that ${\mathcal{T}}\subseteq {\mathcal{S}}$. Then our results can be combined to express $K_{0}({\mathcal{S}})$ as a quotient of $K_{0}^{\text{sp}}({\mathcal{T}})$.
We give a generators-and-relations description of differential graded algebras recently introduced by Ozsváth and Szabó for the computation of knot Floer homology. We also compute the homology of these algebras and determine when they are formal.
A duality theorem for the singularity category of a finite dimensional Gorenstein algebra is proved. It complements a duality on the category of perfect complexes, discovered by Happel. One of its consequences is an analogue of Serre duality, and the existence of Auslander–Reiten triangles for the $\mathfrak{p}$-local and $\mathfrak{p}$-torsion subcategories of the derived category, for each homogeneous prime ideal $\mathfrak{p}$ arising from the action of a commutative ring via Hochschild cohomology.
In previous work, based on the work of Zwara and Yoshino, we defined and studied degenerations of objects in triangulated categories analogous to the degeneration of modules. In triangulated categories ${\mathcal{T}}$, it is surprising that the zero object may degenerate. We show that the triangulated subcategory of ${\mathcal{T}}$ generated by the objects that are degenerations of zero coincides with the triangulated subcategory of ${\mathcal{T}}$ consisting of the objects with a vanishing image in the Grothendieck group $K_{0}({\mathcal{T}})$ of ${\mathcal{T}}$.
Let R be a semiprime ring with extended centroid C and let
$I(x)$ denote the set of all inner inverses of a regular element x in R. Given two regular elements
$a, b$ in R, we characterise the existence of some
$c\in R$ such that
$I(a)+I(b)=I(c)$. Precisely, if
$a, b, a+b$ are regular elements of R and a and b are parallel summable with the parallel sum
${\cal P}(a, b)$, then
$I(a)+I(b)=I({\cal P}(a, b))$. Conversely, if
$I(a)+I(b)=I(c)$ for some
$c\in R$, then
$\mathrm {E}[c]a(a+b)^{-}b$ is invariant for all
$(a+b)^{-}\in I(a+b)$, where
$\mathrm {E}[c]$ is the smallest idempotent in C satisfying
$c=\mathrm {E}[c]c$. This extends earlier work of Mitra and Odell for matrix rings over a field and Hartwig for prime regular rings with unity and some recent results proved by Alahmadi et al. [‘Invariance and parallel sums’, Bull. Math. Sci.10(1) (2020), 2050001, 8 pages] concerning the parallel summability of unital prime rings and abelian regular rings.
Let Λ be an artin algebra and
$0=I_{0}\subseteq I_{1} \subseteq I_{2}\subseteq\cdots \subseteq I_{n}$
a chain of ideals of Λ such that
$(I_{i+1}/I_{i})\rad(\Lambda/I_{i})=0$
for any
$0\leq i\leq n-1$
and
$\Lambda/I_{n}$
is semisimple. If either none or the direct sum of exactly two consecutive ideals has infinite projective dimension, then the finitistic dimension conjecture holds for Λ. As a consequence, we have that if either none or the direct sum of exactly two consecutive terms in the radical series of Λ has infinite projective dimension, then the finitistic dimension conjecture holds for Λ. Some known results are obtained as corollaries.
The commutative differential graded algebra $A_{\mathrm {PL}}(X)$ of polynomial forms on a simplicial set $X$ is a crucial tool in rational homotopy theory. In this note, we construct an integral version $A^{\mathcal {I}}(X)$ of $A_{\mathrm {PL}}(X)$. Our approach uses diagrams of chain complexes indexed by the category of finite sets and injections $\mathcal {I}$ to model $E_{\infty }$ differential graded algebras (dga) by strictly commutative objects, called commutative $\mathcal {I}$-dgas. We define a functor $A^{\mathcal {I}}$ from simplicial sets to commutative $\mathcal {I}$-dgas and show that it is a commutative lift of the usual cochain algebra functor. In particular, it gives rise to a new construction of the $E_{\infty }$ dga of cochains. The functor $A^{\mathcal {I}}$ shares many properties of $A_{\mathrm {PL}}$, and can be viewed as a generalization of $A_{\mathrm {PL}}$ that works over arbitrary commutative ground rings. Working over the integers, a theorem by Mandell implies that $A^{\mathcal {I}}(X)$ determines the homotopy type of $X$ when $X$ is a nilpotent space of finite type.
We compute the
$g=1$
,
$n=1$
B-model Gromov–Witten invariant of an elliptic curve
$E$
directly from the derived category
$\mathsf{D}_{\mathsf{coh}}^{b}(E)$
. More precisely, we carry out the computation of the categorical Gromov–Witten invariant defined by Costello using as target a cyclic
$\mathscr{A}_{\infty }$
model of
$\mathsf{D}_{\mathsf{coh}}^{b}(E)$
described by Polishchuk. This is the first non-trivial computation of a positive-genus categorical Gromov–Witten invariant, and the result agrees with the prediction of mirror symmetry: it matches the classical (non-categorical) Gromov–Witten invariants of a symplectic 2-torus computed by Dijkgraaf.
We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of an enhancement of a finite triangulated category. Moreover, we show that enhancements are unique when they exist, up to Morita equivalence.
Classification of AS-regular algebras is one of the main interests in noncommutative algebraic geometry. We say that a $3$-dimensional quadratic AS-regular algebra is of Type EC if its point scheme is an elliptic curve in $\mathbb {P}^{2}$. In this paper, we give a complete list of geometric pairs and a complete list of twisted superpotentials corresponding to such algebras. As an application, we show that there are only two exceptions up to isomorphism among all $3$-dimensional quadratic AS-regular algebras that cannot be written as a twist of a Calabi–Yau AS-regular algebra by a graded algebra automorphism.
An element a in a ring R is left annihilator-stable (or left AS) if, whenever
$Ra+{\rm l}(b)=R$
with
$b\in R$
,
$a-u\in {\rm l}(b)$
for a unit u in R, and the ring R is a left AS ring if each of its elements is left AS. In this paper, we show that the left AS elements in a ring form a multiplicatively closed set, giving an affirmative answer to a question of Nicholson [J. Pure Appl. Alg.221 (2017), 2557–2572.]. This result is used to obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for a formal triangular matrix ring to be left AS. As an application, we provide examples of left AS rings R over which the triangular matrix rings
${\mathbb T}_n(R)$
are not left AS for all
$n\ge 2$
. These examples give a negative answer to another question of Nicholson [J. Pure Appl. Alg.221 (2017), 2557–2572.] whether R/J(R) being left AS implies that R is left AS.
By using a representation of a Lie algebra on the second Hochschild cohomology group, we construct an obstruction class to extensibility of derivations and a short exact sequence of Wells type for an abelian extension of an associative algebra.
We give a complete description of a basis of the extension spaces between indecomposable string and quasi-simple band modules in the module category of a gentle algebra.
We study the derived category of a complete intersection
$X$
of bilinear divisors in the orbifold
$\operatorname{Sym}^{2}\mathbb{P}(V)$
. Our results are in the spirit of Kuznetsov’s theory of homological projective duality, and we describe a homological projective duality relation between
$\operatorname{Sym}^{2}\mathbb{P}(V)$
and a category of modules over a sheaf of Clifford algebras on
$\mathbb{P}(\operatorname{Sym}^{2}V^{\vee })$
. The proof follows a recently developed strategy combining variation of geometric invariant theory (VGIT) stability and categories of global matrix factorisations. We begin by translating
$D^{b}(X)$
into a derived category of factorisations on a Landau–Ginzburg (LG) model, and then apply VGIT to obtain a birational LG model. Finally, we interpret the derived factorisation category of the new LG model as a Clifford module category. In some cases we can compute this Clifford module category as the derived category of a variety. As a corollary we get a new proof of a result of Hosono and Takagi, which says that a certain pair of non-birational Calabi–Yau 3-folds have equivalent derived categories.
In representation theory, commutative algebra and algebraic geometry, it is an important problem to understand when the triangulated category
$\mathsf{D}_{\operatorname{sg}}^{\mathbb{Z}}(R)=\text{}\underline{\mathsf{CM}}_{0}^{\mathbb{Z}}R$
admits a tilting (respectively, silting) object for a
$\mathbb{Z}$
-graded commutative Gorenstein ring
$R=\bigoplus _{i\geqslant 0}R_{i}$
. Here
$\mathsf{D}_{\operatorname{sg}}^{\mathbb{Z}}(R)$
is the singularity category, and
$\text{}\underline{\mathsf{CM}}_{0}^{\mathbb{Z}}R$
is the stable category of
$\mathbb{Z}$
-graded Cohen–Macaulay (CM)
$R$
-modules, which are locally free at all nonmaximal prime ideals of
$R$
.
In this paper, we give a complete answer to this problem in the case where
$\dim R=1$
and
$R_{0}$
is a field. We prove that
$\text{}\underline{\mathsf{CM}}_{0}^{\mathbb{Z}}R$
always admits a silting object, and that
$\text{}\underline{\mathsf{CM}}_{0}^{\mathbb{Z}}R$
admits a tilting object if and only if either
$R$
is regular or the
$a$
-invariant of
$R$
is nonnegative. Our silting/tilting object will be given explicitly. We also show that if
$R$
is reduced and nonregular, then its
$a$
-invariant is nonnegative and the above tilting object gives a full strong exceptional collection in
$\text{}\underline{\mathsf{CM}}_{0}^{\mathbb{Z}}R=\text{}\underline{\mathsf{CM}}^{\mathbb{Z}}R$
.
Generalizing von Neumann’s result on type II
$_1$
von Neumann algebras, I characterise lattice isomorphisms between projection lattices of arbitrary von Neumann algebras by means of ring isomorphisms between the algebras of locally measurable operators. Moreover, I give a complete description of ring isomorphisms of locally measurable operator algebras when the von Neumann algebras are without type II direct summands.
Let
$R$
be a ring and
$T$
be a good Wakamatsu-tilting module with
$S=\text{End}(T_{R})^{op}$
. We prove that
$T$
induces an equivalence between stable repetitive categories of
$R$
and
$S$
(i.e., stable module categories of repetitive algebras
$\hat{R}$
and
${\hat{S}}$
). This shows that good Wakamatsu-tilting modules seem to behave in Morita theory of stable repetitive categories as that tilting modules of finite projective dimension behave in Morita theory of derived categories.
The cup product in the cohomology of algebras over quadratic operads has been studied in the general setting of Koszul duality for operads. We study the cup product on the cohomology of n-ary totally associative algebras with an operation of even (homological) degree. This cup product endows the cohomology with the structure of an n-ary partially associative algebra with an operation of even or odd degree depending on the parity of n. In the cases n=3 and n=4, we provide an explicit definition of this cup product and prove its basic properties.
We show that a directed graph
$E$
is a finite graph with no sinks if and only if, for each commutative unital ring
$R$
, the Leavitt path algebra
$L_{R}(E)$
is isomorphic to an algebraic Cuntz–Krieger algebra if and only if the
$C^{\ast }$
-algebra
$C^{\ast }(E)$
is unital and
$\text{rank}(K_{0}(C^{\ast }(E)))=\text{rank}(K_{1}(C^{\ast }(E)))$
. Let
$k$
be a field and
$k^{\times }$
be the group of units of
$k$
. When
$\text{rank}(k^{\times })<\infty$
, we show that the Leavitt path algebra
$L_{k}(E)$
is isomorphic to an algebraic Cuntz–Krieger algebra if and only if
$L_{k}(E)$
is unital and
$\text{rank}(K_{1}(L_{k}(E)))=(\text{rank}(k^{\times })+1)\text{rank}(K_{0}(L_{k}(E)))$
. We also show that any unital
$k$
-algebra which is Morita equivalent or stably isomorphic to an algebraic Cuntz–Krieger algebra, is isomorphic to an algebraic Cuntz–Krieger algebra. As a consequence, corners of algebraic Cuntz–Krieger algebras are algebraic Cuntz–Krieger algebras.
Keller proved in 1999 that the Gerstenhaber algebra structure on the Hochschild cohomology of an algebra is an invariant of the derived category. In this paper, we adapt his approach to show that the Gerstenhaber algebra structure on the Tate–Hochschild cohomology of an algebra is preserved under singular equivalences of Morita type with level, a notion introduced by the author in previous work.