Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Presidential Legislation in India
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

India has a parliamentary system. Yet the president has authority to occasionally enact legislation (or ordinances) without involving parliament. This book is a study of ordinances at the national level in India, centred around three themes. First, it tells the story of how an artefact of British constitutional history, over time, became part of India's legislative system. Second, it offers an empirical account of the ways in which presidents have resorted to ordinances in post-independence India. Third, the book analyses a range of ordinance-related questions, including some that are yet to be judicially adjudicated. In the process, the book explains why much of India's Supreme Court's jurisprudence is mistaken, and what should take its place. Overall, the book explains why the fate of parliamentary reforms in India may be tied to the reform of this provision for ordinances. Presidential Legislation in India offers a new frame through which to assess the executive's legislative powers both in parliamentary and presidential systems.

Reviews

‘Dam is among the rising stars in the jurisprudential study of Indian law. The analysis in this important book demonstrates how India's executive has repeatedly enacted economic and social policies by bypassing parliament, and the institutional perils of doing this. Relevant to understanding the current economic situation brought about by executive action, the book must be read by all policymakers and scholars interested in India.’

Jagdish Bhagwati - University Professor of Economics, Law and International Affairs, Columbia University

‘This book is essential reading for anyone interested in constitutionalism, the rule of law and Indian democracy. It lays out a detailed analysis of the ordinance-making power of the Indian President and a vigorous argument for a reappraisal of its interpretation and use. Challenging the apparent clarity of the constitutional text, and invoking deeper arguments of constitutional principle, it bravely rejects the widespread assumption that legislation and ordinances are equivalent and highlights the exceptional and deeply problematic nature of the President’s power to enact legislation.’

Simon Evans - University of Melbourne

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

Bibliography

Books

Adams, George Burton (1921), The Constitutional History of England, New York: H. Holt.
Agnihotri, V. K. (2004), Handbook on the Working of Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs, New Delhi: Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.
Allan, T. R. S. (2001), Constitutional Justice: A Liberal Theory of the Rule of Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Allen, C. K. (1945), Law and Orders, London: Stevens and Sons.
Amos, Maurice (1930), The English Constitution, London: Longmans, Green and Co.
Anand, C. L. (2008), Constitutional Law and History of Government of India, New Delhi: Universal.
Anson, Sir William (1886), The Law and Custom of the Constitution, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Austin, Glanville (1999), Working a Democratic Constitution, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Baker, John Hamilton (2002), An Introduction to English Legal History, OhioButterworths/LexisNexis.
Banerjee, Anil Chandra (1961–1965), Indian Constitutional Documents 1757–1939, Calcutta: A. Mukherjea and Co.
Beatt, David M. (2004), The Ultimate Rule of Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Benichou, Lucien (2000), From Autocracy to Integration: Political Developments in Hyderabad State 1938–1948, Chennai: Orient Longman.
Bennion, Francis (2008), Bennion on Statutory Interpretation, London: LexisNexis.
Blackstone, Sir William and Thomas Cooley (1871), Commentaries on the Law of England, Chicago: Callahan and Cockcroft.
Chakrabarty, Bidyut (2006), Forging Power: Coalition Politics in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Choudhary, Valmiki (ed.) (1987), Dr. Rajendra Prasad: Correspondence and Select Documents Vol. XIII, New Delhi: Allied Publishers.
Constituent Assembly Debates (1949), New Delhi: Lok Sabha Secretariat.
Dicey, A. V. (1959), An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, New Delhi: Universal Law Publishing.
Donald, David and Jean Baker, et al. (2001), The Civil War And Reconstruction, New York: W. W. Norton.
Dworkin, R. (1985), A Matter of Principle, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Elton, G. R. (1955), England Under the Tudors, London: Methuen and Co.
Engineer, Asghar Ali (1987), The Shah Bano Controversy, Delhi: Ajanta Publishers.
Eskridge, William N. (1994), Dynamic Statutory Interpretation, CambridgeHarvard University Press.
Fuller, L. (1964), The Morality of Law, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Goldsworthy, Jeffrey Denys (1999), The Sovereignty of Parliament: History and Philosophy, New YorkOxford University Press.
Government of India (1996), Presidential Ordinances 1950–1996, New Delhi: Lok Sabha Secretariat.
Government of India (2004), Manual of Parliamentary Procedures in the Government of India, New Delhi: Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.
Government of India (2009), Handbook for Members of Lok Sabha, 15th ed., New Delhi: Lok Sabha Secretariat.
Graves, Michael A. R. (1985), Early Tudor Parliaments: Crown, Lords and Commons, 1485–1603, New YorkLongman.
Halsbury's Laws of England, 3rd ed., Vol. 36 (1961), LondonLexisNexis.
Halstead, T. J. (2007), Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, Presidential Signing Statements: Constitutional and Institutional Implications, available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL33667.pdf (visited on 31 August 2011).
Hansaria, B. L. (1998), Does India Need a New Constitution?Calcutta: Eastern Law House.
Haskins, George Lee (1948), The Growth of English Representative Government, London: Oxford University Press.
Heinz, Robert (1976), The Proclamations of the Tudor Kings, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Holdsworth, Sir William (1936), A History of English Law, London: Methuen and Co.
Hughes, Paul L. and RobertF. Fries (1959), Crown and Parliament in Tudor-Stuart England: A Documentary Constitutional History, 1485–1714, New YorkPutnam.
Jain, M. P. (2009), Indian Constitutional Law, Nagpur: LexisNexis.
Jayal, Niraja and Pratap Mehta (eds.) (2010), Oxford Companion to Politics in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Kannabiran, Kalpana and Ranbir Singh (eds.) (2008), Challenging the Rule(s) of Law: Colonialism, Criminology and Human Rights in India, New Delhi: Sage.
Kapur, Devesh and Pratap Mehta (eds.) (2007), Public Institution in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Kashyap, Subhas (2004), Our Parliament, New Delhi: National Book Trust.
Kashyap, Subhas (2006), Parliamentary Procedure: Law, Privileges, Practice and Precedents, Delhi: Universal Publishers.
Keith, A. B. (1969), A Constitutional History of India 1600–1935, New York: Barnes and Noble.
Kemp, Betty (1959), King and Commons 1660–1832, London: St. Martin's Press.
Kennedy, Duncan (2008), Legal Reasoning: Collected Essays, Colorado: The Davies Group.
Kohli, Atul (ed.) (2001), The Success of India's Democracy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Krishnaswamy, Sudhir (2010), Democracy and Constitutionalism in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Lapsley, Gaillard Thomas (1951), Crown, Community and Parliament in the Later Middle Ages; Studies in English Constitutional History, Oxford: B. Blackwell.
Lijphart, Arend (1992), Parliamentary Versus Presidential Government, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lyon, Bryce Dale (1980), A Constitutional and Legal History of Medieval England, New YorkNorton.
Maitland, F. W. (1908), The Constitutional History of England, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Manor, James (ed.) (1994), Nehru to the Nineties: The Changing Office of Prime Minister in India, London: Hurst and Co.
Maxwell, Peter Benson (1991), On the Interpretation of Statutes, Colorado: Fred Rothman.
Mehra, Ajay K. and GertW. Kueck (2003), The Indian Parliament: A Comparative Perspective, Delhi: Konark Publishers.
Mehta, Jashwant B. (1979), Presidential System: A Better Alternative?Bombay: N. M. Tripathi.
Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs (2010), Statistical Handbook, New Delhi: Government of India.
Morris-Jones, W. H. (1957), Parliament in India, London: Longmans, Green and Co.
Mukherjea, A. R. (1983), Parliamentary Procedure in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Munshi, K. M. (1967), The President under the Indian Constitution, Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan.
Nehru, Jawaharlal (1936), India and the World, London: George, Allen and Unwin.
Nehru, Jawaharlal (1940), Towards Freedom, New York: Jones Day.
Nikolenyi, Csaba (2009), Minority Governments in India: The Puzzle of Elusive Majorities (London, Routledge).
Noorani, A. G. (1989), The Presidential System: The Indian Debate, New Delhi: Sage.
Noorani, A. G. (2004), The Trial of Bhagat Singh: Politics of Justice, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Panandiker, V. A. Pai and AjayK. Mehra (1996), The Indian Cabinet: A Study in Governance, Delhi: Konark Publishers.
Patnaik, Raghunath (1996), Powers of the President and Governors of India, New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications.
Peerenboom, Randall (ed.) (2004), Asian Discourses of Rule of Law, London: Routledge.
Plucknett, Theodore (1956), A Concise History of Common Law, Boston: Little, Brown and Co.
Pollard, Albert Frederick (1964), The Evolution of Parliament, New YorkRussell and Russell.
Prakash, Surya (1995), What Ails India's Parliament, New Delhi: Harper Collins.
Prasad, Anirudh (1981), Presidential Government or Parliamentary Democracy, New Delhi: Deep and Deep.
Raj, Hans (1989), Executive Legislation in Colonial India 1939–1947, New Delhi: Anamika Prakashan.
Rao, B. Shiva (ed.) (2006), The Framing of India's Constitution, New Delhi: Universal Law Publishing.
Raz, Joseph (1979), The Authority of Law: Essays on Law and Morality, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Russell, Conrad (1971), The Crisis of Parliament: English History 1509–1660, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sampford, Charles (2006), Retrospectivity and the Rule of Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sathe, S. P. (2002), Judicial Activism in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Sathe, Vasant (1989), Two Swords in One Scabbard: A Case for Presidential Form of Parliamentary Democracy, New Delhi: NIB Publishers.
Saxena, K. S. and Anil Gupta (eds.) (1985), Indian Democracy: Recent Trends and Issues, New Delhi: Anmol Publications.
Sayles, George, O. (1974), The King's Parliament of England, New York: W. W. Norton.
Seervai, H. M. (1968), Constitutional Law of India, Bombay: N.M. Tripathi Private.
Seervai, H. M. (2007), Constitutional Law of India, Delhi: Universal Law.
Shaman, Jeffrey M. (2001), Constitutional Interpretation: Illusion and Reality, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Shankar, B. L. and Valerian Rodrigues (2011), The Indian Parliament: A Democracy at Work, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Shourie, Arun (2007), The Parliamentary System, New Delhi: ASA Rupa.
Singh, Mahendra Prasad and Anil Mishra (eds.) (2004), Coalition Politics in India: Problems and Prospects, New Delhi: Manohar.
Singh, Naunihal (2008), A System of Governance: Parliamentary or Presidential, New Delhi: Anmol Publishers.
Singh, Zail (1997), Memoirs of Giani Zail Singh: The Seventh President of India, New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications.
Stubbs, William (1875), The Constitutional History of England in Its Origin and Development, Oxford :Clarendon Press.
Stubbs, William (1896), The Constitutional History of England, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Tamanaha, Brian (2004), On the Rule of Law: History, Politics, Theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Thompson, Faith (1953), A Short History of Parliament 1295–1642, MinneapolisUniversity of Minnesota Press.
Tremblay, Luc (1997), The Rule of Law, Justice and Interpretation, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Unger, Roberto (1976), Law in Modern Society, New York: Free Press.
Wadhwa, D. C. (1983), Re-promulgation of Ordinances: A Fraud on the Constitution of India, Pune: Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics.
Wadhwa, D. C. (2008), Endangered Constitutionalism: Documents from a Supreme Court Case, Pune: Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics.
Walker, Clive and James Broderick (2006), The Civil Contingencies Act 2004: Risk, Resilience and the Law in the United Kingdom, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Warren, Gordon H. (1981), Fountain of Discontent: The Trent Affair and Freedom of the Seas, Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Weber, Max (trans. from German by Edward A. Shils and Henry Finch) (1949), The Methodology of the Social Sciences, New York: Free Press.
Wilkinson, Bertie (1964), Constitutional History of England in the Fifteenth Century, New YorkBarnes and Noble.

Articles

Draft Constitution Prepared by the Drafting Committee’ in B. Shiva Rao (ed.), The Framing of India's Constitution Vol. III, 517–677, 549 (Universal Law Publishing, New Delhi, 2006).
Adair, E. R., ‘The Statute of Proclamations’, English Historical Review, 32(125), (1917), p. 34.
Agarwal, Arun, ‘The Indian Parliament’, in Public Institution in India, Devesh Kapur and Pratap Mehta (eds.) (2007). New Delhi: Oxford University Press, p. 77.
Amnesty International, ‘Briefing on the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958, Asa 20/025/2005’, available at: http://web.amnesty.org/library/pdf/ASA200252005ENGLISH/$File/ASA2002505.pdf.
Anil Kalhan, Gerald P. Conroy, Mamta Kaushal and Sam Scott Miller, ‘Colonial Continuities: Human Rights, Terrorism, and Security Laws in India’, 20 Columbian Journal of Asian Law (2006–2007).
Anon, ‘165 Firms Will Be Affected’ Times of India, 20 January 1956.
Anon, ‘Afroze Finally Gets a Taste of Freedom’ Times of India, 10 April 2002.
Anon, ‘Afroze Is the First to be Booked Under POTO in State’ Times of India, 9 March 2002.
Anon, ‘Afroze Was Part of Al Quida Hit Squad’ Times of India, 28 March 2002.
Anon, ‘Army's Help to be Sought if Necessary’ Times of India, 4 June 1958.
Anon, ‘Bail Suspects Could be Released after Court Ruling’ BBC News, 29 June 2011, available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-13957873 (visited on 31 August 2011).
Anon, ‘Banking Ordinance is Challenged’ Times of India, 22 July 1969.
Anon, ‘Centre Takes Over Forty Six “Sick” Mills’ Times of India, 1 November 1972.
Anon, ‘C. R. Doubts Validity of Ordinance’ Times of India, 19 July 1969.
Anon, ‘Earlier in Day, BJP Spelt Out Her Office of Profit’ Indian Express, 23 March 2006, available at: http://www.indianexpress.com/news/earlier-inday-bjp-spelt-out-her-office-of-profit/1040/0.
Anon, ‘Emergency Powers Ordinance May be Withdrawn’ Times of India, 9 August 1957.
Anon, ‘Fighting Naga Rebels: Aid of Armed Forces’ Times of India, 7 June 1958.
Anon, ‘Fourteen Top Banks are NationalisedTimes of India, 20 July 1969.
Anon, ‘Getting Away with Murder: 50 Years of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act’ Human Rights Watch, August 2008, available at: http://www.hrw.org/legacy/backgrounder/2008/india0808/india0808webwcover.pdf.
Anon, ‘Government to Rush Bill Rendering P. and T. Strike Illegal’ Times of India, 4 August 1957.
Anon, ‘Govt. Assumes Emergency Powers to Prevent Strikes’ Times of India, 8 August 1957.
Anon, ‘Govt. Ordinance: NDA Lodges Protest with Kalam’ Rediff News, 23 March 2006, available at:http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/mar/22profit1.htm (visited on 21 November 2011).
Anon, ‘Govt. Powers POTO through Joint Session’ Times of India, 27 March 2002.
Anon, ‘Govt. to Manage Coking Coal Mines’ Times of India, 17 October 1971.
Anon, ‘Hasty Decision’ Times of India, 21 January 1956.
Anon, ‘Human Rights Body to be Set Up’ Times of India, 30 September 1993.
Anon, ‘Human Rights Panel a “Fraud on People”’ Times of India, 8 December 1993.
Anon, ‘India and the War: Paper Currency Reserve’ Times of India, 15 December 1916.
Anon, ‘Insurance Firms “Misused” Power and Privilege’ Times of India, 20 January 1956.
Anon, ‘Insurance Nationalisation Helps Plan’ Times of India, 21 January 1956.
Anon, ‘Life Insurance to be Nationalised with Immediate Effect’ Times of India, 20 January 1956.
Anon, ‘Loss to Foreign Markets’ Times of India, 20 January 1956.
Anon, ‘No Discussion on Ordinance in Cabinet’ Times of India, 23 March 2006.
Anon, ‘Office-of-profit Bill not Big Enough for Kalam’ Hindustan Times, 31 March 2006.
Anon, ‘OOP Bill gets Kalam OK, Experts Say Can be Contested’ Indian Express, 19 August 2006.
Anon, ‘Ordinance Issued on Non-Coking Coal Mines’ Times of India, 31 January 1973.
Anon, ‘Ordinance on Near-Extinct Rs. 1 Note Survives Seven Decades’ Deccan Herald, 12 September 2010, available at: http://www.deccanherald.com/content/95919/ordinance-near-extinct-rs1-note.html (visited on 31 August 2011).
Anon, ‘P. and T. Stand Explained’ Times of India, 9 August 1957.
Anon, ‘Paper Currency Act: Proposed Amendment’ Times of India, 11 January 1916.
Anon, ‘Paper Currency Reserves Increased by 12 Crores’ Times of India, 15 November 1916.
Anon, ‘Parliament Disruption Main Pool of Opposition: Vice President’ Indian Express, 2 February 2011, available at: http://www.indianexpress.com/news/parliament-disruption-main-tool-of-opposition-vice-president/745252/0.
Anon, ‘Parliament Okays Rights Bill’ Times of India, 23 December 1993.
Anon, ‘P M Nair: “Kalam erred on Office of Profit Bill”’ Times of India, 22 April 2008.
Anon, ‘Police Get Sweeping Powers to Fight Terror’ Times of India, 17 October 2001.
Anon, ‘Postal Office Bill Withdrawn’ Times of India, 16 March 2002.
Anon, ‘Posts and Telegraphs Strike Called Off’ Times of India, 9 August 1957.
Anon, ‘POTO Promulgated with Amendment's’ The Tribune, 1 January 2002 available at: http://www.tribuneindia.com/2002/20020101/nation.htm#3 (visited on 16 November 2011).
Anon, ‘POTO Receives President's Nod for Second Time’ Times of India, 1 January 2002.
Anon, ‘President Revokes Ordinance’ Times of India, 13 August 1957.
Anon, ‘Protest Against Essential Services Emergency Bill’ Times of India, 4 August 1957.
Anon, ‘Public Prosecutor Says Police Didn't Consult Him about POTO Charges’ Times of India, 27 March 2002.
Anon, ‘Public Safety Ordinance: Preventive Purpose’ The Straits Times, 1 May 1929.
Anon, ‘Report of the Committee, Headed by Justice (Retd) B. P. Jeevan Reddy, to Review the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act 1958’, available at: http://www.hindu.com/nic/afa/afa-part-iv.pdf.
Anon, ‘Sonia as NAC Head Is Pseudo-Constitutional Power Centre: BJP’ Indian Express, 30 March 2010.
Anon, ‘Sonia Resigns from Lok Sabha, NAC’ Business Line, 24 March 2006.
Anon, ‘Strike Decision Stands’ Times of India, 7 August 1957.
Anon, ‘The Die Is Cast’ Times of India, 21 July 1969.
Anon, ‘Tighter Control of Banks: Bill in Parliament Likely’ Times of India, 18 July 1969.
Anon, ‘Top Fourteen Banks Are Nationalised’ Times of India, 20 July 1969.
Anon, ‘To Right Wrongs’ Times of India, 4 October 1993.
Anon, ‘Transfer of India Securities Held by the Nizam Banned’ Times of India, 2 July 1948.
Anon, ‘UF Circles Hail Bank Nationalisation’ Times of India, 20 July 1969.
Anon, ‘Uproar in Parliament over Ordinance “Shielding” Sonia’ Hindustan Times, 22 March 2006.
Anon, ‘Viceroy's Action: Public Safety Ordinance’ Times of India, 15 April 1929.
Anon, ‘Viceroy to Issue Ordinance: Address to Legislature’ Times of India, 13 April 1929.
Anon, ‘Vital Stats: Legislative Activity in Parliament’, available at: http://www.prsindia.org/parliamenttrack/vital-stats/legislative-activity-in-parliament-2008-421/ (visited on 16 November 2011).
Ayyangar, N. Gopalswami and Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar, ‘Memorandum on the Principles of the Union Constitution’, in The Framing of India's Constitution, B. Shiva Rao (ed.) (2006), New Delhi: Universal Law Publishing, p. 540.
Banerjee, D. N., ‘The Indian Presidency’, Political Quarterly, 26(1), (1955), p. 70.
Baxi, Upendra, ‘Introduction’, in Endangered Constitutionalism: Documents from a Supreme Court Case, D. C. Wadhwa (ed.) (2008), Pune: Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics.
Baxi, Upendra, ‘Rule of Law in India’, in Asian Discourses of Rule of Law, Randall Peerenboom et al. (eds.) (2004), London: Routledge, p. 328.
Bhatnagar, Rakesh, ‘All Eyes on the Supreme Court to Resolve Gujarat Tangle’ Times of India, 26 August 2002.
Bradley, Curtis A. and Eric A. Posner, ‘Presidential Signing Statements and Executive Power’, Constitutional Commentary 23(3), (Winter 2006), p. 307.
Brest, Paul, ‘Palmer V. Thompson: An Approach to the Problem of Unconstitutional Legislative Motive’, Supreme Court Review, 1971 (1971), p. 95.
Chandra, Shailaja, ‘Abolish MCI, Councils’ The Pioneer, 3 September 2009.
Chasie, Charles and Sanjoy Hazarika, ‘The State Strikes Back: India and the Naga Insurgency’, Policy Studies, 52 (2009), available at: http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs/ps052.pdf.
Clark, ‘Legislative Motivation and Fundamental Rights in Constitutional Law’, San Diego Law Review, 15 (1978), p. 953.
Cottrell, Jill, ‘Re-Promulgation of Ordinances in India: A Note’, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 37(4), (October 1988), p. 1044.
Craig, Paul P., ‘Formal and Substantive Conceptions of the Rule of Law: An Analytical Framework’, Public Law (1997), p. 467.
Dalal, Sucheta, ‘Confusion Compounded’ Times of India, 5 July 1992.
Dalal, Sucheta, ‘Decontrol without a Framework’ Times of India, 2 June 1992.
Dalal, Sucheta, ‘Ordinance Likely on Powers of SEBI’ Times of India, 15 January 1992.
Dalal, Sucheta, ‘SEBI Clueless on Ordinance’ Times of India, 20 February 1992.
Deshpande, V. S., ‘President, His Power and Their Exercise’, Journal of Indian Law Institute, 13 (1971), p. 326.
Dhawan, Rajeev, ‘Protecting the Bureaucracy’ The Hindu, 7 March 2003.
Driedger, Elmer A., ‘Statutes: Retroactive Retrospective Reflections’, Canadian Bar Review, 56 (1978), p. 268.
Editorial, ‘A Plea for the Study of Power of the President of India’, Journal of Indian Law Institute, 12 (1970), p. 400.
Eisenberg, Theodore, ‘Disproportionate Impact and Illicit Motive: Theories of Constitutional Adjudication’, New York University Law Review, 52 (1977), p. 36.
Ely, John Hart, ‘Legislative and Administrative Motivation in Constitutional Law’, Yale Law Journal, 79 (1970), p. 1205.
Fallon, Richard H., ‘The Rule of Law as a Concept in Constitutional Discourse’, Columbia Law Review, 97(1), (1997), p. 1.
Finn, John E., ‘Sunset Clauses and Democratic Deliberation: Assessing the Significance of Sunset Provisions in Antiterrorism Legislation’, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 48 (2010), p. 442.
Fisch, Jill E., ‘Retroactivity and Legal Change: An Equilibrium Approach’, Harvard Law Review, 110 (1997), p. 1056.
Gersen, Jacob E., ‘Temporary Legislation’, University of Chicago Law Review, 74 (2007), p. 247.
Graetz, Michael J., ‘Retroactivity Revisited’, Harvard Law Review, 98 (1985), p. 1820.
Hewitt, Vernon and Shirin M. Rai, ‘Parliament’, in Oxford Companion to Politics in India, Niraja Jayal and Pratap Mehta (eds.) (2010), New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Holmes, Henry W., ‘Power of the Indian President: Myth or Reality?Journal of Indian Law Institute, 12 (1970) p. 367.
Jaitley, Arun, ‘POTO Pin-Up’ Times of India, 13 December 2001.
Jeffrey, Robin, ‘The Prime Minister and the Ruling Party’, in Nehru to the Nineties: The Changing Office of Prime Minister in India, James Manor (ed.) (1994), London: Hurst and Co.
Jehangir, Cowasji, ‘Ordinance Is Undemocratic’ Times of India, 21 January 1956.
Jha, Prem Shankar, ‘Coalition Politics and Economic Decision-Making’, in Coalition Politics in India: Problems and Prospects, Mahendra Prasad Singh and Anil Mishra (eds.) (2004), New Delhi: Manohar.
Jinks, Derek P., ‘The Anatomy of an Institutionalized Emergency: Preventive Detention and Personal Liberty in India’, Michigan Journal of International Law, 22 (2001), p. 311.
Julian P. Boyd et al. (eds.) (1958), The Papers of Thomas Jefferson XV, ‘The Federalist’ No. 26 (Alexander Hamilton), available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/home/histdox/fed_26.html (visited on 16 November 2011).
Kagan, Elena, ‘Private Speech, Public Purpose: The Role of Governmental Motive in First Amendment Doctrine’, University of Chicago Law Review, 63 (1996), p. 413.
Kamal Kabra, ‘Nationalisation of Life Insurance in India’, Economic and Political Weekly 21(47), (22 November 1986), p. 2045.
Khomne, Ranjit, ‘Afroze Likely to be Booked under POTO’ Times of India, 3 January 2002.
Khomne, Ranjit, ‘Cases under POTO Will Stay Even if the Bill Is Defeated’ Times of India, 22 March 2002.
Kumar, Shankar, ‘Over to the Prez’ Sahara Times, 5 August 2006.
Kumarasingham, Harshan, ‘The Indian Version of First among Equals – Executive Power during the First Decade of Independence’, Modern Asian Studies, 44(4) (2010), p. 709.
Laws, Sir John, ‘The Constitution: Morals and Rights’, Public Law (1996), p. 622.
Madhukar, C. V., ‘House This for Debate?’ The Indian Express, 3 January 2007.
Malhotra, Inder, ‘Run Over the Banks’ Indian Express, 10 July 2009.
Margulies, Peter, ‘Judging Terror in the “Zone Of Twilight”: Exigency, Institutional Equity and Procedure after September 11’, Boston University Law Review, 84 (2004), p. 383.
Mehdudia, Sujay, ‘President Kalam Signs Office of Profit Bill, The Hindu, 19 September 2006, available at: http://www.hindu.com/2006/09/19/stories/2006091922020300.htm.
Mehta, Pratap, ‘Checks and Balances’ Indian Express, 1 June 2006.
Ministry of Home Affairs Office Order No. 11011/97/2004-NE-III, 19 November 2004.
Munzer, Stephen, ‘A Theory of Retroactive Legislation’, Texas Law Review, 61 (1983), p. 425.
Muralidharan, Sukumar, ‘BJP and FriendsFrontline, 15(1), 10–23 January 1998.
Mustafa, Seema and Venkatesh Kesari, ‘Profit Bill a Blatant Bid to Save MPs’ Asian Age, 2 June 2006.
Nagasaila, D. and V. Suresh, ‘Repromulgation of POTO: Is It Legal?Economic and Political Weekly, 37(5), (2002), p. 371.
Nariman, Fali, ‘“The Silences in Our Constitutional Law”: First Durga Das Basu Endowment Lecture 2005’, Supreme Court Cases (Journal), 2 (2006), p. 15.
Nauriya, Anil, ‘Indian Judicial Renascence: The Lines Not Crossed’, Economic and Political Weekly, 22(6), (7 February 1987), p. 239.
Nelson, Caleb, ‘Judicial Review of Legislative Purpose’, New York University Law Review, 83 (2008), p. 1784.
Noorani, A. G., ‘No, Mr. President’ Hindustan Times, 25 July 2006.
Noorani, A. G., ‘Supreme Court and Ordinances’, Economic and Political Weekly, 22(9), (1987), p. 357.
Omvedt, Gail, ‘Parliamentary System in India: Issues and Suggestions’, Indian Journal of Political Science, 33(3–4), (1999), p. 4.
Pandey, A. P., ‘Hundred Years of Ordinances in India: 1861–1961’, Journal of Indian Law Institute, 10 (1968), p. 259.
Peerenboom, Randall, ‘Human Rights and Rule of Law: What's the Relationship?Georgetown Journal of International Law, 36(4), (2005), p. 809.
Perry, ‘The Disproportionate Impact Theory of Racial Discrimination’, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 125 (1977), p. 540.
Prasad, Rajendra, ‘Prasad to Patel: 27 August 1950’ in Dr. Rajendra Prasad: Correspondence and Select Documents, Valmiki Choudhary (ed.) Vol. XIII, 1987, New Delhi: Allied Publishers, p. 64.
Prasad, Rajendra, ‘President's Status vis-à-vis Council of Ministers: 24 January 1951’ in Dr. Rajendra Prasad: Correspondence and Select Documents, Valmiki Choudhary (ed.) Vol. XIV, (1987), New Delhi: Allied Publishers, p. 270.
Principles relating to the Status of National Institutions (The Paris Principles) (48/134 of 20 December 1993), available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/parisprinciples.htm.
Rajeev Dhavan, ‘Op-Ed, Terrorism by Ordinance’ The Hindu, 1 October 2004, available at: http://www.hindu.com/2004/10/01/stories/2004100104781000.htm.
Ramakrishnan, Venkitesh, ‘A MasterstrokeFrontline 23(6), 25 March–07 April 2006, available at: http://hindu.com/fline/fl2306/stories/20060407007212900.htm.
Ramkrishnan, V., ‘All for SurvivalFrontline, 15(8), 11–24 April, 1998.
Rau, B. N., ‘Memorandum on the Union Constitution’, in The Framing of India's Constitution, Vol. 2, B. Shiva Rao (ed.) (2006), New Delhi: Universal Law Publishing.
Ray, Amal, ‘From a Constitutional to an Authoritarian System of Government: Interactions Between Politics and the Constitution in India’, Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 25(3), (1987), p. 275.
Rosenfeld, Michel, ‘Constitutional Adjudication in Europe and the United States: Paradoxes and Contrasts’, International Journal of Constitutional Law, 2 (2004), p. 633.
Rudolph, Lloyd I. and Susan H. Rudolph, ‘Redoing the Constitutional Design: From an Interventionist to a Regulatory State’ in The Success of India's Democracy, Atul Kohli (ed.) (2001), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 141.
Sharma, B. A. V. and N. M. Valecha, ‘The Indian President’, Political Quarterly, 33(1), (1962), p. 59.
Sibal, Kapil, ‘Politics of POTO: Nothing Anti-National about Dissent’ Times of India, 16 November 2001.
Singh, Ujjwal Kumar, ‘Penal Strategies and Political Resistance in Colonial and Independent India’, in Challenging the Rule(s) of Law: Colonialism, Criminology and Human Rights in India, Kalpana Kannabiran and Ranbir Singh (eds.) (2008), New Delhi: Sage, p. 226.
Som, Reba, ‘Jawaharlal Nehru and the Hindu Code: A Victory of Symbol over Substance’, Modern Asian Studies, 28(1), (1994), p. 169.
Sorabjee, Soli, ‘Decision of the Supreme Court in S. R. Bommai v.. Union of India’, Supreme Court Cases (Journal), 3 (1994), p. 1.
South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre, ‘Armed Forces Special Powers Act: A Study in National Security Tyranny’, available at: http://www.hrdc.net/sahrdc/resources/armed_forces.htm.
Subramaniam, Samantha, ‘The Long View: AFSPA's Bitter Roots’ New York Times, 21 November 2011 available at: http://india.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/21/the-long-view-afspas-bitter-roots/#more-8705.
Torri, Michelguglielmo, ‘Factional Politics and Economic Policy: The Case of India's Bank Nationalization’, Asian Survey, 15(12), (December 1975), p.1.
Travis, Alan, ‘Court Ruling ‘A Disaster,’ Say Police’ The Guardian, 29 June 2011, available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2011/jun/29/bail-rulingtheresa-may-considers-emergency-legislation (visited on 31 August 2011).
Travis, Alan, ‘Court Ruling Leaves Police Powerless to Enforce Bail Conditions’ The Guardian, 1 July 2011, available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/jul/01/police-powerless-enforce-bail-conditions?intcmp=239 (visited on 31 August 2011).
Travis, Alan, ‘Emergency Law to Overturn Court Ruling on Police Bail’ The Guardian, 30 June 2011, available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/jun/30/emergency-law-bail-ruling?intcmp=239 (visited on 31 August 2011).
Varadarajan, Sidharth, ‘Reject POTO in Toto’ Times of India, 14 November 2001.
Venkataraman, R., ‘To Stop Office-of-Profit Axe, UPA Gets Ordinance’ Indian Express, 21 March 2006.
Venkatesan, V., ‘A Rare ReturnFrontline, 23(12), 30 June 2006.
Venkatesan, V., ‘POTO and a Stand-Off’ The Frontline, 22 December 2001available at: http://www.hindu.com/fline/fl1826/18260190.htm (visited on 16 November 2011).
Waldron, Jeremy, ‘The Concept and the Rule of Law’, Georgia Law Review, 43(1), (2008), p. 1.

Statutes (Including Constitutions, Acts and Ordinances)

38th Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1975 (India).
Abducted Persons (Recovery and Restoration) Amendment Ordinance, 1951 (7 of 1951).
Administration of Evacuee Property (Amendment) Ordinance, 1950 (27 of 1950).
Armed Forces (Assam and Manipur) Special Powers Ordinance, 1958 (1 of 1958).
Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Act, 1990 (21 of 1990).
Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Ordinance, 1990 (3 of 1990).
Armed Forces (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance, 1950 (8 of 1950).
Armed Forces (Punjab and Chandigarh) Special Powers Act, 1983 (34 of 1983).
Armed Forces (Punjab and Chandigarh) Special Powers Ordinance, 1983 (9 of 1983).
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Continuance Act, 1964 (9 of 1964).
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Continuance Ordinance, 1956 (1 of 1954).
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Continuance Ordinance, 1964 (1 of 1964).
Armed Forces Special Powers (Jammu and Kashmir) Ordinance, 1990 (3 of 1990).
Asian Refractories Limited (Acquisition of Undertaking) Ordinance, 1971 (13 of 1971).
Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertaking) Ordinance, 1969 (8 of 1969).
Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertaking) Ordinance, 1970 (3 of 1970).
Banking Notes (Declaration of Holdings) Ordinance, 1946 (II of 1946).
Barsi Light Railway Company (Transferred Liabilities) Ordinance, 1953 (7 of 1953).
Bengal Cotton Gambling Ordinance, 1912.
Bengal Criminal Law (Amendment) Ordinance, 1924 (I of 1924).
Bengal Criminal Law (Amendment) Ordinance, 1930 (I of 1930).
Bombay Public Security Measures Act (Delhi Amendment) Ordinance, 1948 (XIV of 1948).
Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Ordinance, 1995 (14 of 1995).
Burma Notes Ordinance, 1942 (XXVIII of 1942).
Burn Company and Indian Standard Wagon Company (Nationalization) Ordinance, 1976 (8 of 1976).
Calcutta Tramways Company (Taking over of Management) Amendment Ordinance, 1971 (10 of 1971).
Caltex (Acquisition of Shares of Caltex Oil Refining) Limited Ordinance, 1976 (15 of 1976).
Capital Issues (Control) Repeal Ordinance, 1992 (9 of 1992).
Central Vigilance Commission Ordinance, 1998 (15 of 1998).
Central Vigilance Commission Ordinance, 1999 (4 of 1999).
Chandigarh Disturbed Areas Ordinance, 1983 (6 of 1983).
Chota Nagpur Tenancy Act, 1908 (VI of 1908).
Civic Guards Ordinance, 1940 (VIII of 1940).
Civil Contingencies Act, 2004 c. 36 (UK).
Coal Mines (Nationalization) Amendment Ordinance, 1976 (3 of 1976).
Coal Mines (Nationalization) Ordinance, 1976 (3 of 1976).
Coal Mines Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions (Amendment) Ordinance, 1996 (5 of 1996).
Coal Mines (Taking over of Management) Ordinance, 1973 (1 of 1973).
Coinage Ordinance, 1940 (IV of 1940).
Coking Coal Mines (Emergency Provisions) Ordinance, 1971 (12 of 1971).
Commercial Intercourse with Enemies Ordinance, 1914 (VI of 1914).
Constitution of India, 1949.
Constitution of Singapore, 1963.
Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, 1978.
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973.
Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, 1971.
Cotton Excise Duty (Suspension) Ordinance, 1925 (I of 1925).
Currency Ordinance, 1940 (IV of 1940).
Defence of India Ordinance, 1962 (4 of 1962).
Delhi Administration (Amendment) Ordinance, 1977 (6 of 1977).
Delhi Evacuee Property (Supplementary) Ordinance, 1947 (XXIII of 1947).
Delhi Refugees Registration Ordinance, 1947 (XXIV of 1947).
Dentists (Amendment) Ordinance, 1992 (14 of 1992).
Depositories Ordinance, 1995 (11 of 1995).
Displaced Persons (Claims) Continuance Ordinance, 1952 (5 of 1952).
Displaced Person (Institution of Suits) Ordinance, 1948 (XVIII of 1948).
Dramatic Performances Ordinance, 1876.
East Punjab Public Safety (Amendment) Ordinance, 1951 (5 of 1951).
Emergencies Act, 1985 (Canada).
Emergency Legislation Continuance Act, 1915 (I of 1915).
Enemy Trading Ordinance, 1916 (V of 1916).
Essential Commodities (Special Provisions) Amendment Ordinance, 1992 (12 of 1984).
Essential Service (Maintenance) Ordinance, 1941 (XI of 1941).
Essential Service (Prevention of Strikes) Ordinance, 1951 (1 of 1951).
Essential Services Maintenance Bill, 1957
Essential Services Maintenance Ordinance, 1957 (5 of 1957).
Excess Profit Tax Ordinance, 1943 (XVI of 1943).
Exchange of Prisoners Ordinance, 1948 (VI of 1948).
Export of Saltpetre Ordinance, 1861.
Export of Saltpetre Ordinance, 1862.
Federal Constitution of Malaysia, 1957.
Foreign Exchange Regulation (Amendment) Ordinance, 1951 (10 of 1951).
Foreign Exchange Regulation (Amendment) Ordinance, 1969 (6 of 1969).
Foreigners (Amendment) Ordinance, 1914 (VII of 1914).
Foreigners Ordinance, 1914 (III of 1914).
General Insurance (Emergency Provisions) Ordinance, 1971 (6 of 1971).
Goa, Daman and Diu (Administration) Ordinance, 1962 (2 of 1962).
Gold Coinage Ordinance, 1918 (II of 1918).
Gold (Import) Ordinance, 1917 (III of 1917).
Gold Ordinance, 1920 (III of 1920).
Government of India Act, 1915.
Government of India Act, 1919 (9 and 10 Geo. 5, Ch 101).
Government of India Act, 1935 (26 Geo. 5 and 1 Edw. 8, Ch 2).
High Court (Seals) Ordinance, 1950 (13 of 1950).
High Denomination Bank Notes (Demonitisation) Ordinance, 1946 (III of 1946).
Hindu Succession Act, 1956 (30 of 1956).
Import and Export of Goods Ordinance, 1916 (IV of 1916).
India and Burma (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1940 (3 and 4 Geo. 6, Ch. 33).
Indian Air Force Volunteer Reserve (Discipline) Ordinance, 1939 (VII of 1939).
Indian Army (Amendment) Ordinance, 1948 (XIX of 1948).
Indian Copper Corporation (Taking over of Management) Ordinance, 1972 (4 of 1972).
Indian Councils Act, 1861.
Indian Evidence Act, 1872.
Indian Income Tax (Amendment) Ordinance, 1945 (X of 1945).
Indian Income-Tax (Amendment) Ordinance, 1950 (Ordinance 28 of 1950).
Indian Independence Act, 1947 (10 and 11 Geo. 6, Ch. 30).
Indian Iron and Steel Company (Acquisition of Shares) Ordinance, 1976 (10 of 1976).
Indian Iron and Steel Company (Taking over of Management) Ordinance, 1972 (6 of 1972).
Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Ordinance, 1992 (13 of 1992).
Indian Paper Currency (Amendment) Ordinance, 1916 (I of 1916).
Indian Paper Currency (Amendment) Ordinance, 1917 (II of 1917).
Indian Paper Currency (Amendment) Ordinance, 1918 (III of 1918).
Indian Paper Currency Ordinance, 1918 (I of 1918).
Indian Press and Unauthorised News Sheets and Newspapers Ordinance, 1930 (X of 1930).
Indian Press Ordinance, 1930 (II of 1930).
Indian Railways Act, 1890 (9 of 1890).
Indian Royal Navy (Powers of Command) Ordinance, 1943 (XVII of 1943).
Indian Tariff (Amendment) Ordinance, 1950 (30 of 1950).
Industrial Disputes (Amendment) Ordinance, 1951 (9 of 1951).
Industrial Disputes (Amendment) Ordinance, 1995 (12 of 1995).
Industrial Disputes (Banking Companies) Commencement of Decision Ordinance, 1954 (7 of 1954).
Influx from Pakistan (Control) Amendment Ordinance, 1950 (22 of 1950).
Influx from West Pakistan (Control) Ordinance, 1948 (XVII of 1948).
Ingress into India Ordinance, 1914 (V of 1914).
Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007.
Jayanti Shipping Company (Acquisition of Shares) Ordinance, 1971 (14 of 1971).
Judicial Commissioner's Courts Ordinances, 1950 (14 of 1950).
Konkan Passenger Ships (Acquisition) Ordinance, 1973 (4 of 1973).
Lahore Conspiracy Case Ordinance, 1930 (III of 1930).
Laxmirattan and Atherton West Cotton Mills (Taking over of Management) Ordinance, 1976 (11 of 1976).
Life Insurance (Emergency Provisions) Ordinance, 1956 (1 of 1956).
Madras Hereditary Village Offices Act, 1895.
Madras Maintenance of Public Order Act, 1947 (1 of 1947).
Madras Ordinance, 1949 (1 of 1949).
Maintenance of Internal Security Act, 1971 (5 of 1971).
Maintenance of Internal Security (Amendment) Ordinance, 1974 (11 of 1974).
Maintenance of Internal Security (Amendment) Ordinance, 1975 (4 of 1975).
Maintenance of Internal Security (Amendment) Ordinance, 1976 (5 of 1976).
Maintenance of Internal Security (Fourth Amendment) Ordinance, 1975 (22 of 1975).
Maintenance of Internal Security Ordinance, 1971 (5 of 1971).
Maintenance of Internal Security (Second Amendment) Ordinance, 1975 (7 of 1975).
Mangrol and Manavader (Administration of Property) Ordinance, 1948 (XXII of 1948).
Manipur University Ordinance, 2005 (II of 2005).
Martial Law Ordinance, 1919 (I--IV of 1919).
Martial Law Ordinance, 1921 (II of 1921).
Martial Law Ordinance, 1930 (VIII of 1930).
Merchant Shipping (Acceding States) Ordinance, 1948 (XXVIII of 1948).
Metal Corporation of India (Acquisition of Undertaking) Ordinance, 1966 (10 of 1966).
Metal Corporation of India (Nationalisation and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance, 1976 (12 of 1976).
Military Safety (Power of Detention) Ordinance, 1944 (IV of 1944).
National Commission for Backward Classes Ordinance, 1993 (23 of 1993).
National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions Ordinance, 2004 (6 of 2004).
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (Second) Ordinance, 1998 (9 of 1998)
National Security (Amendment) Ordinance, 1984 (5 of 1984).
National Security (Amendment) Ordinances, 1987 (3 of 1987).
National Security (Amendment) Ordinances, 1988 (4 of 1988).
National Security (Second Amendment) Ordinance, 1984 (6 of 1984).
National Security Ordinance, 1980 (11 of 1980).
National Tax Tribunal Ordinance, 2003 (3 of 2003).
Naval Force (Miscellaneous) Provisions Ordinance, 1950 (21 of 1950).
Pakistan Military Personnel Amnesty Ordinance, 1948 (I of 1948).
Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Amendment Act, 2006 (31 of 2006).
Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Ordinance, 1950 (12 of 1950).
Parliamentary Proceedings (Protection of Publication) Repeal Ordinance, 1975 (25 of 1975).
Patents (Amendment) Ordinance, 1994 (13 of 1994).
Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority Ordinance, 2004 (8 of 2004).
Police and Criminal Evidence Act, 1984.
Prevention of Terrorism (Amendment) Second Ordinance, 2001 (12 of 2001).
Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance, 2001 (9 of 2001).
Preventive Detention (Amendment) Ordinance, 1950 (20 of 1950).
Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993.
Protection of Human Rights Ordinance, 1993 (30 of 1993).
Public Safety Ordinance, 1929 (I of 1929).
Public Safety Ordinance, 1948 (XXIV of 1948).
Punjab Disturbed Areas Ordinance, 1983 (5 of 1983).
Punjab Legislature Regulation of Procedure in Relation to Financial Business Ordinance, 1968 (1 of 1968).
Punjab Municipal Corporation Act, 1976
Railways (Employment of Members of Armed Forces) Ordinance, 1965 (4 of 1965).
Regulation of Meetings Ordinance, 1907 (I of 1907).
Repealing Ordinance, 1946 (I of 1946).
Representation of People (Amendment) Ordinance, 1956 (8 of 1956).
Saurashtra (Abolition of Local Sea Customs Duties and Imposition of Port Development Levy) Repealing Ordinance, 1952 (4 of 1952).
Securities and Exchange Board of India Ordinance, 1992 (5 of 1992).
Securities (Hyderabad) Ordinance, 1948 (XVI of 1948).
Sick Textile Undertakings (Nationalization) Ordinance, 1974 (12 of 1974).
Sick Textile Undertaking (Taking over of Management) Ordinance, 1972 (9 of 1972).
Silver (Import) Ordinance, 1917 (IV of 1917).
Statute of Proclamations, 1539.
Supply and Prices of Goods Ordinance, 1950 (26 of 1950).
Swadeshi Cotton Mills Company Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Ordinance, 1986 (5 of 1986).
Tea Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Sick Tea Units) Ordinance, 1985 (3 of 1985).
Terrorist Affected Areas (Special Courts) Ordinance, 1984 (9 of 1984).
Terrorist and Disruptive Activities Act, 1985 (31 of 1985).
Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Amendment Ordinance, 1985 (4 of 1985).
Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Amendment Ordinance, 1987 (2 of 1987).
Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Amendment Ordinance, 1991 (5 of 1991).
Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996 (27 of 1996).
Essential Commodities (Special Provisions) Amendment Ordinance, 1993 (1 of 1993).
Jayanti Shipping Company (Taking over of Management) Ordinance, 1966 (4 of 1966).
National Security (Amendment) Ordinances, 1987 (3 of 1987).
Securities and Exchange Board of India Ordinance, 1992 (5 of 1992).
Supreme Court and High Court Judges (Conditions of Service) Amendment Ordinance, 1996 (7 of 1996).
The Terrorist Affected Areas (Special Courts) Ordinance, 1984 (9 of 1984).
Transfer of Detained Persons Ordinance, 1949 (XVI of 1949).
Travancore-Cochin Appropriation (Vote on Account) Ordinance, 1956 (4 of 1956).
Treaty of Peace (Austria) Ordinance, 1920 (IV of 1920).
Treaty of Peace (Hungary) Ordinance, 1921 (I of 1921).
Treaty of Peace Ordinance, 1920 (I of 1920).
Unauthorised News Sheets and Newspapers Ordinance, 1930 (VII of 1930).
University Grants Commission Act, 1956 (3 of 1956).
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Ordinance, 2001 (12 of 2001).
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Ordinance, 2004 (2 of 2004).
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Ordinance, 1964 (6 of 1966).
Unlawful Association Ordinance, 1930 (IX of 1930).
Victoria State Emergency Act, 2005 (LI of 2005).
War Injuries Ordinance, 1941 (VII of 1941).
War Risks (Goods) Insurance Ordinance, 1940 (IX of 1940).
Women's Auxiliary Corps Ordinance, 1942 (XIII of 1942).

Cases

K. Roy v. Union of India AIR 1982 SC 710.
Agarwal v. State of UP AIR 1956 All 557.
Ahmed Khan v. Emperor AIR 1948 Lah. 120.
Allstate Ins. Co. v. Abbott, 495 F.3d 151 (5th Cir. 2007).
Barium Chemicals Ltd. v. Company Law Board AIR 1967 SC 295.
Bhagat Singh and Others v. The King-Emperor (1931) 55 Ind. App. 169.
Bhupendra Bose v. State of Orissa AIR 1962 SC 945.
Bommai v. Union of India (1994) 3 SCC 1.
British Railways Board Appellants v. Pickin (1974) AC 765.
Chakardharpur Biri and Tobacco Merchants’ Association and Others v. State of Bihar 1973 TaxLR 2132.
Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah, 508 U.S. 520 (1993).
D. C. Wadhwa v. The State of Bihar AIR 1987 SC 579.
Deo v. State of Orissa, (1954) 1 SCR 1.
DiMa Corp. v. Town of Hallie, 185 F.3d 823 (7th Cir. 1999).
Dutt v. Union of India AIR 2004 SC 1295.
Edinburgh v. Wauchope (1842) VIII Clark and Finnelly 710.
Emperor v. Sreekant Pandurang Ketkar A.I.R. 1943 Bom. 169.
Fathima v. Ravindranathan AIR 1975 Ker. 202.
Gyanendra Kumar v. Union of India AIR 1997 Del 58.
Hasanabha v. State of Karnataka AIR 1998 Kant. 91.
Hirji Laxmidas v. Fernendez (1945) F.L.J. 119.
Hollinshead v. Hazleton (1916) 1 AC 428.
Hubli Electricity Co. Ltd. v. Province of Bombay L.R. (1948) 76 Ind. App. 57.
Hunter v. Underwood, 471 U.S. 222 (1985).
Indira Nehru Gandhi v. Raj Narain A.I.R. 1975 SC 2299.
In Re K. Veerabhadrayya AIR 1950 Mad 243.
In Re Velayudm 1950 (1) M.L.J. 508.
J.K. Jute Mills Co. v. State of Uttar Pradesh AIR 1961 SC 1534.
Jnan Prosanna v. Province of West Bengal AIR 1949 Cal. 1.
Kalyan Bhadra v. Union of India AIR 1975 Cal. 72.
Kartar Singh v. Punjab (1994) 3 SCC 569.
Kerala v. People's Union for Civil Liberties (2009) 8 SCC 46.
Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (1973) 4 SCC 225.
King-Emperor v. Benoari Lal Sharma and Others (1945) 72 Ind. App. 57.
Krishna Kumar Singh v. State of Bihar AIR 1998 SC 2288.
Labrador Co. v. The Queen (1893) AC 104.
Lakhi Narayan v. State of Bihar AIR 1950 FC 59.
Lakhi Narayan Das v. The Province of Bihar [1949] F.C.R. 693.
Laxmibai v. State of M.P. AIR 1951 Nagpur 94.
Lee v. Bude (1870–1871) LR 6 CP.
Leigh v. Kent 3 TR 362.
Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971).
M.P.V. Sundararamier and Co. v. State of Andhra Pradesh (1958) SCR 1422, 1460.
Mahanta v. State of Assam AIR 1999 Gau 32.
Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India AIR 1978 SC 597.
Mathura Prasad Singh and Others v. State of Bihar AIR 1975 Pat 29.
Naga People's Movement for Human Rights v. Union of India A.I.R 1998 SC 431.
Nagaraj v. State of Andhra Pradesh AIR 1985 SC 551.
Nayar v. Union of India AIR 2006 SC 3127.
Nixon v. Administrator of General Services., 433 US 425 (1977).
Prabhakar Kondaji Bhapkar v. Emperor AIR 1944 Bom. 119.
Prem Chand Jain v. R. K. Chhabra (1984) 2 SCR 883.
Prem Narain v. State of UP AIR 1960 All. 205.
Q. v. Salford Magistrates’ Court and Paul Hookway [2011] EWHC 1578 (Admin).
R. v. Wells 4 Dowl. 562.
Rajasthan v. Union of India (1977) 3 SCC 592.
Rameshwar Prasad v. Union of India (2006) 2 SCC 1.
R. C. Cooper v. Union of India 1970 (3) SCR 550.
Re Kalyanam Veerabhadraya AIR 1950 Madras 243.
Reddy v. State of Andhra Pradesh AIR 1985 SC 724.
Reference by President (No. 1 of 2002) (2002) 8 SCC 237.
R. K. Garg v. Union of India (1982) 1 SCR 947.
S. Krishnan v. The State of Madras AIR 1951 SC 301.
Sambamurthy v. A.P. (1987) 1 SCR 879.
Sarju Prasad v. State of UP AIR 1970 All. 571.
Satwant Singh Sawhney v. Assistant Passport Officer AIR 1967 SC 1836.
Sib Nath Banerjee v. King-Emperor AIR 1943 Cal. 344.
Singh v. State of Bihar AIR 1998 SC 2288.
Smithfield Foods, Inc. v. Miller, 367 F.3d 1061 (8th Cir. 2004).
State of Andhra Pradesh v. McDowell and Co. AIR 1996 SC 1627.
State of Karnataka v. B. A. Hasanabha AIR 1998 Kant. 210.
State of Karnataka v. Union of India and Others AIR 1978 SC 68.
State of Punjab v. Satya Pal Dang AIR 1969 SC 903.
Steavenson v. Oliver 151 E.R. 1024.
Sudhakar v. A.P. AIR 2006 SC 3385.
T. Venkata Reddy v. State of A.P. AIR 1985 SC 724.
The United Provinces v. Atiqa Begum 1940 F.C.R. 110 (F.B.).
Tukino v. Aotea District Maori Land Board (1941) AC 308.
United Motors India Ltd. v. State of Bombay (1953) 55 Bom LR 246.
United States v. O’Brien 391 U.S. 367 (1968).
Upendralal v. Narainee Devi (1931) 58 Ind. App. 169.
Venkata Reddy v. State of A. P. AIR 1985 SC 724.
Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corporation 429 U.S. 252 (1977).
Vishwanath Agarwal v. State of Uttar Pradesh AIR 1956 All. 557.
Warren v. Windle 102 E. R. (K. B.) 578.
White v. Boot 2 TR. 274.
Wicks v. Director of Public Prosecutions (1947) AC 362.

Dictionaries

Black's Law Dictionary, 9th ed. (2009), St. Paul, MN: West.
Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, 3rd ed. (2008), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 4th ed. (2003), Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
Macmillan English Dictionary, 2nd ed. (2007), Oxford: A and C Black Publishers Limited.
New Oxford Dictionary of English (2001), New York: Oxford University Press.
Osborn's Concise Law Dictionary, 11th ed. (2009), London: Sweet and Maxwell/Thomson Reuters.
Oxford Dictionary of Law, 5th ed. (2002), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The Essential Law Dictionary, 1st ed. (2008), Illinois: Sphinx Publication.
West's Encyclopaedia of American Law, 2nd ed. (2005), Detroit: Thomson/Gale.

Reports

Law Commission of India, 32nd Report on Section 9 of The Code of Criminal Procedure 1973 (May 1967).
Law Commission of India, 60th Report on the General Clauses Act, 1897 (May 1974).