1.Wiler, JL, Ross, MA, Ginde, AA. National study of emergency department observation services. Acad Emerg Med 2011; 18(9):959–965.
3.Macy, ML, Hall, M, and Shah, SS, et al. Differences in designation of observation care in US freestanding Children’s Hospitals: are they virtual or are they real? J Hosp Med 2012: 7(4): 287–293.
4.Ross, MA, Hockenberry, JM, Mutter, R, et al. Protocol-driven emergency department observation units offer savings, shorter stays and reduced admissions. Health Affairs 2013: 32(12):2149–2156.
5.Sheehy, AM, Graf, B, Gangireddy, S, et al. Hospitalized but not admitted characteristics of patients with “observation status” at an academic medical center. JAMA Intern Med 2013:173(21):1991–1998.
7.Jaffe, S. $18 for a baby aspirin? Hospitals hike costs for everyday drugs for some patients. Kaiser Health News. April 30, 2012.
9.Wright, S. Memorandum report: hospitals’ use of observation stays and short inpatient stays for Medicare beneficiaries, OEI-02-12-00040. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General. July 29, 2013, http://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-02-12-00040.pdf (last accessed December 21, 2015)
12.Natsui, S, Baugh, C. What’s your policy on home meds for observation patients? ACEP News, November 2014, pp. 14.
13.United States Congress HR 1179 and S 569. Improving access to Medicare coverage act of 2013. 113th Congress, 1st Session.