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  • Print publication year: 2017
  • Online publication date: March 2017

Prologue

1.Wiler, JL, Ross, MA, Ginde, AA. National study of emergency department observation services. Acad Emerg Med 2011; 18(9):959965.
2.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Medicare benefit policy manual, chapter 6, hospital services covered under Part B [Internet]. Baltimore, MD: CMS [revised Mar 1, 2013]. www.cms.gov/Regulations-and Guidance/Guidance/Transmittals/downloads/R42BP.pdf (last accessed December 5, 2014)
3.Macy, ML, Hall, M, and Shah, SS, et al. Differences in designation of observation care in US freestanding Children’s Hospitals: are they virtual or are they real? J Hosp Med 2012: 7(4): 287293.
4.Ross, MA, Hockenberry, JM, Mutter, R, et al. Protocol-driven emergency department observation units offer savings, shorter stays and reduced admissions. Health Affairs 2013: 32(12):21492156.
5.Sheehy, AM, Graf, B, Gangireddy, S, et al. Hospitalized but not admitted characteristics of patients with “observation status” at an academic medical center. JAMA Intern Med 2013:173(21):19911998.
6.Center for Medicare Advocacy. Observation status & Bagnall v. Sebelius. www.medicareadvocacy.org/medicare-info/observation-status (last accessed December 4, 2014)
7.Jaffe, S. $18 for a baby aspirin? Hospitals hike costs for everyday drugs for some patients. Kaiser Health News. April 30, 2012.
8.Span, P. In the hospital, but not really a patient. The New York Times, New Old Age Blog, http://newoldage.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/06/22/in-the-hospital-but-not-really-a-patient/ (last accessed December 5, 2014)
9.Wright, S. Memorandum report: hospitals’ use of observation stays and short inpatient stays for Medicare beneficiaries, OEI-02-12-00040. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General. July 29, 2013, http://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-02-12-00040.pdf (last accessed December 21, 2015)
10.CMS, Listening Session: Hospital Observation Beds, Aug. 24, 2010. Transcript available: www.cms.gov/hospitaloutpatientpps/downloads/94244031HospitalObservationBedsListeningSession082410.pdf
11.Figel, C. Lawmakers try to eliminate Medicare coverage technicality. American Medical News, Nov. 7, 2011. www.amednews.com/article/20111107/government/311079953/7/ (last accessed December 5, 2014)
12.Natsui, S, Baugh, C. What’s your policy on home meds for observation patients? ACEP News, November 2014, pp. 14.
13.United States Congress HR 1179 and S 569. Improving access to Medicare coverage act of 2013. 113th Congress, 1st Session.