Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: March 2011

Chap 14 - LIPOMA VARIANTS AND CONDITIONS SIMULATING LIPOMATOUS TUMORS

Summary

Ordinary lipoma and its variants contain mature white fat, sometimes with fibroblastic or other mesenchymal elements. The term lipomatosis covers a heterogeneous group of entities representing regional diffuse growth of mature fat that does not have known morphologically distinctive features, except for lipomatosis of the nerve, which is discussed in more detail later.

Some lesions designated as lipomas, such as synovial lipoma with villous pattern (lipoma arborescens) and lipoma of the hernia sac, are more likely reactive hyperplasias than true neoplasms. Furthermore, lumbosacral lipoma in children is associated with neural tube closure defects and could be a developmental anomaly.

Atypical lipoma is discussed in Chapter 15 with liposarcomas, because it is essentially synonymous with well-differentiated liposarcoma.

Several special lipoma types are considered specific clinicopathologic entities, as listed previously. All of these, except angiolipoma and spindle cell lipoma, are quite rare. Hibernoma is a tumor resembling brown fat, and chondroid lipoma has some resemblance to it. Lipoblastoma is a clinically and genetically distinctive childhood lipomatous tumor. Fibrohistiocytic lipoma is a peculiar benign lipomatous tumor in the leg, having a mesenchymal fibrohistiocytic-like element.

Finally, fat atrophy, fat necrosis, sclerosing lipogranuloma silicone granuloma, and lymphedema in obese patients are discussed as examples of non-neoplastic lesions that can simulate lipomatous tumors. Angiomyolipoma is included among perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas), a group of tumors with HMB45-positive and smooth muscle actin–positive components (see Chapter 19).

REFERENCES
Lipoma
Myhre-Jensen, O. A consecutive 7-year series of 1431 benign soft tissue tumours: Clinicopathologic data. Comparison with sarcomas. Acta Orthop Scand 1981;52:287–293.
Sandberg, AA. Updates on the cytognetics and molecular genetics of bone and soft tissue tumors: lipoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2004;150:93–115.
Rydholm, A, Berg, NO. Size, site and clinical incidence of lipoma: Factors in the differential diagnosis of lipoma and sarcoma. Acta Orthop Scand 1983;54:929–934.
Shanks, JA, Paranchych, W, Tuba, J. Familial multiple lipomatosis. Can Med Assoc J 1957:77:881–884.
Bjerregaard, P, Hagen, K, Daugaard, S, Kofoed, H. Intramuscular lipoma of the lower limb: Long-term follow-up after local resection. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1989;71:812–815.
Fletcher, CD, Martin-Bates, E. Intramuscular and intermuscular lipoma: neglected diagnoses. Histopathology 1988;12:275–287.
Schmack, I, Patel, RM, Folpe, AL, Wojno, T, Zaldivar, RA, Balzer, B. Subconjunctival herniated orbital fat: A benign adipocytic lesion that may mimic pleomorphic lipoma and atypical lipomatous tumor. Am J Surg Pathol 2007;31:193–198.
Willen, H, Akerman, M, Dal Cin, P, Wever, I, Fletcher, CD, Mandahl, N. Comparison of chromosomal patterns with clinical features in 165 lipomas: a report of the CHAMP study group. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1998;102:46–49.
Sreekantaiah, C, Leong, SPL, Karakousis, CP, McGee, ML, Rappaport, WD, Villar, HV. Cytogenetic profile of 109 lipomas. Cancer Res 1991;51:422–433.
Mrozek, K, Karakousis, CP, Bloomfield, CD. Chromosome 12 breakpoints are cytogenetically different in benign and malignant lipogenic tumors: localization of breakpoints in lipoma to 12q15 and in myxoid liposarcoma to 12q13.3. Cancer Res 1993;53:1670–1675.
Sait, SNJ, Dal Cin, P, Sandberg, AA, Leong, S, Karakousis, C, Rao, U. Involvement of 6p in benign lipomas: A new cytogenetic entity. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1989;37:281–283.
Mandahl, N, Heim, S, Arheden, K, Rydholm, A, Willen, H, Mitelman, F. Four cytogenetic subgroups can be identified in lipomas. Hum Genet 1988;79:203–208.
Fletcher, CDM, Akerman, M, Dal Cin, P, Wever, I, Mandahl, N, Mertens, F. Correlation between clinicopathological features and karyotype in lipomatous tumors: A report of 178 cases from the chromosomes and morphology (CHAMP) collaborative study group. Am J Pathol 1996;148:623–630.
Nilbert, M, Rydholm, A, Wllen, H, Mitelman, F, Mandahl, N. MDM2 gene amplificaion correlates with ring chromosomes in soft tissue tumors. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1994;9:261–265.
Szymanska, J, Virolainen, M, Tarkkanen, M, Wiklund, T, Asko-Seljavaara, S, Tukiainen, E. Overrepresentation of 1q21–23 and 12q13–21 in lipoma-like liposarcomas but not in benign lipomas: A comparative genomic hybridization study. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1997;99:14–18.
Tallini, G, Dal Cin, P. HMGI(Y) and HMGI-C dysregulation: a common occurrence in human tumors. Adv Anat Pathol 1999;6:237–246.
Petit, MM, Schoenmakers, EF, Hyusmans, C, Geurts, JM, Mandahl, N, Ven, WJ. LHFP, a novel translocation partner gene of HMGIC in a lipoma, is a member of a new family of LHFP-like genes. Genomics 1999;57:438–441.
Variants of Ordinary Lipoma
Marsh, WL, Lucas, JG, Olsen, J. Chondrolipoma of breast. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1989;113:369–371.
Nwaorgy, OK, Akang, EE, Ahmad, BM, Nwachokor, FN, Olu-Eddo, AN. Pharyngeal lipoma with cartilaginous metaplasia (chondrolipoma): a case report and literature review. J Laryngol Otol 1997;111:656–658.
Hopkins, JDF, Rayan, GM. Osteolipoma of the hand: a case report. J Okla State Med Assoc 1999;92:535–537.
Rau, T, Soeder, S, Olk, A, Aigner, T. Parosteal lipoma of the thigh with cartilageneous and osseous differentiation: an osteochondrolipoma. Ann Diagn Pathol 2006;10:279–282.
Lin, TM, Chang, HW, Wang, KH, Kao, AP, Chang, CC, Wen, CH. Isolation and identification of mesenchymal stem cells from human lipoma tissue. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 2007;361:883–889.
Mehregan, AH, Tavafoghi, V, Ghandchi, A. Nevus lipomatosus cutaneus superficialis (Hoffmann-Zurhelle). J Cutan Pathol 1975;2:307–313.
Wilson-Jones, EW, Marks, R, Pongsehirun, D. Naevus superficialis lipomatosus. A clinicopathological report of twenty cases. Br J Dermatol 1975;93:121–133.
Hallel, T, Lew, S, Kfar-Saba, I, Bansal, M. Villous lipomatous proliferation of the synovial membrane (Lipoma arborescens). J Bone Joint Surg 1988 70A:264–270.
Yildiz, G, Deveci, MS, Ozcan, A, Saracoglu, I, Erler, K, Basbozkurt, M. Lipoma arborescens (diffuse articular lipomatosis). J South Orthoped Assoc 2003;12:163–166.
Lassman, LP, James, CCM. Lumbosacral lipomas: critical survey of 26 cases submitted to laminectomy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1967;30:174–181.
Kieck, CF, Villiers, JC. Subcutaneous lumbosacral lipomas. S Afr Med J 1975;49:1563–1566.
Arai, H, Sato, K, Okuda, O, Miyajima, M, Hishii, M, Nakanishi, H. Surgical experience of 120 patients with lumbosacral lipomas. Acta Neurochir 2001;143:857–864.
Maiuri, F, Cirillo, S, Simonetti, L, Simone, MR, Gangemi, M. Intracranial lipomas. Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Neurosurg Sci 1988;32:161–167.
Donati, F, Vassella, F, Kaiser, G, Blumberg, A. Intracranial lipomas. Neuropediatrics 1992;23:32–38.
O'Connor, S, Recavarren, R, Nichols, LC, Parvani, AV. Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum: an overview. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006;130:397–399.
Moran, CA, Suster, S, Koss, MN. Endobronchial lipomas: a clinicopathologic study of four cases. Mod Pathol 1994;7:212–214.
Muraoka, M, Oka, T, Akamine, S, Nagayasu, T, Iseki, M, Suyama, N. Endobronchial lipoma: review of 64 cases reported in Japan. Chest 2003;123:293–296.
Rogy, MA, Mirza, D, Berlakovich, G, Winkelbauer, F, Rauhs, R. Submucous large-bowel lipomas – presentation and management: An 18-year study. Eur J Surg 1991;157:51–55.
Moran, CA, Rosado-de-Christenson, M, Suster, S. Thymolipoma: clinicopathologic review of 33 cases. Mod Pathol 1995;8:741–744.
Lipomatoses
Silverman, TA, Enzinger, FM. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the nerve: a clinicopathologic analysis of 26 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1985;9:7–14.
Brodwater, BK, Major, NM, Goldner, R, Layfield, LJ. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa with associated fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve. Pediatr Surg Int 2000;16:216–218.
Haberland, C, Perou, M. Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis. A new example of ectomesodermal dysgenesis. Arch Neurol 1970;22:144–155.
Sanchez, NP, Rhodes, AR, Mandell, F, Mihm, MC. Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis: a new neurocutaneous syndrome. Br J Dermatol 1981;104:89–996.
Legius, E, Wu, R, Eyssen, M, Marynen, P, Fryns, JP, Cassiman, JJ. Encephalocranio-cutaneous lipomatosis with a mutation in the NF1 gene. J Med Genet 1995;32:316–319.
Enzi, G. Multiple symmetric lipomatosis: updated clinical report. Medicine 1984;63:56–64.
Smith, PD, Stedelmann, WK, Wassermann, RJ, Kearney, RE. Benign symmetric lipomatosis (Madelung's disease). Ann Plast Surg 1998;41:671–673.
Munoz-Malaga, A, Bautista, J, Salazar, JA, Aguilera, I, Garcia, R, Chinchon, I. Lipomatosis, proximal myopathy, and the mitochondrial 8344 mutation. A lipid storage myopathy? Muscle Nerve 2000;23:538–542.
Behrens, GM, Stoll, M, Schmidt, RE. Lipodystrophy syndrome in HIV-infection: what is it, what causes it and how it can be managed. Drug Saf 2000;23:57–76.
Klein, FA, Smith, MJ, Kasenetz, I. Pelvic lipomatosis: 35-year experience. J Urol 1988;139:998–1001.
Sozen, S, Gurocak, S, Uzum, N, Biri, H, Memis, L, Bozkirli, I. The importance of re-evaluation of patients with cystitis glandularis associated with pelvic lipomatosis: a case report. Urol Oncol 2004;22:428–430.
Stern, JD, Quint, DJ, Swaesey, TA, Hoff, JT. Spinal epidural lipomatosis: two new idiopathic cases and a review of the literature. J Spinal Disord 1994:7:343–349.
Carlsen, A, Thomsen, M. Different clinical types of lipomatosis. A case report. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 1978;12:75–79.
Battista, S, Fidanza, V, Fedele, M, Klein-Szanto, AJ, Oywater, E, Brunner, H. The expression of truncated HMGI-C gene induces giantism associated with lipomatosis. Cancer Res 1999;59:4793–4797.
Angiolipoma
Howard, WR, Helwig, EB. Angiolipoma. Arch Dermatol 1960;82:924–931.
Lin, JJ, Lin, F. Two entities in angiolipoma: A study of 459 cases of lipoma with review of literature on infiltrating angiolipoma. Cancer 1974;34:720–727.
Namba, M, Kohda, M, Mimura, S, Nakagawa, S, Ueki, H. Angiolipoma in brothers. J Dermatol 1977;4:255–257.
Kazakov, DV, Hes, O, Hora, M, Sima, R, Michal, M. Primary intranodal angiolipoma. Int J Surg Pathol 2005;13:99–101.
Hunt, SJ, Santa-Cruz, DJ, Barr, RJ. Cellular angiolipoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1990;14:75–81.
Sciot, R, Akerman, M, Dal Cin, P, Wever, I, Fletcher, CD, Mandahl, N. Cytogenetic analysis of subcutaneous angiolipoma: further evidence supporting its difference from ordinary pure lipomas: a report of the CHAMP study group. Am J Surg Pathol 1997;21:441–444.
Myelolipoma
Han, M, Burnett, AL, Fishman, EK, Marshall, FF. The natural history and treatment of adrenal myelolipoma. J Urol 1997;157:1213–1216.
Noble, MJ, Montague, DK, Levin, HS. Myelolipoma: an unusual surgical lesion of the adrenal gland. Cancer 1982;49:952–958.
Fowler, MR, Williams, RM, Alba, JM, Burd, CR. Extra-adrenal myelolipomas compared with extramedullary hematopoietic tumors: a case of presacral myelolipoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1983;6:363–374.
Hunter, SB, Schemankewitz, EH, Patterson, C, Varma, VA. Extraadrenal myelolipoma. A report of two cases. Am J Clin Pathol 1992;97:402–404.
Sanders, R, Bissada, N, Cutty, N, Gordon, B. Clinical spectrum of adrenal myelolipoma: analysis of 8 tumors in 7 patients. J Urol 1995;153:1791–1793.
Shapiro, JL, Goldblum, JR, Bobrow, DA, Ratliff, NB. Giant bilateral extra-adrenal myelolipoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1995;119:283–285.
Allison, KH, Mann, GN, Norwood, TH, Rubin, BP. An unusual case of multiple giant myelolipomas: clinical and pathogenetic implications. Endocr Pathol 2003;14:93–100.
Spindle Cell, Pleomorphic, and Sclerotic Lipoma
Enzinger, FM, Harvey, DA. Spindle cell lipoma. Cancer 1975;36:1852–1859.
Shmookler, BM, Enzinger, FM. Pleomorphic lipoma: a benign tumor simulating liposarcoma. A clinicopathologic analysis of 48 cases. Cancer 1981;47:126–133.
Angervall, L, Dahl, I, Kindblom, LG, Save-Soderbergh, J. Spindle cell lipoma. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand [A] 1976;84.477–487.
Fletcher, CD, Martin-Bates, E. Spindle cell lipoma: a clinicopathologic study with some original observations. Histopathology 1987;11:803–817.
Azzopardi, JG, Iocco, J, Salm, R. Pleomorphic lipoma: a tumor simulating liposarcoma. Histopathology 1983;7:511–523.
Furlong, MA, Fanburg-Smith, JC, Childers, EL. Lipoma of the oral and maxillofacial region: Site and subclassification of 125 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004;98:441–450.
Fanburg-Smith, JF, Miettinen, M, Weiss, SW. Multiple spindle cell lipomas. Am J Surg Pathol 1998;22:40–48.
Hawley, ICV, Krausz, T, Evans, DJ, Fletcher, CD. Spindle cell lipoma – a pseudoangiomatous variant. Histopathology 1994;24.565–569.
Zelger, BW, Zelger, BG, Plorer, A, Steiner, H, Fritsch, PO. Dermal spindle cell lipoma: plexiform and nodular variants. Histopathology 1995;27:533–540.
Templeton, SF, Solomon, AR. Spindle cell lipoma is strongly CD34-positive: An immunohistochemical study. J Cutan Pathol 1996;23:546–550.
Suster, S.Fisher, C. CD34 in lipomatous tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 1997;195–200.
Beham, A, Schmid, C, Hodl, S, Fletcher, CD. Spindle cell and pleomorphic lipoma: an immunohistochemical study and histogenetic analysis. J Pathol 1989;158:219–222.
Tardio, JC, Aramburu, JA, Santonja, C. Desmin expression in spindle cell lipomas: a potential diagnostic pitfall. Virchows Arch 2004;445:354–358.
Mandahl, N, Mertens, F, Willen, H, Rydholm, A, Brosjo, O, Mitelman, F. A new cytogenetic subgroup in lipomas: loss of chromosome 16 material in spindle cell and pleomorphic lipomas. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1994;120:707–711.
Dal Cin, P, Sciot, R, Polito, P, Stas, M, Wever, I, Cornelis, A. Lesions of 13q may occur independently of deletion of 16q in spindle cell/pleomorphic lipomas. Histopathology 1997;31:222–225.
Zelger, BG, Zelger, B, Steiner, H, Rütten, A. Sclerotic lipomas: Lipomas simulating sclerotic fibroma. Histopathology 1997;31.174–181.
Laskin, WB, Fetsch, JF, Miettinen, M. Sclerotic (fibroma-like) lipoma. A distinctive lipoma variant with a predilection for the distal extremities. Am J Dermatopathol 2006;28.308–316.
Hibernoma
Kindblom, LG, Angervall, L, Stener, B, Wickbom, I. Intramuscular and intermuscular lipomas and hibernomas. A clinical roentgenologic, histologic and prognostic study of 46 cases. Cancer 1974;33:754–762.
Gaffney, EF, Hargreaves, HK, Semple, E, Vellios, F. Hibernoma: distinctive light and electron microscopic features and relationship to brown adipose tissue. Hum Pathol 1983;14:677–687.
Furlong, MA, Fanburg-Smith, JC, Miettinen, M. Hibernoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:809–814.
Crieac, LR, Dekmezian, RH, Ayala, A. Characterization of the myxoid variant of hibernoma. Ann Diagn Pathol 2006;10:104–106.
Zancanaro, C, Pelosi, G, Accordini, C, Balercia, G, Sbabo, L, Cinti, S. Immunohistochemical identification of the uncoupling protein in human hibernoma. Biol Cell 1994;80:75–78.
Dal Cin, P, Damme, B, Hoogmartens, M, Berghe, H. Chromosome changes in a case of hibernoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1992;5:178–180.
Meloni, AM, Spanier, SS, Bush, CH, Stone, JF, Sandberg, AA. Involvement of 10q22 and 11q13 in hibernoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1994;72:59–64.
Mertens, F, Rydholm, A, Brosjo, O, Willen, H, Mitelman, F, Mandahl, N. Hibernomas are characterized by rearrangements of chromosome bands 11q13–21. Int J Cancer 1994;58:503–505.
Mrozek, K, Karakousis, CP, Bloomfield, CD. Band 11q13 is nonrandomly rearranged in hibernomas. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1994;9:145–147.
Turaga, KK, Silva-Lopez, E, Sanger, WG, Nelson, M, Hunter, WJ, Miettinen, M. A (9;11)(q34;q13) translocation in a hibernoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2006;170:163–166.
Maire, G, Forus, A, Foa, C, Bjerkehagen, B, Mainguene, C, Kresse, SH. 11q13 alterations in two cases of hibernoma: large heterozygous deletions and rearrangement breakpoints near GARP in 11q13.5. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2003;37:389–395.
Gisselson, D, Hoglund, M, Mertens, F, Dal Cin, P, Mandahl, N. Hibernomas are characterized by homozygous deletions in the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I region. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals complex rearrangements not detected by conventional cytogenetics. Am J Pathol 1999;155.61–66.
Chondroid Lipoma, Myolipoma, and Hemosiderotic Fibrohistiocytic Lipomatous Lesion
Meis, JM, Enzinger, FM. Chondroid lipoma: A unique tumor simulating liposarcoma and myxoid chondrosarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1993;17:1103–1112.
Nielsen, GP, O'Connell, JX, Dickersin, GR, Rosenberg, AE: Chondroid lipoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1995;19.1272–1276.
Thomson, TA, Horsman, D, Bainbridge, TC. Cytogenetic and cytologic features of chondroid lipoma of soft tissue. Mod Pathol 1999;12:88–91.
Gisselsson, D, Domanski, HA, Hoglund, M, Carlen, B, Mertens, F, Willen, H. Unique cytological features and chromosome aberrations in chondroid lipoma: a case report based on fine-needle aspiration cytology, histopathology, electron microscopy, chromosome banding, and molecular cytogenetics. Am J Surg Pathol 1999;23:1300–1304.
Ballaux, F, Debiec-Rychter, M, Wever, I, Sciot, R. Chondroid lipoma is characterized by t(11;16)(q13;p12–13). Virchows Arch 2004;444:208–210.
Meis, JM, Enzinger, FM. Myolipoma of soft tissue. Am J Surg Pathol 1991;15.121–125.
Ben-Izhak, O, Elmalach, I, Kerner, H, Best, . Pericardial myolipoma: a tumour presenting as a mediastinal mass and containing estrogen receptors. Histopathology 1996;29:184–186.
Marshall-Taylor, C, Fanburg-Smith, JC. Hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lesion: 10 cases of a previously undescribed fatty lesion of the foot/ankle. Mod Pathol 2000;13:1192–1199.
Browne, TJ, Fletcher, CD. Haemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumour (so-called haemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous tumour): analysis of 13 new cases in support of a distinct entity. Histopathology 2006;48:453–461.
Folpe, AL, Weiss, SW. Pleomorphic hyaline angiectatic tumor. Analysis of 41 cases supporting evolution from a distinctive precursor lesion. Am J Surg Pathol 2004;28:1417–1425.
Lipoblastoma
Vellios, F, Baez, J, Shumacker, HB. Lipoblastomatosis: a tumor of fetal fat different from hibernoma; report of a case, with observations on the embryogenesis of human adipose tissue. Am J Pathol 1958;34:1149–1159.
Chung, EB, Enzinger, FM. Benign lipoblastomatosis. An analysis of 35 cases. Cancer 1973;32:482–492.
Mahour, GH, Bryan, BJ, Isaacs, H. Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis – a report of six cases. Surgery 1988; 104:577–579.
Mentzel, T, Calonje, E, Fletcher, CD. Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis: a clinicopathological study of 14 cases. Histopathology 1993;23:527–533.
Coffin, CMLipoblastoma: an embryonal tumor of soft tissue related to organogenesis. Semin Diagn Pathol 1994;11:98–103.
Collins, MH, Chatten, J. Lipoblastoma/lipoblastomatosis: a clinicopathologic study of 25 tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 1997;21:1131–1137.
Chun, YS, Kim, WK, Park, KW, Lee, SC, Jung, SE. Lipoblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 2001;36:905–907.
Sciot, R, Wever, I, Debiec-Rychter, M. Lipoblastoma in a 23-year-old male: distinction from atypical lipomatous tumor using cytogenetic and fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis. Virchows Arch 2003;442:468–471.
Miller, GC, Yanchar, NL, Magee, JF, Blair, GK. Lipoblastoma and liposarcoma in children: an analysis of 9 cases and review of the literature. Can J Surg 1998;41:455–458.
Hicks, J, Dilley, A, Patel, D, Barrish, J, Zhu, SH, Bandt, M. Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis in infancy and childhood: histopathologic, ultrastructural, and cytogenetic features. Ultrastruct Pathol 2001;25:321–333.
Jung, SM, Chang, PY, Luo, CC, Huang, CS, Lau, JY, Hsueh, C. Lipoblastoma/lipoblastomatosis:a clinicopathologic study of 16 cases in Taiwan. Pediatr Surg Int 2005;21:809–812.
Ohjimi, Y, Iwasaki, H, Kaneko, Y, Ishiguro, M, Ohgami, A, Kikuchi, M. A case of lipoblastoma with t(3;8)(q12;q11.2). Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1992;62:103–105.
Fletcher, JA, Kozakewich, HP, Schoenberg, ML, Morton, CC. Cytogenetic findings in pediatric adipose tissue tumors: consistent rearrangement of chromosome 8 in lipoblastoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1993;6:24–29.
Dal Cin, P, Sciot, R, DeWever, I, Damme, B, Berghe, H. New discriminative chromosomal marker in adipose tissue tumors. The chromosome 8q11-q13 region in lipoblastoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1994;78:232–235.
Sawyer, JR, Parsons, EA, Crowson, ML, Smith, S, Erickson, S, Bell, JM. Potential diagnostic implications of breakpoints in the long arm of chromosome 8 in lipoblastoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1994;76:39–42.
Somers, GR, Teshima, I, Nasr, A, Cook, A, Khoury, AE, Taylor, GP. Intrascrotal lipoblastoma with complex karyotype: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2004;128:797–800.
Astrom, A, DíAmore, ES, Sainati, L, Panarello, C, Morerio, C, Mark, J. Evidence of involvement of the PLAG1 gene in lipoblastomas. Int J Oncol 2000;16:1107–1110.
Hibbard, MK, Kozakewich, H, Dal Ci, P, Sciot, R, Tan, X, Xiao, S, Fletcher, JA. PLAG1 fusion oncogenes in lipoblastoma. Cancer Res 2000;60:4869–4872.
Gisselsson, D, Hibbard, MK, Dal Cin, P, Sciot, R, His, BL, Kozakewich, HP, Fletcher, JA. PLAG1 alterations in lipoblastoma: involvement in varied mesenchymal cell types and evidence for alternative oncogenic mechanisms. Am J Pathol 2001;159:955–962.
Morerio, C, Rapelola, A, Rosanda, C, Tassano, E, Gambini, C, Romagnoli, G, Panarello, C. PLAG1-HAS2 fusion in lipoblastoma with masked 8q intrachromosomal rearrangement. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2005;156:183–184.
Lipoatrophy/Lipodystrophy, Lipogranuloma, and Silicone
Bauerschmitz, J, Bork, K. Multifocal disseminated lipoatrophy secondary to intravenous corticosteroid administration in a patient with adrenal insufficiency. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;46:S130–132.
McGomsey, GA, Walker, UA. Role of mitochondria in HIV lipoatrophy: insight into pathogenesis and potential therapies. Mitochondrion 2004;4:11–118.
Estrada, V, Martinez-Larrad, MT, Gonzalez-Sanchez, JL, Villar, NG, Zabena, C, Fernandez, C, Serrano-Rios, M. Lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients treated with antriretroviral therapy. Metabolism 2006;55:940–945.
Oertel, YC, Johnson, FB: Sclerosing lipogranuloma of male genitalia. Review of 23 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1977;101.321–326.
Matsuda, T, Shichiri, Y, Hida, S, Okada, Y, Takeuchi, H, Nakashima, Y, Yoshida, O. Eosinophilic sclerosing lipogranuloma of the male genitalia not caused by exogenous lipids. J Urol 1988;140:1021–1024.
Greene, WB, Raso, DS, Walsh, LG, Harley, RA, Silver, RM. Electron probe microanalysis of silicon and the role of macrophage in proximal (capsule) and distant sites in augmentation mammoplasty patients. Plastic Reconstr Surg 1995;95:513–519.
Luke, JL, Kalasinsky, VF, Turnicky, RP, Centeno, JA, Johnson, FB, Mullick, FG. Pathological and biophysical findings associated with silicone breast implants: a study of capsular tissues from 86 cases. Plastic Reconstr Surg 1997;100:1558–1565.
Centeno, JA, Mullick, FG, Panos, RG, Miller, FW, Valenzuela-Espinoza, A. Laser-Raman microprobe identification of inclusions in capsules associated with silicone gel breast implants. Mod Pathol 1999;12:714–721.
Massive Localized Lymphedema
Farshid, G, Weiss, SW. Massive localized lymphedema in the morbidly obese: a histologically distinct reactive lesion simulating liposarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1998;22:1277–1283.
Wu, D, Gibbs, J, Cotral, D, Intengan, M, Brooks, JJ. Massive localized lymphedema. Hum Pathol 2000;31:1162–1168.
Oswald, TM, Lineweaver, W. Limited segmental resection on symptomatic lower extremity lymphodystrophic tissue in high-risk patients. South Med J 2003;96:689–691.
Goshtasby, P, Dawson, J, Agarwal, N. Pseudosarcoma: massive localized lymphedema in the obese. Obes Surg 2006;16:88–93.