Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2017
  • Online publication date: December 2017

Chapter 33 - Neurologic Complications of Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

from Section 4 - Specific Conditions Associated with Fetal and Neonatal Brain Injury
1.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Unexplained immunodeficiency and opportunistic infections in infants – New York, New Jersey, California. MMWR Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep 1982; 31: 665–7.
2.Prendergast, AJ, Essajee, S, Penazzato, M. See comment in PubMed Commons below HIV and the Millennium Development Goals. Arch Dis Child 2015; 100(Suppl 1):S4852.
3.Abrams, EJ, Myer, L. Can we achieve an AIDS-free generation? Perspectives on the global campaign to eliminate new pediatric HIV infections. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2013; 63(Suppl 2): S208–12.
4.Hurst, SA, Appelgren, KE, Kourtis, AP. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV type 1: the role of neonatal and infant prophylaxis. Expert Rev Anti-infect Ther 2015; 13: 169–81.
5.Mofenson, LM. Prevention in neglected subpopulations: prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50(Suppl 3): S130–48.
6.See comment in PubMed Commons below Mofenson, LM, Cotton, MF. The challenges of success: adolescents with perinatal HIV infection. J Int AIDS Soc 2013; 16: 18650.
7.Rakhmanina, NY, van den Anker, JN. Pharmacologic prevention of perinatal HIV infection. Early Hum Dev 2014; 90(Suppl 1):S13–5.
8.White, AB, Mirjahangir, JF, Horvath, H, et al. Antiretroviral interventions for preventing breast milk transmission of HIV. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 10: CD011323.
9.Tenthani, L, Haas, AD, Tweya, H, et al. Retention in care under universal antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women (“Option B+”) in Malawi. AIDS 2014; 28: 589–98.
10.Shaffer, N, Abrams, EJ, Becquet, R, et al. Option B+ for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-constrained settings: great promise but some early caution. AIDS 2014; 28: 599601
11.Colvin, CJ, Konopka, S, Chalker, JC, et al. A systematic review of health system barriers and enablers for antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. PLoS One 2014; 9: e108150.
12.Tardieu, M, Tejiokem, M, Nguefack, S. Virus-induced lesions and the fetal brain: examples of the transmission of HIV-1 and CMV from mother to offspring. Handb Clin Neurol 2013; 112: 1103–8.
13.Wilmshurst, JM, Donald, KA, Eley, B. Update on the key developments of the neurologic complications in children infected with HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2014; 9: 533–8.
14.Donald, KA, Hoare, J, Eley, B, Wilmshurst, JM. Neurologic complications of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus: implications for clinical practice and management challenges in the African setting. Semin Pediatr Neurol 2014; 21:311.
15.Samia, P, Petersen, R, Walker, KG, et al. Prevalence of seizures in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Child Neurol 2013; 28: 297302.
16.Donald, KA, Walker, KG, Kilborn, T, et al. HIV Encephalopathy: pediatric case series description and insights from the clinic coalface. AIDS Res Ther 2015; 12: 2.
17.Govender, R, Eley, B, Walker, K, et al. Neurologic and neurobehavioral sequelae in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. J Child Neurol 2015; 26: 1355–64.
18.Recommendations of the US Public Health Service Task Force on the use of zidovudine to reduce perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, 2014. Available at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00032271.htm (accessed August 30, 2015).
19.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for assisting in the prevention of perinatal transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. MMWR Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep 1985; 34: 721–6.
20.Public Health Service Task Force recommendations for use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-infected women for maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission in the United States, 2014. Available at www.aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/perinatalgl.pdf (accessed August 30, 2015).
21.American Academy of Pediatrics. Human immunodeficiency virus infection, in Kimberlin, DW, Brady, MT, Jackson, MA, Long, SS, eds., Red Book, 30th edn. Elk Grove, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015:453–76.
22.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV among pregnant women, infants and children, 2017. Available at www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/gender/pregnant women/facts/index.html (accessed July 28, 2017).
23.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV surveillance report, 2010. Available at www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/ (accessed August 21, 2015).
24.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Racial/ethnic disparities among children with diagnoses of perinatal HIV infection – 34 states, 2004–2007. MMWR Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep 2010; 59:97101.
25.Cooper, ER, Charurat, M, Mofenson, L, et al. Combination antiretroviral strategies for the treatment of pregnant HIV-1-infected women and prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002; 29: 484–94.
26.Townsend, CL, Byrne, L, Cortina-Borja, M, et al. Earlier initiation of ART and further decline in mother-to-child HIV transmission rates, 2000–2011. AIDS 2014; 28: 1049–57.
27.Nesheim, S, Taylor, A, Lampe, MA, et al. A framework for elimination of perinatal transmission of HIV in the United States. Pediatrics 2012; 130: 738–44.
28.Whitmore, SK, Taylor, AW, Espinoza, L, et al. Correlates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in the United States and Puerto Rico. Pediatrics 2012; 129:e7481.
29.Camacho-Gonzalez, AF, Kingbo, MH, Boylan, A, et al. Missed opportunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in the United States. AIDS 2015; 29: 1511–15.
30.UNAIDS. 2014 Progress Report on the Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive. Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2014.
31.UNAIDS. Fact sheet - Latest statistics on the status of the AIDS epidemic. Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2017. Available at http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/fact-sheet (accessed July 28, 2017).
32.Piot, P, Abdool Karim, SS, Hecht, R, et al. Defeating AIDS: advancing global health. Lancet 2015; 386: 171218.
33.Newell, ML, Coovadia, H, Cortina-Borja, M, et al. Ghent International AIDS Society (IAS) Working Group on HIV Infection in Women and Children. Mortality of infected and uninfected infants born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a pooled analysis. Lancet 2004; 364: 1236–43.
34.Working Group on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Infection. Rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Africa, America, and Europe: results from 13 perinatal studies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1995; 8: 506–10.
35.European Collaborative Study. Vertical transmission of HIV-1: maternal immune status and obstetric factors. AIDS 1996; 10: 1675–81.
36.Shetty, AK, Maldonado, YA. Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the infant. In Wilson, C, Nizet, V, Maldonado, YA, Remington, JS, Klein, JO (eds.), Remington and Klein’s Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant, 8th edn. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders, 2015: 619–74.
37.Connor, EM, Sperling, RS, Gelber, R, et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 1173–80.
38.DeCock, KM, Fowler, MG, Mercier, E, et al. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-poor countries: translating research into policy and practice. JAMA 2000; 283: 1175–82.
39.Thorne, C, Newell, ML. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2004; 17: 247–52.
40.Stevens, J, Hermione, L. Mother to child transmission of HIV: what works and how much is enough? J Infect 2014; 69(Suppl 1): S5662.
41.Magder, LS, Mofenson, L, Paul, ME, et al. Risk factors for in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 38: 8795.
42.Sperling, RS, Shapiro, DE, Coombs, RW, et al. Maternal viral load, zidovudine treatment, and the risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to infant. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 1621–9.
43.International Perinatal HIV Group. The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 11: a meta-analysis of 15 prospective studies. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 977–87.
44.European Mode of Delivery Collaboration. Elective cesarean section versus vaginal delivery in prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission: a randomized clinical trial. Lancet 1999; 353: 1035–9.
45.Kuhn, L, Sinkala, M, Kankasa, C, et al. High uptake of exclusive breastfeeding and reduced early post-natal HIV transmission. PLoS One 2007; 2: e1363.
46.Rollins, N, Coovadia, HM. Breastfeeding and HIV transmission in the developing world: past, present, future. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2013; 8: 467–73.
47.McArthur, JC, Brew, BJ, Nath, A. Neurological complications of HIV infection. Lancet 2005; 4: 543–55.
48.Van Rie, HPR, Dow, A, Robertson, K. Neurologic and neurodevelopmental manifestations of pediatric HIV/AIDS: a global perspective. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2007; 11: 19.
49.Pearson, DA, McGrath, NM, Nozycee, M, et al. Predicting HIV disease progression in children using measures of neuropsychological and neurological functioning. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials 152 Study Team. Pediatrics 2000; 106: e76.
50.UNAIDS. Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2013. Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2013.
51.van Arnhem, LA, Bunders, MJ, Scherpbier, HJ, et al. Neurologic abnormalities in HIV-1 infected children in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. PLoS One 2013; 8: e64398.
52.Foster, CJ, Biggs, RL, Melvin, D, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with HIV infection under 3 years of age. Dev Med Child Neurol 2006; 48: 677–82.
53.Crowell, CS, Malee, KM, Yogev, R, Muller, WJ. Neurologic disease in HIV-infected children and the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy. Rev Med Virol 2014; 24: 316–31.
54.Tardieu, M, Le, CJ, Persoz, A, et al. HIV-1-related encephalopathy in infants compared with children and adults. French Pediatric HIV Infection Study and the SEROCO Group. Neurology 2000; 54: 1089–95.
55.Sturdevant, CB, Dow, A, Jabara, CB, et al. Central nervous system compartmentalization of HIV-1 subtype C variants early and late in infection in young children. PLOS Pathog 2012; 8: e1003094.
56.Gorry, PR, Bristol, G, Zack, JA, et al. Macrophage tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from brain and lymphoid tissues predict neurotropism independent of coreceptor specificity. J Virol 2001; 75: 10073–89.
57.Cooper, ER, Hanson, C, Diaz, C, et al. Encephalopathy and progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease in a cohort of children with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 808–12.
58.Labato, MN, Caldwell, MB, Ng, P, et al. Encephalopathy in children with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Pediatr 1995; 126: 710–15.
59.Chiriboga, CA, Fleishman, S, Champion, S, et al. Incidence and prevalence of HIV encephalopathy in children with HIV infection receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). J Pediatr 2005; 146: 402–7.
60.Belman, AL, Ultmann, MH, Horoupian, D, et al. Neurologic complications in infants and children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ann Neurol 1985; 18: 560–6.
61.Epstein, LG, Sharer, LR, Oleske, JM, et al. Neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Pediatrics 1986; 78: 678–87.
62.Mintz, M, Rapaport, R, Oleske, JM, et al. Progressive encephalopathy in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Dis Child 1989; 143: 771–4.
63.Mitchell, CD, HIV-1 encephalopathy among perinatally infected children: neuropathogenesis and response to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2006; 12: 216–22.
64.Nachman, SA, et al., Incidence of noninfectious conditions in perinatally HIV-infected children and adolescents in the HAART era. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009; 163: 164–71.
65.Patel, K, et al., Impact of HAART and CNS-penetrating antiretroviral regimens on HIV encephalopathy among perinatally infected children and adolescents. AIDS 2009; 23: 1893–901.
66.Laughton, B, Cornell, M, Boivin, M, Van Rie, A. Neurodevelopment in perinatally HIV-infected children: a concern for adolescence. J Int AIDS Soc 2013; 16:18603.
67.Heather, C, Swang, M, Lawrence, J, et al. Of mice and monkeys: can animal models be utilized to study neurological consequences of pediatric HIV-1 infection. ACS Chem Neurosci 2015; 6: 1276–89.
68.Bissel, SJ, Wiley, CA. Human immunodeficiency virus infection of the brain: pitfalls in evaluating infected/affected cell populations. Brain Pathol 2004; 14:97108.
69.Persidsky, Y, Zheng, J, Miller, D, Gendelman, HE. Mononuclear phagocytes mediate blood-brain barrier compromise and neuronal injury during HIV-1-associated dementia. J Leukocyt Biol 2001; 68(3): 413–22.
70.Blumberg, BM, Gelbard, HA, Epstein, LG. HIV-1 infection of the developing nervous system: central role of astrocytes in pathogenesis. Virus Res 1994; 32: 253–67.
71.Tornatore, C, Chandra, R, Berger, JR, Major, EO. HIV-1 infection of subcortical astrocytes in the pediatric central nervous system. Neuolrogy 1994; 44: 481–7.
72.Canto-Nogues, C, Sanchez-Ramon, S, Alvarez, S, et al. HIV-1 infection of neurons might account for progressive HIV-1-associated encephalopathy in children. J Mol Neurosci 2005; 27:7989.
73.Chen, MF, Gill, AJ, Kolson, DL. Neuropathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: roles for immune activation, HIV blipping and viral tropism. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2014; 9: 559–64.
74.Kaul, M. HIV’s double strike at the brain: neuronal toxicity and compromised neurogenesis. Front Biosci 2008; 13: 2484–94.
75.Foster, SB, Lu, M, Glaze, DG, et al. Associations of cytokines, sleep patterns, and neurocognitive function in youth with HIV infection. Clin Immunol 2012; 144:1323.
76.Epstein, LG, Gelbard, HA. HIV-1-induced neuronal injury in the developing brain. J Leukocyt Biol 1999; 65: 453–7.
77.Schwartz, L, Major, EO. Neural progenitors and HIV-1-associated central nervous system disease in adults and children. Curr HIV Res 2006; 4: 319–27.
78.Medders, KE, Kaul, M. Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 in HIV infection and associated brain injury. J Neuroimmun Pharmacol 2011; 6: 202–15.
79.Rodriguez-Franco, EJ, Cantres-Rosario, YM, Plaud-Valentin, M, et al. Dysregulation of macrophage-secreted cathepsin B contributes to HIV-1-linked neuronal apoptosis. PLoS One 2012; 7:e36571.
80.Teodorof, C, Divakar, S, Soontornniyomkij, B, et al. Intracellular mannose binding lectin mediates subcellular trafficking of HIV-1 gp120 in neurons. Neurobiol Dis 2014; 69:5464.
81.Singh, KK, Wang, Y, Gray, KP, et al. Genetic variants in the host restriction factor APOBEC3G are associated with HIV-1-related disease progression and central nervous system impairment in children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2013; 62:197203.
82.Tornatore, C, Chandra, R, Berger, JR, Major, EO. HIV-1 infection of subcortical astrocytes in the pediatric central nervous system. Neurology 1994; 44: 481–7.
83.da Cunha, A, Mintz, M, Eiden, LE, Sharer, LR. A neuronal and neuroanatomical correlate of HIV-1 encephalopathy relative to HIV-1 encephalitis in HIV-1 infected children. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1997; 56: 974–87.
84.Lyman, YD, Kress, Y, Kure, K, et al. Detection of HIV in fetal central nervous tissue. AIDS 1990; 4: 917–20.
85.Levy, JA, Shimabukuro, J, Hollander, H, et al. Isolation of AIDS-associated retroviruses from cerebrospinal fluid and brain of patients with neurological symptoms. Lancet 1985; 2: 586–8.
86.European Collaborative Study. Neurologic signs in young children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1990; 9: 402–6.
87.George, R, Andronikou, S, du Plessis, AM, et al. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children. Pediatr Radiol 2009; 39: 575–85.
88.Hoare, J, Ransford, GL, Phillips, N, et al. Systematic review of neuroimaging studies in vertically transmitted HIV positive children and adolescents. Metab Brain Dis 2014; 29: 221–9.
89.Ackermann, C, Andronikou, S, Laughton, B, et al. White matter signal abnormalities in children with suspected HIV-related neurologic disease on early combination antiretroviral therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2014; 33:e207–12.
90.Hoare, J, Fouche, JP, Phillips, N, et al. White matter micro-structural changes in ART-naïve and ART-treated children and adolescents infected with HIV in South Africa. AIDS 2015; 29: 1793–801.
91.Hoare, J, Fouche, JP, Spottiswoode, B, et al. A diffusion tensor imaging and neurocognitive study of HIV-positive children who are HAART-naive “slow progressors.” J Neurovirol 2012; 18: 205–12.
92.Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in pediatric HIV infection. Available at http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/pediatricguidelines.pdf (accessed July 28, 2017).
93.Abrams, EJ, Kuhn, L. Should treatment be started among all HIV-infected children and then stopped?, Lancet 2003; 362: 1595–6.
94.Violari, A, Cotton, MF, Gibb, DM, et al. Early antiretroviral therapy and mortality among HIV-infected infants. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 2233–44.
95.Saavedra-Lozano, J, Ramos, JT, Sanz, F, et al. Salvage therapy with abacavir and other reverse transcriptase inhibitors for human immunodeficiency-associated encephalopathy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006; 25: 1142–52.
96.DeCarli, C, Fugate, L, Falloon, J, et al. Brain growth and cognitive improvement in children with human immunodeficiency virus-induced encephalopathy after 6 months of continuous infusion zidovudine therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1991; 4: 585–92.
97.McCoig, C, Castrejon, MM, Castano, E, et al. Effects of combination antiretroviral therapy on cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA, HIV resistance, and clinical manifestations of encephalopathy. J Pediatr 2002; 141:3644.
98.Laughton, B, Cornell, M. Grove, D, et al. Early antiretroviral therapy improves neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants. AIDS 2012; 26: 1685–90.
99.Cohen, S, Ter Stege, JA, Geurtsen, GJ, et al. Poorer cognitive performance in perinatally HIV-infected children versus healthy socioeconomically matched controls. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 60: 1111–19.
100.Nichols, SL, Brummel, SS, Smith, RA, et al. Executive functioning in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2015; 34: 969–75.