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The European Court and Civil Society
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Book description

The European Union today stands on the brink of radical institutional and constitutional change. The most recent enlargement and proposed legal reforms reflect a commitment to democracy: stabilizing political life for citizens governed by new regimes, and constructing a European Union more accountable to civil society. Despite the perceived novelty of these reforms, this book explains (through quantitative data and qualitative case analyses) how the European Court of Justice has developed and sustained a vibrant tradition of democratic constitutionalism since the 1960s. The book documents the dramatic consequences of this institutional change for civil society and public policy reform throughout Europe. Cichowski offers detailed empirical and historical studies of gender equality and environmental protection law across fifteen countries and over thirty years, revealing important linkages between civil society, courts and the construction of governance. The findings bring into question dominant understandings of legal integration.

Reviews

‘Rachel Cichowski's interesting and well-written book is a welcome addition to the literature on supranational governance and the role of the European Court of Justice. It takes its place within a more recent genre of genuinely interdisciplinary EU scholarship, which brings together the rigour of political science methodology and attention to empirical detail with a nuanced understanding of law, litigation and the judicial role in the evolution of the European Union.’

Grainne De Búrca - Professor of European Law, European University Institute

'With its emphasis on the role and dynamics of public interest litigation and mobilization, this book offers valuable empirical data as well as wider theoretical reflections on the institutionalization processes of supranational governance. Fascinating reading for those interested in the institutional evolution of the EU and in particular judicial politics.'

Deirdre Curtin - School of Governance, Utrecht University

‘A devastating critique of the intergovernmental approach to understanding the EU, Cichowski’s study integrates the European Court of Justice into our understanding of European policy. Cichowski moves beyond a narrow set of concerns about supreme courts, judicial review and activism and restraint and pursues broader questions about courts, public policy and transnational social movements. At last, gender equality policy studied not just as legal doctrine but as a contested policy terrain where strategic players include litigants, national equality agencies, states and transnational actors is given the prominence its policy importance merits. By comparing gender equality policy with environmental policy, Cichowski is able to generalize beyond one policy domain to make larger claims about European Union policy. A fine piece of scholarship that will be of interest to scholars of the European Union, comparative politics, public policy, gender and environmental policy, international relations and law and courts.'

Sally J. Kenney - Professor, Public Affairs and Law and Director, Center on Women and Public Policy, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs

'An exemplary addition to a growing interdisciplinary body of literature on the European union (EU) … new and important insights into the role of civil society litigation and mobilization in spurring institutional change and supranational governanace.'

Source: Law & Society Review

' … a remarkably impressive work.… The research is thorough, even exhaustive, strikingly well-documented, and presented both quantitatively and with a detailed narrative that qives a qualitative picture of the politics and legal action on the ground.'

Leslie F. Goldstein - University of Delaware

'Cichowski's tireless and careful empirical efforts reveal a treasure trove of findings.'

Source: Political Studies Review

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Contents

References
References
Court of Justice of the European Communities Decisions cited in the text
Social provisions
ECJ 1970. Internationale Handesgesellschaft, Case 11/70, European Court Reports (ECR) 1970: 1125.
ECJ 1971. Defrenne I, Case 80/70, ECR 1971: 445.
ECJ 1976a. Defrenne II, Case 43/75, ECR 1976: 455.
ECJ 1978. Defrenne III, Case 149/77, ECR 1978: 1365.
ECJ 1980. Macarthy, Case 12/79, ECR 1980: 1275.
ECJ 1981a. Jenkins, Case 96/80, ECR 1981: 911.
ECJ 1981c. Worringham, Case 69/80, ECR 1981: 767.
ECJ 1982b. Garland, Case 12/81, ECR 1982: 359.
ECJ 1984b. Hoffman, Case 184/83, ECR 1984: 645.
ECJ 1985b. Case 19/83, ECR 1985: 457.
ECJ 1986a. Bilka, Case 170/84, ECR 1986: 1607.
ECJ 1986b. Von Colson, Case 14/83, ECR 1986: 1891.
ECJ 1986c. Johnston, Case 222/84, ECR 1986: 1651.
ECJ 1989b. Rinner-Kühn, Case 171/88, ECR 1989: 2743.
ECJ 1989d. Danfoss, Case 12/54, ECR 1989: 345.
ECJ 1990a. Barber, Case 262/88, ECR 1990: 1889.
ECJ 1990c. Dekker, Case C-177/88, ECR 1990: 3941.
ECJ 1990d. Hertz, Case C-179/88, ECR 1990: 3979.
ECJ 1991b. Stoekel, Case C-345/89, ECR 1991: 4047
ECJ 1993a. Marshall II, Case C-271/91, ECR 1993: 4367.
ECJ 1993b. Moroni, Case C-110/91, ECR 1993: 6591.
ECJ 1993c. Ten Oever, Case C-109/91, ECR 1993: 4879.
ECJ 1993d. Neath, Case C-152/91, ECR 1993: 6935.
ECJ 1994c. Haberman-Beltermann v. Arbeiterwohlfahrt, Case C-421/92, ECR 1994: 1657.
ECJ 1994d. Webb, Case C-32/93, ECR 1994: 3567.
ECJ 1995a. Kalanke, Case C-450/93, ECR 1995: 3051.
ECJ 1996a. Gillespie, Case C-342/93, ECR 1996: 475.
ECJ 1996d. P v. S and Cornwall County Council, Case C-13/94, ECR 1996: 2143.
ECJ 1997a. Draehmpaehl, Case C-180/95, ECR 1997: 2195.
ECJ 1997b. Larsson, Case C-400/95, ECR 1997: 4135.
ECJ 1997c. Marschall, Case C-409/95, ECR 1997: 865.
ECJ 1997d. Commission v. French Republic, Case C-197/96, ECR 1997: 1489.
ECJ 1997e. Commission v. Italy, Case C-207/96, ECR 1997: 6869.
ECJ 1998a. Boyle, Case C- 411/96, ECR 1998: 6401.
ECJ 1998b. Pedersen, Case C-66/96, ECR 1998: 7327.
ECJ 1998d. Brown v. Rentokil Ltd., Case C-394/96, ECR 1998: 4185.
ECJ 1998e. Thibault, Case C-136/95, ECR 1998: 2011.
ECJ 1998g. Grant, Case C-249/96, ECR 1998: 346.
ECJ 1998h. Commission v United Kingdom, Case C-106/96, ECR 1998: 2729.
ECJ 1999a. Sirdar, Case C-273/97, ECR 1999: 7403.
ECJ 1999b. Lewen, Case C-333/97, ECR 1999: 7243.
ECJ 1999c. Abdoulaye, Case C-218/98, ECR 1999: 5723.
ECJ 2000a. Kreil, Case C-285/98, ECR 2000: 69.
ECJ 2000d. Mahlburg, Case C-207/98, ECR 2000: 549.
ECJ 2001a. Melgar, Case C-438/99, ECR 2001: 6915.
ECJ 2001b. Tele Danmark, Case C-109/00, ECR 2001: 6993.
ECJ 2003a. Busch, Case C-320/01, ECR 2003: 2041.
ECJ 2004a. Gómez, Case C-342/01, ECR 2004: 2605.
ECJ 2004b. Alabaster, Case C-147/02, ECR 2004: 3101.
ECJ 2004c. Sass, Case C-284/02, ECR 2004: 11143.
ECJ 2005. Mayer, Case C-356/03, ECR 2005: 295.
Environmental protection
ECJ 1976b. Handelskwekerij GJ Bier, Case 21/76, ECR 1976: 1735
ECJ 1981b. Van Dam & Zonen, Case 124/80, ECR 1981: 1447.
ECJ 1983. Inter-Huiles, Case 172/82, ECR 1983: 555.
ECJ 1984a. Rhône-Alpes Huiles, Case 295/82, ECR 1984: 575.
ECJ 1985a. ADBHU, Case C-240/83, ECR 1985: 531.
ECJ 1987a. Pretore di Salo (Anglers' Assoc.), Case 14/86, ECR 1987: 2545
ECJ 1987b. Commission v. Belgium, Case 247/85, ECR 1987: 3029.
ECJ 1987c. Commission v. France, Case 262/85, ECR 1987: 3073.
ECJ 1987d. Commission v. Germany, Case 412/85, ECR 1987: 3503.
ECJ 1987e. Commission v. Netherlands, Case 236/85, ECR 1987: 3989.
ECJ 1987f. Angler's Association, Case 14/86, ECR 1987: 2545.
ECJ 1988a. Commission v. Denmark (Danish Bottles), Case 302/86, ECR 1988: 4621.
ECJ 1988b. Commission v. France, Case 252/85, ECR 1988: 2243.
ECJ 1989c. Nijman, Case 125/88, ECR 1989: 3533.
ECJ 1990b. Gourmetterie Van den Burg, Case 169/89, ECR 1990: 2143.
ECJ 1990e. Vessosso and Zanetti, Cases 206 & 207/88, ECR 1990: 1461.
ECJ 1990f. Zanetti and others, Case 359/88 ECR 1990: 1509.
ECJ 1990g. Commission v Netherlands, Case 339/87, ECR 1990: 851.
ECJ 1991e. Commission v. Germany (Leybucht Dykes), Case 57/89 ECR 1991: 903.
ECJ 1991f. Commission v. Italy, Case 157/89, ECR 1991: 57.
ECJ 1991g. Commission v. Italy, Case 334/89, ECR 1991: 93.
ECJ 1991h. Commission v. Italy, Case 361/88, ECR 1991: 2567.
ECJ 1991i. Commission v. Council (Titanium Dioxide), Case 200/89, ECR 1991: 2867.
ECJ 1993e. Vanacker, Case C-37/92 ECR 1993: 4947.
ECJ 1993f. Commission v. Spain (Santoña Marshes), Case 355/90 ECR 1993: 4221.
ECJ 1994a. Association de Animaux, Case C-435/92, ECR 1994: 67.
ECJ 1994e. Difesa della Cava, Case C-236/92, ECR 1994: 483.
ECJ 1994f. An Taisce/WWF v. Commission, Case 585/93, ECR 1994: 733.
ECJ 1995b. Commission v. Germany, C-422/92 ECR 1995: 1097.
ECJ 1995c. Greenpeace v. Commission, C-461/93 ECR 1995: 2205.
ECJ 1996b. Ligue belge des oiseaux, Case C-10/96, ECR 1996: 6775.
ECJ 1996e. WWF Italia and others, Case C-118/94 ECR 1996: 1223.
ECJ 1996f. Lappel Banks, Case C-44/95 ECR 1996: 3805.
ECJ 1996g. Vergy, Case C-149/94 ECR 1996: 299.
ECJ 1996h. Van der Feesten, Case C-202/94, ECR 1996: 355.
ECJ 1996i. Kraaijeveld, Case C-72/95, ECR 1996: 5403.
ECJ 1997f. Tombesi, joined Cases C-304/94, C-330/94, C-342/94 and C-224/95 ECR 1997: 3561.
ECJ 1997g. Commission v. Greece, Case C-329/96, ECR 1997: 3749.
ECJ 1997h. Commission v. Germany, Case C-83/97, ECR 1997: 7191.
ECJ 1998c. Greenpeace v. Commission, Case C-321/95, ECR 1998: 1651.
ECJ 1998f. Dusseldorp BV, C-Case 203/96 ECR 1998: 4075.
ECJ 1999d. Commission v. France, Case C-166/97, ECR 1999: 1719.
ECJ 1999e. Commission v. France, Case C-96/98, ECR 1999: 8531.
ECJ 2000b. Commission v. Greece, Case C-387/97, ECR 2000: 3214.
ECJ 2000c. First Corporate Shipping Ld. (FCS), Case C-371/98, ECR 2000: 9235.
ECJ 2000e. Commission v. France, Case C-374/98, ECR 2000: 10799.
ECJ 2001c. Tridon, Case C-510/99, ECR 2001: 7777.
ECJ 2003b. Nilsson, Case C-154/02, ECR 2003: 12733.
ECJ 2003c. League for the Protection of Birds & others, Case C-182/02, ECR 2003: 12105.
Other Decisions
ECJ 1963. Van Gend en Loos, Case 26/62, ECR 1963: 1.
ECJ 1964. Costa, Case 6/64, ECR 1964: 585.
ECJ 1974. Van Duyn, Case 41/74, ECR 1974: 1337.
ECJ 1975. Mr. and Mrs. F v. Belgium, Case 7/75, ECR 1975: 679.
ECJ 1979. Ratti, Case 148/78, ECR 1979: 1629.
ECJ 1982a. Becker, Case 8/81, ECR 1982: 53.
ECJ 1989a. Wachauf, Case 5/88, ECR 1989: 2609.
ECJ 1991a. Ellinkiki, Case C-260/89, ECR 1991: 2925.
ECJ 1991c. Commission v. Germany, Case C-131/88, ECR 1991: 825.
ECJ 1991d. Commission v. Germany, Case C-361/988, ECR 1991: 2567.
ECJ 1994b. Graff, Case C-351/92, ECR 1994: 3361.
ECJ 1996c. Bosphorus, Case C-84/95, ECR 1996: 3953.
ECJ 2002. Union de Pequeños Agricultores (UPA), Case C-50/00, ECR 2002: 6677.
ECJ 2003d. Schmidberger v Austria, Case C-112/00, ECR 2003: 5659.
Court of First Instance of the European Communities Decisions cited in the text
CFI 2002. Jégo-Quéré, Case T-177/01, ECR 2002: 2365.
Official European Union Documents cited in text
Commission of the European Communities (CEC) 1960. Bulletin of the European Communities, No. 6/7. Luxembourg: Office of the Official Publications of the European Communities.
CEC 1962. Bulletin of the European Communities, No. 1. Luxembourg: Office of the Official Publications of the European Communities.
CEC 1963. Bulletin of the European Communities, No. 2. Luxembourg: Office of the Official Publications of the European Communities.
CEC 1972. Bulletin of the European Communities, No. 10. Luxembourg: Office of the Official Publications of the European Communities.
CEC 1973a. First Community Action Programme on the Environment. OJ No. C 112, 20/12/73. Luxembourg: Office of the Official Publications of the European Communities.
CEC 1973b. Report of the Commission to the Council on the Application of the Principle of Equal Pay for Men and Women, situation on the 31 December 1972. SEC (73) 3000. Luxembourg: Office of the Official Publications of the European Communities.
CEC 1977. Second Community Action Programme on the Environment. OJ No. C 139, 13/6/77. Luxembourg: Office of the Official Publications of the European Communities.
CEC 1978. Women of Europe (1992), No. 6/78. Brussels: Women's Information Service, Directorate-General Audiovisual, Information, Communication, Culture.
CEC 1979. Official Journal of the European Communities (annual index edition, 1979). Luxembourg: Office of the Official Publications of the European Communities.
CEC 1981. A New Community Action Programme on the Promotion of Equal Opportunities for Women (1982–1985), COM(81) 758. Luxembourg: Office of the Official Publications of the European Communities.
CEC 1982. Council Resolution on the promotion of equal opportunities for women. Official Journal C 186, 21.7.82, p. 3. Luxembourg: Office of the Official Publications of the European Communities.
CEC 1983. Community Law and Women, Women of Europe, Supplement No. 12. Brussels: Women's Information Service, Directorate-General Audiovisual, Information, Communication, Culture.
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CEC 1991. Eighth Annual Report on the Monitoring of the Application of Community Law (1990), COM (91) 338. Luxembourg: Office of the Official Publications of the European Communities.
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