Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: August 2016

Chapter 4 - Imaging and laboratory diagnosis

from Part I - General principles
1.Eckert, B, Zeumer, H: Brain computed tomography. In Ginsberg, MD, Bogousslavsky, J (eds): Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management, vol 2. Boston: Blackwell Science, 1998, pp 12411264.
2.von Kummer, R, Nolte, PN, Schnittger, H, et al: Detectability of cerebral hemisphere ischaemic infarcts by CT within 6 hours of stroke. Neuroradiology 1996;38:3133.
3.Moulin, T, Cattin, F, Crepin-Leblond, T, et al: Early CT signs in acute middle cerebral artery infarction: Predictive value for subsequent infarct location and outcome. Neurology 1996;47:366375.
4.Norman, D, Price, D, Boyd, D, et al: Quantitative aspects of computed tomography of the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Radiology 1977;7:223228.
5.Caplan, LR, Flamm, ES, Mohr, JP, et al: Lumbar puncture and stroke: A statement for physicians by a committee of the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association. Stroke 1987;18:540A544A.
6.Edlow, JA, Caplan, LR: Primary care: Avoiding pitfalls in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. N Engl J Med 2000;341:2936.
7.Beauchamp, NJ, Bryan, RN: Neuroimaging of stroke. In Welch, KMA, Caplan, LR, Reis, DJ, Siesjo, BK, Weir, B (eds): Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases. San Diego: Academic Press, 1997, pp 599611.
8.Baird, AE, Warach, S: Magnetic resonance imaging of acute stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1998;18:583609.
9.Brant-Zawadski, M, Atkinson, D, Detrick, M, et al: Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) for assessment of cerebral infarction: Initial clinical experience in 50 patients. Stroke 1996;27:11871191.
10.Warach, S, Chien, D, Li, W, et al: Fast magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging of acute human stroke. Neurology 1992;42:17171723.
11.Warach, S, Gaa, J, Siewert, B, et al: Acute human stroke studied by whole brain echo planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Neurol 1995;37:231241.
12.Lansberg, MG, Norbash, AM, Marks, MP, et al: Advantages of adding diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to conventional imaging for evaluating acute stroke. Arch Neurol 2000;57:13111316.
13.Engelter, ST, Wetzel, SG, Radue, EW, et al: The clinical significance of diffusion-weighted imaging in infratentorial strokes. Neurology 2004;62:574580.
14.Kang, DW, Chalela, JA, Ezzeddline, MA, Warach, S: Association of ischemic lesion patterns on early diffusion-weighted imaging with TOAST stroke subtypes. Arch Neurol 2003;60:17301734.
15.Bonati, LH, Lyrer, PA, Wetzel, SG, et al: Diffusion-weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient maps and stroke etiology. J Neurol 2005;252:13871393.
16.Bonati, LH, Kessel-Schaefer, A, Linka, AZ, et al: Diffusion-weighted imaging in stroke attributable to patent foramen ovale. Stroke 2006;37:20302034.
17.Kidwell, CS, Saver, JL, Mattiello, J, et al: Thrombolytic reversal of acute human cerebral ischemic injury shown by diffusion/perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Neurol 2000;47:462469.
18.Chemmanam, T, Campbell, BCV, Christensen, S, et al: Ischemic diffusion lesion reversal is uncommon and rarely alters perfusion–diffusion mismatch. Neurology 2010;75:10401047.
19.Campbell, BCV, Purushotham, A, Christensen, S, et al: The infarct core is well represented by the acute diffusion lesion: sustained reversal is infrequent. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2012; 32:5056.
20.Patel, MR, Edelman, RR, Warach, S: Detection of hyperacute primary intraparenchymal hemorrhage by magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke 1996;27:23212324.
21.Linfante, I, Llinas, RH, Caplan, LR, Warach, S: MRI features of intracerebral hemorrhage within 2 hours from symptom onset. Stroke 2002;30:22632267.
22.Chalela, JA, Latour, LL, Jeffries, N, et al: Hemorrhage and early MRI evaluation from the emergency room (HEME-ER): A prospective single center comparison of MRI to CT for the emergency diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with suspected acute cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 2003;34:239240.
23.Schellinger, PD, Fiebach, JB, Mohr, A, et al: The role of stroke MRI in intracranial and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Nervenarzt 2001;72:907917.
24.Schellinger, PD, Jansen, O, Fiebach, JB, et al: A standardized MRI protocol comparison with CT in hyperacute intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 1999;30:765768.
25.Assouline, E, Benziane, K, Reizine, D, et al: Intra-arterial thrombus visualized on T2 gradient echo imaging in acute ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 2005;20:611.
26.Dul, K, Drayer, BP: CT and MR imaging of intracerebral hemorrhage. In Kase, CS, Caplan, LR (eds): Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Boston: Butterworth–Heinemann, 1994, pp 7393.
27.Rumboldt, Z, Kalousek, M, Castillo, M: Hyperacute subarachnoid hemorrhage on T2-weighted MR images. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2003;24:472475.
28.Pexman, JHW, Barber, PA, Hill, MD, et al.: Use of the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) for Assessing CT Scans in Patients with Acute Stroke. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001;22:15341542.
29.Becker, H, Desch, H, Hacker, H, et al: CT fogging effect with ischemic cerebral infarcts. Neuroradiol 1978;18:185192.
30.Nicolaides, AN, Kalodiki, E, Ramaswami, G, et al: The significance of cerebral infarcts on CT scans in patients with transient ischemic attacks. In Bernstein, EF, Callow, AD, Nicolaides, AN, Shifrin, EG (eds): Cerebral Revascularisation. London, Med-Orion, 1993, pp 159178.
31.Inatomi, Y, Kimura, K, Yonehara, T, et al: DWI abnormalities and clinical characteristics in TIA patients. Neurology 2004;62:376380.
32.Winbeck, K, Bruckmaier, K, Etgen, T, et al: Transient ischemic attack and stroke can be differentiated by analyzing early diffusion-weighted imaging signal intensity changes. Stroke 2004;35:10951099.
33.Lamy, C, Oppenheim, C, Calvet, D, et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in transient ischaemic attacks. Eur Radiol 2006;16:10901095.
34.Bykowski, J, Latour, LL, Warach, S: More accurate identification of reversible ischemic injury in human stroke by cerebrospinal fluid suppressed diffusion-weighted imaging. Stroke 2004;35:11001106.
35.Prabhakaran, S, Chong, JY, Sacco, RL: Impact of abnormal diffusion-weighted imaging results on short-term outcome following transient ischemic attack. Arch Neurol 2007;64:11051109.
36.Redgrave, JNE, Coutts, SB, Schulz, UG, et al: Systematic review of associations between the presence of acute ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging and clinical predictors of early stroke risk after transient ischemic attack. Stroke 2007;38:14821488.
37.Sylaja, PN, Coutts, SB, Subramaniam, S, et al: Acute ischemic lesions of varying ages predict risk of ischemic events in stroke/TIA patients. Neurology 2007;68:415419.
38.Caplan, LR: Transient ischemic attack with abnormal diffusion-weighted imaging results. What’s in a name? Arch Neurol 2007; 64:10801082.
39.Adams, HP Jr, Kassell, NF, Turner, JC, et al: CT and clinical correlations in recent aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A preliminary report of the Cooperative Aneurysm Study. Neurology 1983;33:981988.
40.Fishman, RA: Cerebrospinal fluid in cerebrovascular disorders. In Barnett, HJM, Mohr, JP, Stein, BM, Yatsu, FJ (eds): Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1986, pp 109117.
41.Schluep, M, Bogousslavsky, J: Cerebrospinal fluid in cerebrovascular disease. In Ginsberg, MD, Bogousslavsky, J (eds): Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management, vol 2. Boston: Blackwell Science, 1998, pp 12211226.
42.Van der Meulen, JP: Cerebrospinal fluid xanthrochromia: An objective index. Neurology 1966;16:170178.
43.Soderstrom, CE: Diagnostic significance of CSF spectrophotometry and computer tomography in cerebrovascular disease: A comparative study in 231 cases. Stroke 1977;8:606612.
44.Davalos, A, Blanco, M, Pedraza, S, et al: The clinical-DWI mismatch: A new diagnostic approach to the brain tissue at risk of infarction. Neurology. 2004;62:21872192.
45.Caplan, LR: Significance of unexpected (silent) brain infarcts. In Caplan, LR, Shifrin, EG, Nicolaides, AN, Moore, WS (eds): Cerebrovascular Ischaemia: Investigation and Management. London: Med-Orion, 1996, pp 423433.
46.Yamamoto, H, Bogousslavsky, J: Mechanisms of second and further strokes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;64:771776.
47.Caplan, LR: Reperfusion of ischemic brain: Why and why not? In Hacke, W, del Zoppo, G, Hirschberg, M (eds): Thrombolytic Therapy in Acute Stroke. Berlin: Springer, 1991, pp 3645.
48.Ropper, AH: Lateral displacement of the brain and level of consciousness in patients with an acute hemispheral mass. N Engl J Med 1986;314:953958.
49.Ropper, AH: A preliminary MRI study of the geometry of brain displacement and level of consciousness with acute intracranial masses. Neurology 1989;39:622627.
50.Lansberg, MG, Thijs, VN, O’Brien, MW, et al: Evolution of apparent diffusion coefficient, diffusion-weighted, and T2-weighted signal intensity of acute stroke. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001;22:637644.
51.Weisberg, LA, Stazio, A, Shamsnia, M, et al: Nontraumatic parenchymal brain hemorrhages. Medicine (Baltimore) 1990;69:277295.
52.Delgado Almandoz, JE, Schaefer, PW, Forero, NP, et al: Diagnostic accuracy and yield of multidetector CT angiography in the evaluation of spontaneous intraparenchymal cerebral hemorrhage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2009;30:12131221.
53.Kase, CS: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In Kase, CS, Caplan, LR (eds): Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Boston: Butterworth–Heinemann, 1994, pp 179200.
54.Hauw, J-J, Seilhean, D, Duyckaerts, CH: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In Ginsberg, MD, Bogousslavsky, J (eds): Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. Boston: Blackwell, 1998, pp 17721794.
55.Kase, C, Robinson, R, Stein, R, et al: Anticoagulant-related intracerebral hemorrhages. Neurology 1985;35:943948.
56.Kase, CS: Bleeding disorders. In Kase, CS, Caplan, LR (eds): Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Boston: Butterworth–Heinemann, 1994, pp 117151.
57.Broderick, JP, Brott, TG, Duldner, JE, Tomsick, T, Huster, G. Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage: a powerful and easy-to-use predictor of 30-day mortality. Stroke 1993;24:987993.
58.Wada, R, Aviv, RI, Fox, A, et al: CT angiography “spot sign” predicts hematoma expansion in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 2007;38:12571262.
59.Demchuk, AM, Dowlatshahi, D, Rodriguez-Luna, D, et al; and PREDICT Group: Prediction of haematoma growth and outcome in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage using the CT-angiography spot sign (PREDICT): A prospective observational study. Lancet Neurol 2012;11:307314.
60.Weisberg, L: Computed tomography in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurology 1979;29:802808.
61.Adams, H, Kassell, N, Torner, J, et al: CT and clinical correlations in recent aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A preliminary report of the cooperative aneurysm study. Neurology 1983;33:981988.
62.van Gijn, J, van Dongen, K: Computerized tomography in subarachnoid hemorrhage: Difference between patients with and without an aneurysm on angiography. Neurology 1980;30:538539.
63.van Gijn, J, van Dongen, KJ, Vermeulen, M, et al: Perimesencephalic hemorrhage: A non-aneurysmal and benign form of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurology 1985;35:493497.
64.Rinkel, GJ, Wijdicks, EF, Vermeulen, M, et al: Outcome in perimesencephalic (non-aneurysmal) subarachnoid hemorrhage: A follow-up study in 37 patients. Neurology 1990;40:11301132.
65.Kumar, S, Goddeau, RP Jr, Selim, MH, et al: Atraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage: clinical presentation, imaging patterns, and etiologies. Neurology 2010;74:893899.
66.Kistler, JP, Crowell, R, Davis, K, et al: The relation of cerebral vasospasm to the extent and location of subarachnoid blood visualized by CT scan: A prospective study. Neurology 1983;33:424437.
67.Mohsen, F, Pominis, S, Illingworth, R: Prediction of delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage by computed tomography. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1984;47:11971202.
68.Kern, R, Szabo, K, Hennerici, M, Meairs, S: Characterization of carotid artery plaques using real-time compound B-mode ultrasound. Stroke 2004;35:870875.
69.Landry, A, Spence, JD, Fenster, A: Measurement of carotid plaque volume by 3-dimensional ultrasound. Stroke 2004;35:864869.
70.O’Donnell, TF, Erdoes, L, Mackey, W, et al: Correlation of B-mode ultrasound imaging and arteriography with pathologic findings at carotid endarterectomy. Arch Surg 1985;120:443449.
71.Hennerici, M, Baezner, H, Daffertshofer, M: Ultrasound of cervical arteries. In Caplan, LR, Manning, WJ (eds): Brain Embolism. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2006, pp 223242.
72.Schenk, EA, Bond, G, Aretz, T, et al: Multicenter validation study of real-time ultrasonography, arteriography and pathology: Pathologic evaluation of carotid endarterectomy specimens. Stroke 1988;19:289296.
73.Hennerici, M, Meairs, S: Imaging arterial wall disease. Cerebrovasc Dis 2000;10(Suppl 5):920.
74.Gronholdt, M-LM, Nordestgaard, BG, Nielsen, TG, Sillesen, H: Echolucent carotid artery plaques are associated with elevated levels of fasting and postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Stroke 1996;27:21662172.
75.Geroulakos, G, Hobson, RW, Nicolaides, AW: Ultrasonic carotid plaque morphology. In Caplan, LR, Shifrin, EG, Nicolaides, AN, Moore, WS (eds): Cerebrovascular Ischaemia: Investigation and Management. London: Med-Orion, 1996, pp 2532.
76.O’Leary, DH, Polka, JF, Kronmal, RA, et al: Thickening of the carotid wall: A marker for atherosclerosis in the elderly? Stroke 1996;27:224231.
77.Bots, ML, Hoes, AW, Koudstaal, PJ, et al: Common carotid intima-media thickness and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction: The Rotterdam Study. Circulation 1997;96:14321437.
78.O’Leary, DH, Polak, JF, Kronmal, RA, et al: Carotid artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke risk in older adults. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1422.
79.Yakushiji, Y, Yasaka, M, Takada, T, Minematsu, K: Serial transoral carotid ultrasonographic findings in extracranial internal carotid artery dissection. J Ultrasound Med 2005;24:877880.
80.Yakushijji, Y, Takase, Y, Kosugi, M, et al: Transoral carotid ultrasonography is useful for detection and follow-up of extracranial internal carotid artery dissecting aneurysm. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007;24:144146.
81.Forteza, A, Krejza, J, Koch, S, Babikian, V: Ultrasound imaging of cerebrovascular disease. In Babikian, VL, Wechsler, LR, Higashida, RT (eds): Imaging Cerebrovascular Disease. Philadelphia: Butterworth–Heinemann, 2003, pp 335.
82.von Reutern, GM, von Budingen, HJ: Ultrasound Diagnosis of Cerebrovascular Disease. New York: Georg Thieme, 1993.
83.Bartels, E: Color-Coded Duplex Ultrasonography of the Cerebral Vessels. Stuttgart: Schattauer, 1998.
84.Steinke, W, Kloetzsch, C, Hennerici, M: Carotid artery disease assessed by color Doppler flow imaging: correlation with standard Doppler sonography and angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1990;11:259266.
85.Steinke, W, Hennerici, M, Rautenberg, W, Mohr, JP: Symptomatic and asymptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis in Doppler color-flow imaging. Neurology 1992;42;131138.
86.Steinke, W, Ries, S, Artemis, N, et al: Power Doppler imaging of carotid artery stenosis. Comparison with color Doppler flow imaging and angiography. Stroke 1997;28:19811987.
87.Griewing, B, Doherty, C, Kessler, CH: Power Doppler ultrasound examination of the intracerebral and extracerebral vasculature. J Neuroimaging 1996;6:3235.
88.Lenzi, GL, Vicenzini, E: The ruler is dead: An analysis of carotid plaque motion. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007;23:121125.
89.Aaslid, R: Transcranial Doppler Sonography. New York: Springer, 1986.
90.Alexandrov, AV (ed): Cerebrovascular Ultrasound in Stroke Prevention and Treatment. New York: Futura Blackwell Publishing, 2003.
91.Molina, CA, Alexandrov, AV: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound. In Caplan, LR, Manning, WJ (eds): Brain Embolism. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2006, pp 113128.
92.Babikian, VL, Wechsler, LR (eds): Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography, 2nd ed. Boston: Butterworth–Heinemann, 1999.
93.Otis, SM, Ringelstein, EB: The transcranial Doppler examination: Principles and applications of transcranial Doppler sonography. In Tegeler, CH, Babikian, VL, Gomez, CR (eds): Neurosonology. St Louis: Mosby, 1996, pp 113128.
94.Gomez, CR, Brass, LM, Tegeler, CH, et al: The trans-cranial Doppler standardization project. Phase 1 results. The TCD Study Group, American Society of Neuroimaging. J Neuroimaging 1993;3:190192.
95.Caplan, LR, Brass, LM, DeWitt, LD, et al: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound: Present status. Neurology 1990;40:696700.
96.Hennerici, M, Rautenberg, W, Sitzer, G, et al: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound for the assessment of intracranial arterial flow velocity. Surg Neurol 1987;27:439448.
97.Hennerici, M, Rautenberg, W, Schwartz, A: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound for the assessment of intracranial arterial flow velocity. II. Evaluation of intracranial arterial disease. Surg Neurol 1987;27:523532.
98.Demchuk, A, Christou, I, Wein, T, et al: Accuracy and criteria for localizing arterial occlusion with transcranial Doppler. J Neuroimaging 2000;10:112.
99.Demchuk, AM, Christou, I, Wein, T, et al: Specific transcranial Doppler flow findings related to the presence and site of arterial occlusion. Stroke 2000;31:140146.
100.Baumgartner, RW: Transcranial color duplex sonography in cerebrovascular disease: A systematic review. Cerebrovasc Dis 2003;16:413.
101.Krejza, J, Baumagartner, RW: Clinical applications of transcranial color-coded duplex sonography. J Neuroimaging 2004;14:215225.
102.Burns, PN: Overview of echo-enhanced vascular ultrasound imaging for clinical diagnosis in neurosonology. J Neuroimaging 1997;7(Suppl 1):S2S14.
103.Bogdahn, U, Becker, G, Schlief, R, et al: Contrast-enhanced transcranial color-coded real-time sonography. Stroke 1993;24:676684.
104.Delcker, A, Turowski, B: Diagnostic value of three-dimensional transcranial contrast duplex sonography. J Neuroimaging 1997;7:139144.
105.Stolz, E, Kaps, M: New techniques in ultrasound. In Babikian, VL, Wechsler, LR, Higashida, RT (eds): Imaging Cerebrovascular Disease. Philadelphia: Butterworth–Heinemann, 2003, pp 383401.
106.Sharma, VK, Tsivgoulis, G, Lao, AY, Alexandrov, AV: Role of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in evaluation of patients with cerebrovascular disease. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2007;7:820.
107.Tsivgoulis, G, Sharma, VK, Lao, AY, et al: Validation of transcranial Doppler with computed tomography angiography in acute cerebral ischemia. Stroke 2007;38:12451249.
108.Sharma, VK, Tsivgoulis, G, Lao, AY, et al: Noninvasive detection of diffuse intracranaial disease. Stroke 2007;38:31753181.
109Caplan, LR: Posterior Circulation Disease: Clinical Findings, Diagnosis, and Management. Boston: Blackwell, 1996.
110.Sliwka, U, Rautenberg, W: Multimodal ultrasound versus angiography for imaging the vertebrobasilar circulation. J Neuroimaging 1998;8:182.
111.Seiler, RW, Grolimund, P, Asaslid, R, et al: Cerebral vasospasm evaluated by transcranial ultrasound correlated with clinical grade and CT-visualized subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 1986;64:594600.
112.Becker, G, Greiner, K, Kaune, B, et al: Diagnosis and monitoring of subarachnoid hemorrhage by transcranial color-coded real time sonography. Neurosurgery 1991;28:814820.
113.Chaudhuri, R, Padayachee, TS, Lewis, RR, et al: Non-invasive assessment of the circle of Willis using transcranial pulsed Doppler ultrasound with angiographic correlation. Clin Radiol 1992;46:193197.
114.Anzola, GP, Gasparotti, R, Magoni, M, Prandini, F: Transcranial Doppler sonography and magnetic resonance angiography in the assessment of collateral hemispheric flow in patients with carotid artery disease. Stroke 1995;26:214217.
115.Klotzsch, C, Popescu, O, Berlit, P: Assessment of the posterior communicating artery by transcranial color-coded duplex sonography. Stroke 1996;27:486489.
116.Piepgras, A, Schmiedek, P, Leinsinger, G, et al: A simple test to assess cerebrovascular reserve capacity using transcranial Doppler sonography and acetazolamide. Stroke 1990;21:13061311.
117Dahl, A, Russell, D, Rootwelt, K, et al: Cerebral vasoreactivity assessed with transcranial Doppler and regional cerebral blood flow measurements. Dose, concentration, and time of the response to acetazolamide. Stroke 1995;26:23022306.
118.Valdueza, JM, Draganski, B, Hoffman, O, et al: Analysis of CO2 vasomotor reactivity and vessel diameter changes by simultaneous venous and arterial Doppler recordings. Stroke 1999;30:8186.
119.Yonas, H, Smith, HA, Durham, SR, et al: Increased stroke risk predicted by compromised cerebral blood flow reactivity. J Neurosurg 1993;79:483489.
120.Markus, HS: Transcranial Doppler detection of circulating cerebral emboli: A review. Stroke 1993;24:12461250.
121.Markus, HS, Harrison, MJ: Microembolic signal detection using ultrasound. Stroke 1995;26:15171519.
122.Tong, DC, Albers, GW: Transcranial Doppler-detected microemboli in patients with acute stroke. Stroke 1995;26:15881592.
123.Sliwka, U, Job, F-P, Wissuwa, D, et al: Occurrence of transcranial Doppler high-intensity transient signals in patients with potential cardiac sources of embolism: A prospective study. Stroke 1995;26:20672070.
124.Daffertshofer, M, Ries, S, Schminke, U, Hennerici, M: High-intensity transient signals in patients with cerebral ischemia. Stroke 1996;27:18441849.
125.Sliwka, U, Lingnau, A, Stohlmann, W-D, et al: Prevalence and time course of microembolic signals in patients with acute strokes: A prospective study. Stroke 1997;28:358363.
126.Ringelstein, EB, Droste, DW, Babikian, VL, et al: Consensus on microembolus detection by TCD. International Consensus Group on Microembolus Detection. Stroke 1998;29:725729.
127.Siebler, M, Nachtmann, A, Sitzer, M, et al: Cerebral microembolism and the risk of ischemia in asymptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis. Stroke 1995;26:21842186.
128.Molloy, J, Markus, HS: Asymptomatic embolization predicts stroke and TIA risk in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Stroke 1999;30:14401443.
129.Segura, T, Serena, J, Molins, A, Davalos, A: Clusters of microembolic signals: A new form of cerebral microembolism presentation in a patient with middle cerebral artery stenosis. Stroke 1998;29:722724.
130.Wong, KS, Li, H, Chan, YL, et al: Use of trans-cranial Doppler to predict outcome in patients with intracranial large-artery occlusive disease. Stroke 2003;31:26412647.
131.Gao, S, Wong, KS, Hansberg, T, et al: Microembolic signal predicts recurrent cerebral ischemic events in acute stroke patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis. Stroke 2004;35:28322836.
132.Mackinnon, AD, Aaslid, R, Markus, HS: Long-term ambulatory monitoring for cerebral emboli using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Stroke 2004;35:7378.
133.Teague, SM, Sharma, MK: Detection of paradoxical cerebral echo contrast embolization by transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Stroke 1991;22:740745.
134.Chimowitz, MI, Nemec, JJ, Marwick, TH, et al: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound identifies patients with right-to-left cardiac or pulmonary shunts. Neurology 1991;41:19021904.
135.Albert, A, Muller, HR, Hetzel, A: Optimized transcranial Doppler technique for the diagnosis of cardiac right-to-left shunts. J Neuroimaging 1997;7:159163.
136.Di Tullio, M, Sacco, RL, Venketasubramanian, N, et al: Comparison of diagnostic techniques for the detection of a patent foramen ovale in stroke patients. Stroke 1993;24:10201024.
137.Klotzsch, C, Janzen, G, Berlit, P: Transesophageal echocardiography and contrast-TCD in the detection of a patent foramen ovale. Experiences with 111 patients. Neurology 1994;44:16031606.
138.Jauss, M, Zanette, E: Detection of right-to-left shunt with ultrasound contrast agent and trans-cranial Doppler sonography. Cerebrovasc Dis 2000;10:490496.
139.Sastry, S, Daly, K, Chengodu, T, McCollum, C: Is transcranial Doppler for the detection of venous-to-arterial circulation shunts reproducible? Cerebrovasc Dis 2007;23:424429.
140.Baumgartner, RW, Gonner, F, Arnold, M, Muri, R: Transtemporal power- and frequency-based color-coded duplex sonography of cerebral veins and sinuses. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1997;18:17711781.
141.Stolz, E, Kaps, M, Dorndorf, W: Assessment of intracranial venous hemodynamics in normal individuals and patients with cerebral venous thrombosis. Stroke 1999;30:7075.
142.Ries, S, Steinke, W, Neff, KW, Hennerici, M: Echocontrast enhanced transcranial color-coded sonography for the diagnosis of transverse sinus thrombosis. Stroke 1997;28:696700.
143.Valdueza, JM, Hoffmann, O, Weih, M, et al: Monitoring of venous hemodynamics in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis by transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Arch Neurol 1999;56:229234.
144.Becker, G, Bogdahn, U, Gehlberg, C, et al: Transcranial color-coded real-time sonography of intracranial veins. J Neuroimaging 1995;5:8794.
145.Pressman, BD, Tourje, EJ, Thompson, JR: An early sign of ischemic infarction: Increased density in a cerebral artery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1987;8:645648.
146.Riedel, CH, Zoubie, J, Ulmer, S, Gierthmuehlen, J, Jansen, O: Thin-slice reconstructions of nonenhanced CT images allow for detection of thrombus in acute stroke. Stroke 2012;43:23192323.
147.Lays, D, Pruvo, JP, Godefroy, O, et al: Prevalence and significance of hyperdense middle cerebral artery in acute stroke. Stroke 1992;23:317324.
148.Tomsick, T, Brott, T, Barsan, W, et al: Prognostic value of the hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign and stroke scale score before ultraearly thrombolytic therapy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1996;17:7985.
149.Lee, TC, Bartlett, E, Fox, AJ, Symons, SP: The hypodense artery sign. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2005;26:20272029.
150.Grunholdt, ML: B-mode ultrasound and spiral CT for the assessment of carotid atherosclerosis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 2002;12:421435.
151.Frank, H: Characterization of atherosclerotic plaque by magnetic resonance imaging. Am Heart J 2001;141(Suppl 2):S45S48.
152.Yuan, C, Mitsumori, LM, Beach, KW, Maravilla, KR: Carotid atherosclerotic plaque: Noninvasive MR characterization and identification of vulnerable lesions. Radiology 2001;221:285299.
153.Adams, GJ, Greene, J, Vick, GW 3rd, et al: Tracking regression and progression of atherosclerosis in human carotid arteries using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Imaging 2004;22:12491258.
154.Honda, M, Kitagawa, N, Tsutsumi, K, et al: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging for detection of carotid plaques. Neurosurgery 2006;58:338346.
155.Hatsukami, TS, Ross, R, Polissar, NL, Yuan, C: Visualization of fibrous cap thickness and rupture in human atherosclerotic carotid plaque in vivo with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 2000;102:959964.
156.Moody, AR, Murphy, RE, Morgan, PS, et al: Characterization of complicated carotid plaque with magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging in patients with cerebral ischemia. Circulation 2003;107:30473052.
157.Saloner, D, Acevedo-Bolton, G, Wintermark, M, Rapp, JH: MRI of geometric and compositional features of vulnerable carotid plaque. Stroke 2007;38(2):637641.
158.Touzé, E, Toussaint, J-F, Coste, J, et al; for the High-Resolution Magnetic Resonanace Imaging in Atherosclerotic Stenosis of the Carotid Artery (HIRISC) Study Group: Reproducibility of high-resolution MRI for the identification and the quantification of carotid atherosclerotic plaque components. Stroke 2007;38:18121819.
159.Yuan, C, Mitsumori, LM, Ferguson, MS, et al: In vivo accuracy of multispectral magnetic resonance imaging for identifying lipid-rich necrotic cores and intraplaque hemorrhage in advanced human carotid plaques. Circulation 2001;104:20512056.
160.Botnar, RM, Buecker, A, Wiethoff, AJ, et al: In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of coronary thrombosis using a fibrin-binding molecular magnetic resonance contrast agent. Circulation 2004;110:14631466.
161.Sirol, M, Fuster, V, Badimon, JJ, et al: Chronic thrombus detection with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and a fibrin-targeted contrast agent. Circulation 2005;112:15941600.
162.Klein, IF, Lavallee, PC, Schouman-Claeys, E, Amaraenco, P: High-resolution MRI identifies basilar artery plaques in paramedian pontine infarct. Neurology 2005;64:551552.
163.Klein, IF, Lavallee, PC, Touboul, P-J, et al: In vivo middle cerebral artery plaque imaging by high-resolution MRI. Neurology 2006;67:327329.
164.Lam, WW, Wong, KS, So, NM, et al: Plaque volume measurement by magnetic resonance imaging as an index of remodeling of middle cerebral artery: Correlation with transcranial color Doppler and magnetic resonance angiography. Cerebrovasc Dis 2004;17:166169.
165.Chalela, JA, Haaymore, JB, Ezzeddine, MA, et al: The hypointense MCA sign. Neurology 2002;58:1470.
166.Cho, K-H, Kim, JS, Kwon, SU, et al: Significance of susceptibility vessel sign on T2*-weighted gradient echo imaging for identification of stroke subtypes. Stroke 2005;36:23792383.
167.Hermier, M, Nighoghossian, N: Contribution of susceptibility-weighted imaging to acute stroke assessment. Stroke 2004;35:19891994.
168.Assouline, E, Benziane, K, Reizine, D, et al: Intra-arterial thrombus visualized on T2* gradient echo imaging in acute ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 2005;20:611.
169.Idbaih, A, Boukobza, M, Crassard, I, et al: MRI of clot in cerebral venous thrombosis: high diagnostic value of susceptibility-weighted images. Stroke 2006;37:991995.
170.Selim, M, Fink, J, Linfante, I, et al: Diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis with echo-planar T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Neurol 2002;59:10211026.
171.Lovblad, KO, Bassetti, C, Schneider, J, et al: Diffusion-weighted MR in cerebral venous thrombosis. Cerebrovasc Dis 2001;11:169176.
172.Favrole, P, Guichard, JP, Crassard, I, et al: Diffusion-weighted imaging of intravascular clots in cerebral venous thrombosis. Stroke 2004;35:99103.
173.Essig, M, von Kummer, R, Egelhof, T, et al: Vascular MR contrast enhancement in cerebrovascular disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1996;17:887894.
174.Lazar, EB, Russell, EJ, Cohen, BA, et al: Contrast-enhanced MR of cerebral arteritis: Intravascular enhancement related to flow stasis within areas of focal arterial ectasia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1992;13:271276.
175.Warach, S, Latour, LI: Evidence of reperfusion injury, exacerbated by thrombolytic therapy, in human focal brain ischemia using a novel imaging marker of early blood–brain barrier disruption. Stroke 2004;35(Suppl 1):26592661.
176.Latour, LL, Kang, DW, Ezzeddine, MA, et al: Early blood–brain barrier disruption in human focal brain ischemia. Ann Neurol 2004;56:468477.
177.Schellinger, PD, Chalela, JA, Kang, DW, et al: Diagnostic and prognostic value of early MR Imaging vessel signs in hyperacute stroke patients imaged <3 hours and treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2005;26:618624.
178.Bang, OY, Buck, BH, Saver, JL, et al: Prediction of hemorrhagic transformation after recanalization therapy using T2*-permeability magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Neurol 2007;62:170176.
179.Singer, OC, Humpich, MC, Fiehler, J, et al: Risk for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after thrombolysis assessed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Neurol 2008;63:5260.
180.Campbell, BCV, Christensen, S, Butcher, KS, et al: Regional very low cerebral blood volume predicts hemorrhagic transformation better than diffusion-weighted imaging volume and thresholded apparent diffusion coefficient in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2010;41:8288.
181.Kim, JH, Bang, OY, Liebeskind, DS, et al: Impact of baseline tissue status (diffusion-weighted imaging lesion) versus perfusion status (severity of hypoperfusion) on hemorrhagic transformation. Stroke 2010;41:e135e142.
182.Campbell, BCV, Christensen, S, Parsons, MW, et al: Advanced imaging improves prediction of hemorrhage after stroke thrombolysis. Ann Neurol 2013;73:510519.
183.Edelman, RR, Mattle, HP, Atkinson, DJ, et al: MR angiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1990;154:937946.
184.Bradley, WG: Magnetic resonance angiography. In Babikian, VL, Wechsler, LR, Higashida, RT (eds): Imaging Cerebrovascular Disease. Philadelphia: Butterworth–Heinemann, 2003, pp 3750.
185.Qureshi, A, Isa, A, Cinnamon, J, et al: Magnetic resonance angiography in patients with brain infarction. J Neuroimaging 1998;8:6570.
186.Gillard, JH, Oliverio, PJ, Barker, PB, et al: MR angiography in acute cerebral ischemia of the anterior circulation: A preliminary report. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1997;18:343350.
187.Yano, T, Kodama, T, Suzuki, Y, Watanabe, K: Gadolinium-enhanced 3D time-of-flight MR angiography. Acta Radiol 1997;38:4754.
188.Leclerc, X, Martinat, P, Godefroy, O, et al: Contrast-enhanced three-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) MR angiography of supraaortic vessels: Preliminary results. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1998;19:14051413.
189.U-King-Im, J, Trivedi, R, Graves, M, et al: Contrast-enhanced MR angiography for carotid disease: Diagnostic and potential clinical impact. Neurology 2004;62:12821290.
190.Mitti, RL, Broderick, M, Carpenter, JP, et al: Blinded-reader comparison of magnetic resonance angiography and Duplex ultrasonography for carotid artery bifurcation stenosis. Stroke 1994;25:410.
191.Levi, CR, Mitchell, A, Fitt, G, Donnan, GA: The accuracy of magnetic resonance angiography in the assessment of extracranial carotid artery occlusive disease. Cerebrovasc Dis 1996;6:231236.
192.Bash, S, Villablanca, JP, Duckwiler, G, et al: Intracranial vascular stenosis and occlusive disease. Evaluation with CT angiography, MR angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2005;26:10121021.
193.Uehara, T, Mori, E, Tabuchi, M, et al: Detection of occlusive lesions in intracranial arteries by three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography. Cerebrovasc Dis 1994;4:365370.
194.Johnson, BA, Heiserman, JE, Drayer, BP, Keller, PJ: Intracranial MR angiography: Its role in the integrated approach to brain infarction. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1994;15:901908.
195.Ko, SB, Kim, D-E, Kim, SH, Roh, J-K: Visualization of venous system by time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography. J Neuroimaging 2006;16:353356.
196.Amin-Hanjani, S, Du, X, Rose-Finnell, L, et al; on behalf of the VERiTAS Study Group: Hemodynamic features of symptomatic vertebrobasilar disease. Stroke 2015;46:18501856.
197.Roberts, HC, Lee, TJ, Dillon, WP: Computed tomography angiography. In Babikian, VL, Wechsler, LR, Higashida, RT (eds): Imaging Cerebrovascular Disease. Philadelphia: Butterworth–Heinemann, 2003, pp 5171.
198.Leclerc, X, Godefroy, O, Pruvo, JP, Leys, D: Computed tomographic angiography for the evaluation of carotid artery stenosis. Stroke 1995;26:15771581.
199.Josephson, S, Bryant, S, Mak, H, et al: Evaluation of carotid stenosis using CT angiography in the initial evaluation of stroke and TIA. Neurology 2004;63:457460.
200.Feasby, T, Findlay, J: CT angiography for the assessment of carotid stenosis. Neurology 2004;63:412413.
201.Bartlett, ES, Walters, TD, Symons, SP, Fox, AJ: Carotid stenosis index revisited with direct CT angiography measurement of carotid arteries to quantify carotid stenosis. Stroke 2007;38:286291.
202.Wong, KS, Liang, EY, Lam, WWM, et al: Spiral computed tomography angiography in the assessment of middle cerebral artery occlusive disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995;59:537539.
203.Skutta, B, Furst, G, Eilers, J, et al: Intracranial stenoocclusive disease: Double detector helical CTA versus digital subtraction angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1999;20:791799.
204.Brisman, J, Song, JK, Newell, DW: Cerebral aneurysms. N Engl J Med 2006;355:928939.
205.Nguyen-Huynh, MN, Wintermark, M, English, J, et al: How accurate is CT angiography in evaluating intracranial atherosclerotic disease? Stroke 2008;39:11841188.
206.Nijjar, S, Patel, B, McGinn, G, West, M: Computed tomographic angiography as the primary diagnostic study in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neuroimaging 2007;17:295299.
207.Wada, R, Aviv, RI, Fox, AJ, et al: CT angiography “spot sign” predicts hematoma expansion in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 2007;38:12571262.
208.Davis, SM, Broderick, J, Hennerici, M, et al: Hematoma growth is a determinant of mortality and poor outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology 2006;66:11751181.
209.Rodriguez-Luna, D, Dowlatshahi, D, Aviv, RI, et al; and the PRSICS Group: Venous phase of computed tomography angiography increases spot sign detection, but intracerebral hemorrhage expansion is greater in spot signs detected in arterial phase. Stroke 2014;45:734739.
210.Warach, S, Li, W, Ronthal, M, Edelman, R: Acute cerebral ischemia: evaluation with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging and MR angiography. Radiology 1992;182:4147.
211.Fisher, M, Prichard, JW, Warach, S. New magnetic resonance techniques for acute ischemic stroke. JAMA 1995;274:908911.
212.Rother, J, Guckel, F, Neff, W, et al: Assessment of regional cerebral blood flow volume in acute human stroke by use of a single-slice dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke 1996;27:10881093.
213.Sorensen, AG, Buonanno, F, Gonzalez, RG, et al: Hyperacute stroke: evaluation with combined multisection diffusion-weighted and hemodynamically weighted echo-planar MR imaging. Radiology 1996;199:391401.
214.Schlaug, G, Benfield, A, Baird, AE, et al: The ischemic penumbra operationally defined by diffusion and perfusion MRI. Neurology 1999;53:15281537.
215.Schellinger, PD, Fiebach, JB, Jansen, O, et al: Stroke magnetic resonance imaging within 6 hours after onset of hyperacute cerebral ischemia. Ann Neurol 2001;49:460469.
216.Chaves, C, Silver, B, Staroselskaya, I, et al: Relation of perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical outcome in patients with ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 1999;9(Suppl 1):56.
217.Staroselskaya, I, Chaves, C, Silver, B, et al: Relationship between magnetic resonance arterial patency and perfusion–diffusion mismatch in acute ischemic stroke and its potential clinical use. Arch Neurol 2001;58:10691074.
218.Neumann-Haefelin, T, Moseley, ME, Albers, GW: New magnetic resonance imaging methods for cerebrovascular disease: emerging clinical applications. Ann Neurol 2000;47:559570.
219.Ostergaard, L, Sorensen, AG, Chesler, DA, et al: Combined diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted flow heterogeneity magnetic resonance imaging in acute stroke. Stroke 2000;31:10971103.
220.Chaves, CJ, Staroselskaya, I, Linfante, I, Llinas, R, et al: Patterns of perfusion-weighted imaging in patients with carotid artery occlusive disease. Arch Neurol 2003;60:237242.
221.Kane, I, Carpenter, T, Chappell, F, et al: Comparison of 10 different magnetic resonance perfusion imaging processing methods in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2007;38:31583164.
222.Wintermark, M, Flanders, AE, Velthuis, B, et al: Perfusion-CT assessment of infarct core and penumbra: receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in 130 patients suspected of acute hemispheric stroke. Stroke 2006;37:979985.
223.Bivard, A, McElduff, P, Spratt, N, Levi, C, Parsons, M: Defining the extent of irreversible brain ischemia using perfusion computed tomography. Cerebrovasc Dis 2011;31:238245.
224.Campbell, BC, Christensen, VS, Levi, CR, et al: Cerebral blood flow is the optimal CT perfusion parameter for assessing infarct core. Stroke 2011;42:34353440.
225.Kamalian, S, Maas, MB, Goldmacher, GV, et al: CT cerebral blood flow maps optimally correlate with admission diffusion-weighted imaging in acute stroke but thresholds vary by postprocessing platform. Stroke 2011;42:19231928.
226.Olivot, JM, Mlynash, M, Thijs, VN, et al: Optimal Tmax threshold for predicting penumbral tissue in acute stroke. Stroke 2009;40:469475.
227.Zaro-Weber, O, Moeller-Hartmann, W, Heiss, WD, Sobesky, J: Maps of time to maximum and time to peak for mismatch definition in clinical stroke studies validated with positron emission tomography. Stroke 2010;41:28172821.
228.Albers, GW, Thijs, VN, Wechsler, L, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging profiles predict clinical response to early reperfusion: the diffusion and perfusion imaging evaluation for understanding stroke evolution (DEFUSE) study. Ann Neurol 2006;60:508517.
229.Lansberg, MG, Straka, M, Kemp, S, et al: MRI profile and response to endovascular reperfusion after stroke (DEFUSE 2): A prospective cohort study. Lancet Neurol 2012;11:860867.
230.Davis, SM, Donnan, GA, Parsons, MW, et al: Effects of alteplase beyond 3 h after stroke in the Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial (EPITHET): A placebo-controlled randomised trial. Lancet Neurol 2008;7:299309.
231.Meretoja, AD, Strbian, D, Mustanoja, S, et al: Reducing in-hospital delay to 20 minutes in stroke thrombolysis. Neurology 2012;79:306313.
232.Meretoja, A, Weir, L, Ugalde, M, et al: Helsinki model cut stroke thrombolysis delays to 25 minutes in Melbourne in only 4 months. Neurology 2013;81:10711076.
233.Wong, EC: Quantifying CBF with pulsed ASL: Technical and pulse sequence factors. J Magn Reson Imaging 2005;22:727731.
234.Wang, Z, Wang, J, Connick, TJ, et al: Continuous ASL (CASL) perfusion MRI with an array coil and parallel imaging at 3T. Magn Reson Med 2005;54:732737.
235.Fernandez-Seara, MA, Wang, Z, Wang, J, et al: Continuous arterial spin labeling perfusion measurements using single shot 3D GRASE at 3 T. Magn Reson Med 2005;54:12411247.
236.Ances, BM, McGarvey, ML, Abrahams, JM, et al: Continuous arterial spin labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in patients before and after carotid endarterectomy. J Neuroimaging 2004;14:133138.
237.Yoo, R-E, Yun, TJ, Rhim, JH, et al: Bright vessel appearance on arterial spin labeling MRI for localizing arterial occlusion in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2015;46:564567.
238.Park, K-Y, Youn, YC, Chung, C-S, et al: Large-artery stenosis predicts subsequent vascular events in patients with transient ischemic attack. J Clin Neurol 2007;3:169174.
239.Perez, A, Restepo, L, Kleinman, J, et al: Patients with diffusion–perfusion mismatch on magnetic resonance imaging 48 hours or more after stroke symptom onset: Clinical and imaging features. J Neuroimaging 2006;16:329333.
240.Linfante, I, Llinas, RH, Schlaug, G, et al: Diffusion-weighted imaging and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale in the acute phase of posterior-circulation stroke. Arch Neurol 2001;58:621628.
241.Ma, H, Parsons, MW, Christensen, S, et al: A multicentre, randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled phase 3 study to investigate EXtending the time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits (EXTEND). Int J Stroke 2012;7:7480.
242.Campbell, BC, Mitchell, PJ, Yan, B, et al; and E-I investigators: A multicenter, randomized, controlled study to investigate EXtending the time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits with Intra-Arterial therapy (EXTEND-IA). Int J Stroke 2014;9:126132.
243.von Kummer, R, Weber, J: Brain and vascular imaging in acute ischemic stroke: The potential of computed tomography. Neurology 1997;49(Suppl 4):S52S55.
244.Nabavi, DG, Kloska, SP, Nam, E-M, et al: MOSAIC: Multimodal stroke assessment using computed tomography. Novel diagnostic approach for the prediction of infarction size and clinical outcome. Stroke 2002;33:28192826.
245.Koroshetz, W: Contrast computed tomography scan in acute stroke: “You can’t always get what you want but … you get what you need.” Ann Neurol 2002;51:415416.
246.Wintermark, M, Reichhart, M, Thiran, J-P, et al: Prognostic accuracy of cerebral blood flow measurement by perfusion computed tomography, at the time of emergency room admission, in acute stroke patients. Ann Neurol 2002;51:417432.
247.Wintermark, M, Reichart, M, Cuisenaire, O, et al: Comparison of admission perfusion computed tomography and qualitative diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in acute stroke patients. Stroke 2002;33:20252031.
248.Parsons, MW, Pepper, EM, Bateman, GA, et al: Identification of the penumbra and infarct core on hyperacute noncontrast and perfusion CT. Neurology 2007;68:730736.
249.Na, DG, Byun, HS, Lee, KH, et al: Acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery: Early evaluation with triphasic helical CT – Preliminary results. Radiology 1998;207:113122.
250.Lee, KH, Cho, S-J, Byun, HS, et al: Triphasic perfusion computed tomography in acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Arch Neurol 2000;57:990999.
251.Lee, KH, Lee, S-J, Cho, S-J, et al: Usefulness of triphasic perfusion computed tomography for intravenous thrombolysis with tissue-type plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke. Arch Neurol 2000;57:10001008.
252.Kohrmann, M, Juttler, E, Huttner, HB, et al: Acute stroke imaging for thrombolytic therapy – an update. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007;24:161169.
253.Menon, BK, Smith, EE, Modi, J, et al: Regional leptomeningeal score on CT angiography predicts clinical and imaging outcomes in patients with acute anterior circulation occlusions. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2011;32:16401645.
254.Wintermark, M, Meuli, R, Browaeys, P, et al: Comparison of CT perfusion and angiography and MRI in selecting stroke patients for acute treatment. Neurology 2007;68:694697.
255.Chalela, JA, Kidwell, CS, Nentwich, LM, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: A prospective comparison. Lancet 2007;369:293298.
256.Yonas, H, Wolfson, SK, Gur, D, et al: Clinical experience with the use of xenon-enhanced CT blood flow mapping in cerebral vascular disease. Stroke 1984;15:443450.
257.Yonas, H, Darby, JM, Marks, EC, et al: CBF measured by Xe-CT: Approach to analysis and normal values. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1991;11:716725.
258.Hilman, J, Sturnegk, P, Yonas, H, et al: Bedside monitoring of CBF with xenon-CT and a mobile scanner: A novel method in neurointensive care. Br J Neurosurg 2005;19:395401.
259.Fayad, P, Brass, LM: Single photon emission computed tomography in cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 1991;22:950954.
260.Caplan, LR: Question-driven technology assessment: SPECT as an example. Neurology 1991;41:187191.
261.Masdeu, JC, Brass, LM: SPECT imaging of stroke. J Neuroimaging 1995;5:514522.
262.Therapeutics and Technology Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology: Assessment of Brain SPECT. Neurology 1996;46:278285.
263.Masdeu, JC: Imaging of stroke with single-photon emission computed tomography. In Babikian, VL, Wechsler, LR, Higashida, RT (eds): Imaging Cerebrovascular Disease. Philadelphia: Butterworth–Heinemann, 2003, pp 131143.
264.Wintermark, M, Sesay, M, Barbier, E, et al: Comparative overview of brain perfusion imaging techniques. JNR J Neuroradiol 2005;32:294314.
265.Frackowiak, R: PET CBF investigations of stroke. In Welch, KMA, Caplan, LR, Reis, DJ, Siesjo, B, Weir, B (eds): Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases. San Diego: Academic Press, 1997, pp 636640.
266.Phelps, M, Mazziotta, J, Huang, S: Study of cerebral function with positron computed tomography. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1982;2:113162.
267.Baron, JC, Bousser, M-G, Rey, A, et al: Reversal of focal misery-perfusion syndrome by extra-intracranial arterial bypass in hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. Stroke 1981;12:454459.
268.Marchal, G, Furlong, M, Beaudouin, V, et al: Early spontaneous hyperperfusion after stroke: A marker of favorable tissue outcome. Brain 1996;119:409419.
269.Baron, J-C: Positron emission tomography. In Babikian, VL, Wechsler, LR, Higashida, RT (eds): Imaging Cerebrovascular Disease. Philadelphia: Butterworth–Heinemann, 2003, pp 115130.
270.Johnson, KA, Gregas, M, Becker, JA, et al: Imaging of amyloid burden and distribution in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Ann Neurol 2007;62:229234.
271.Vinters, HV: Imaging cerebral microvascular amyloid. Ann Neurol 2007;62:209212.
272.Caplan, LR, Wolpert, SM: Angiography in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease: A stroke neurologist and neuroradiologist’s views. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1991;12:593601.
273.Akers, DL, Markowitz, IA, Kerstein, MD: The value of aortic arch study in the evaluation of cerebrovascular insufficiency. Am J Surg 1987;154:230232.
274.Caplan, LR, Manning, WJ: Cardiac sources of embolism: The usual suspects. In Caplan, LR, Manning, WJ (eds): Brain Embolism. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2006, pp 129159.
275.DeRook, FA, Comess, KA, Albers, GW, Popp, RL: Transesophageal echocardiography in the evaluation of stroke. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:922932.
276.Grullon, C, Alam, M, Rosman, HS, et al: Transesophageal echocardiography in unselected patients with focal cerebral ischemia: When is it useful? Cerebrovasc Dis 1994;4:139145.
277.Daniel, WG, Mugge, A: Transesophageal echocardiography. N Engl J Med 1995;332:12681279.
278.Horowitz, DR, Tuhrim, S, Weinberger, J, et al: Transesophageal echocardiography: Diagnostic and clinical applications in the evaluation of the stroke patient. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 1997;6:332336.
279.Manning, WJ: Cardiac sources of embolism: Pathophysiology and identification. In Caplan, LR, Manning, WJ (eds): Brain Embolism. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2006, pp 161186.
280.Furlan, AJ, Reisman, M, Massaro, J, et al; and CI Investigators: Closure or medical therapy for cryptogenic stroke with patent foramen ovale. N Engl J Med 2012;366:991999.
281.Carroll, JD, Saver, JL, Thaler, DE, et al; and R Investigators: Closure of patent foramen ovale versus medical therapy after cryptogenic stroke. N Engl J Med 2013;368:10921100.
282.Caplan, LR: Of birds and nests and cerebral emboli. Rev Neurol 1991;147:265273.
283.Caplan, LR: Brain embolism. In Caplan, LR, Chimowitz, M, Hurst, JW (eds): Practical Clinical Neurocardiology. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1999, pp 35185.
284.Caplan, LR: The aorta as a donor source of brain embolism. In Caplan, LR, Manning, WJ (eds): Brain Embolism. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2006, pp 187201.
285.Amarenco, P, Davis, S, Jones, EF, et al; for The Aortic Arch Related Cerebral Hazard Trial Investigators: Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus warfarin in patients with stroke and aortic arch plaques. Stroke 2014;45:12481257.
286.Johnson, LL, Pohost, GM: Nuclear cardiology. In Schlant, RC, Alexander, RW (eds): Hurst’s The Heart, 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994, pp 22812323.
287.Caplan, LR. Translating what is known about neurological complications of coronary artery bypass grafting into action. Arch Neurol 2009;66:10631064.
288.Weinberger, J, Azhar, S, Danisi, F, et al: A new noninvasive technique for imaging atherosclerotic plaque in the aortic arch of stroke patients by transcutaneous real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Stroke 1998;29:673676.
289.Chatzikonstantinou, A, Krissak, R, Flüchter, S: CT angiography of the aorta is superior to transesophageal echocardiography for determining stroke subtypes in patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 2012;33:322328.
290.Svedlund, S, Wetterholm, R, Volkmann, R, Caidahl, K: Retrograde blood flow in the aortic arch determined by transesophageal Doppler ultrasound. Cerebrovasc Dis 2009;27:2228.
291.Hur, J, Kim, YJ, Lee, H-J, et al: Cardiac computed tomographic angiography for detection of cardiac sources of embolism in stroke patients. Stroke 2009;40:20732078.
292.Rokey, R, Rolak, LA, Harati, Y, et al: Coronary artery disease in patients with cerebrovascular disease: A prospective study. Ann Neurol 1985;16:5053.
293.Dhamoon, MS, Tai, W, Boden-Albala, B, et al: Risk of myocardial infarction or vascular death after first ischemic stroke. The Northern Manhattan Study. Stroke 2007;38:17521758.
294.Calvet, D, Touzé, E, Varenne, O, et al: Prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease in ischemic stroke patients: The PRECORIS study. Circulation 2010;121:16231629.
295.Yoo, J, Yang, JH, Choi, BW, et al: The frequency and risk of preclinical coronary artery disease detected using multichannel cardiac computed tomography in patients with ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 2012;33:286294.
296.Kim, WY, Danias, PG, Stuber, M, et al: Coronary magnetic resonance angiography for the detection of coronary stenoses. N Engl J Med 2001;345:18631869.
297.Budoff, MJ, Shaw, LJ, Liu, ST, et al: Long-term prognosis associated with coronary calcification: Observations from a registry of 25,253 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49:18601870.
298.Liao, J, Khalid, Z, Scallan, C, et al: Noninvasive cardiac monitoring for detecting paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or flutter after acute ischemic stroke: A systematic review. Stroke 2007;38:29352940.
299.Rizos, T, Güntner, J, Jenetsky, E, et al: Continuous stroke unit electrocardiographic monitoring versus 24-hour holter electrocardiography for detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after stroke. Stroke 2012;43:26892694.
300.Rabinstein, A: Prolonged cardiac monitoring for detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after cerebral ischemia. Stroke 2014;45:12081214.
301.Kishore, A, Vail, A, Majid, A, et al: Detection of atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke 2014;45:520526.
302.Patton, KK, Ellinor, PT, Hecklert, SR, et al: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide is a major predictor of the development of atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2009;120:17681777.
303.Hijazi, Z, Wallentin, L, Siegbahn, A, et al: N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide for risk assessment in patients with atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;61:22742284.
304.Warraich, HJ, Gandhavadi, M, Manning, WJ: Mechanical discordance of the left atrium and appendage. A novel mechanism of stroke in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Stroke 2014;45:14811484.
305.Lieb, WE, Flaharty, PM, Sergott, RC, et al: Color Doppler imaging provides accurate assessment of orbital blood flow in occlusive carotid artery disease. Ophthalmology 1991;98:548552.
306.Hedges, TR. Ocular ischemia. In Caplan, LR (ed): Brain Ischemia: Basic Concepts and Clinical Relevance. London: Springer, 1995, pp 6173.
307.Castillo, M, Kwock, L, Mukherij, SK: Clinical applications of proton MR spectroscopy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1996;17:115.
308.Pavlakis, SG, Kingsley, PB, Kaplan, GP, et al: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Use in monitoring MELAS treatment. Arch Neurol 1998;55:849852.
309.Koroshetz, WJ: New techniques in computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical imaging in cerebrovascular disease. In Babikian, VL, Wechsler, LR, Higashida, RT (eds): Imaging Cerebrovascular Disease. Philadelphia: Butterworth–Heinemann, 2003, pp 403412.
310.Cramer, SC, Nelles, G, Benson, RR, et al: A functional MRI study of subjects recovered from hemiparetic stroke. Stroke 1997;28:25182527.
311.Ward, NS, Brown, MM, Thompson, AJ, Frackowiak, RSJ: Neural correlates of motor recovery after stroke: a longitudinal fMRI study. Brain 2003;126:24762496.
312.Love, T, Haist, F, Nicol, J, Swinney, D: A functional neuroimaging investigation of the roles of structural complexity and task-demand during auditory sentence processing. Cortex 2006;42:577590.
313.Levine, SR, Brust, JCM, Futrell, N, et al: A comparative study of the cerebrovascular complications of cocaine-alkaloidal versus hydrochloride – a review. Neurology 1991;41:11731177.
314.Caplan, LR: Drugs. In Kase, CS, Caplan, LR (eds): Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Boston: Butterworth–Heinemann, 1994, pp 201220.
315.Alberico, RA, Patel, M, Casey, S, et al: Evaluation of the circle of Willis with three-dimensional CT angiography in patients with suspected intracranial aneurysms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1995;16:15711578.
316.Sekhar, L, Wechsler, L, Yonas, H, et al: Value of transcranial Doppler examination in the diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 1988;22:813821.
317.Sloan, MA, Haley, EC, Kassell, NF, et al: Sensitivity and specificity of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurology 1989;39:15141518.
318.Pollock, S, Tsitsopoulas, P, Harrison, M: The effect of hematocrit on cerebral perfusion and clinical status following occlusion in the gerbil. Stroke 1982;13:167170.
319.Harrison, M, Pollock, S, Kindoll, B, et al: Effect of hematocrit on carotid stenosis and cerebral infarction. Lancet 1981;2:114115.
320.Thomas, D, duBoulay, G, Marshall, J, et al: Effect of hematocrit on cerebral blood flow in man. Lancet 1977;2:941943.
321.Tohgi, H, Yamanouchi, H, Murakami, M, et al: Importance of the hematocrit as a risk factor in cerebral infarction. Stroke 1978;9:369374.
322.Grotta, J, Ackerman, R, Correia, J, et al: Whole-blood viscosity parameters and cerebral blood flow. Stroke 1982;13:296298.
323.Thomas, D: Whole blood viscosity and cerebral blood flow. Stroke 1982;13:285287.
324.Kee, DB Jr, Wood, JH: Influence of blood rheology on cerebral circulation. In Wood, JH (ed): Cerebral Blood Flow: Physiological and Clinical Aspects. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987, pp 173185.
325.Allport, LE, Parsons, MW, Butcher, KS, et al: Elevated hematocrit is associated with reduced reperfusion and tissue survival in acute stroke. Neurology 2005;65:13821387.
326.Adams, RJ, Nichols, FT, Figueroa, R, et al: Transcranial Doppler correlation with cerebral angiography in sickle cell disease. Stroke 1992;23:10731077.
327.Switzer, JA, Hess, DC, Nichols, FT, Adams, RJ: Pathophysiology and treatment of stroke in sickle-cell disease: Present and future. Lancet Neurol 2006;5:501512.
328.Adams, RJ: TCD in sickle cell disease: An important and useful test. Pediatr Radiol 2005;35:229234.
329.Adams, RJ, McKie, VC, Hsu, L, et al: Prevention of a first stroke by transfusions in children with sickle cell anemia and abnormal results on transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. N Engl J Med 1998;339:511.
330.Adams, RJ, Brambilla, D: Optimizing Primary Stroke Prevention in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP 2) Trial Investigators: Discontinuing prophylactic transfusions used to prevent stroke in sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med 2005;353:27692778.
331.Mercuri, M, Bond, MG, Evans, G, et al: Leukocyte count and carotid atherosclerosis. Stroke 1991;22:134.
332.Elkind, MS, Cheng, I, Boden-Albala, B, et al: Elevated white blood cell count and carotid plaque thickness: The Northern Manhattan Stroke Study. Stroke 2001;32:842849.
333.Elkind, MS, Sciacca, R, Boden-Albala, B, et al: Leukocyte count is associated with aortic arch plaque thickness. Stroke 2002;33:25872592.
334.Elkind, MS, Sciacca, RR, Boden-Albala, B, et al: Leukocyte count is associated with reduced endothelial reactivity. Atherosclerosis 2005;181:329338.
335.Elkind, MS, Sciacca, RR, Boden-Albala, B, et al: Relative elevation in baseline leukocyte count predicts first cerebral infarction. Neurology 2005;64:21212125.
336.Elkind, MS: Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Neurologist 2006;12:140148.
337.Bennett, JS, Kolodziej, MA: Disorders of platelet function. Dis Month 1992;38:557563.
338.Anderson, IR, Feinberg, WM: Primary platelet disorders. In Welch, KMA, Caplan, LR, Reis, DJ, Siesjo, BK, Weir, B (eds): Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases. San Diego, Academic Press, 1997, pp 401405.
339.Wu, K: Platelet hyperaggregability and thrombosis in patients with thrombocythemia. Ann Intern Med 1978;88:711.
340.Arboix, A, Besses, C, Acin, P, et al: Ischemic stroke as first manifestation of essential thrombocythemia: Report of six cases. Stroke 1995;26:14631466.
341.Ogata, J, Yonemura, K, Kimura, K, et al: Cerebral infarction associated with essential thrombocythemia: An autopsy case study. Cerebrovasc Dis 2005;19:201205.
342.Atkinson, JLD, Sundt, TM, Kazmier, FJ, et al: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in ischemic stroke. Mayo Clin Proc 1988;63:353361.
343.Arepally, GM, Ortel, TL: Clinical practice. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med 2006;355:809817.
344.Uchyama, S, Takeuchi, M, Osawa, M, et al: Platelet function tests in thrombotic cerebrovascular disorders. Stroke 1983;14:511517.
345.Ludlam, CA: Evidence for the platelet specificity of beta-thromboglobulin and studies on its plasma concentration in healthy individuals. Br J Haematol 1979;41:271278.
346.Fisher, M, Francis, R: Altered coagulation in cerebral ischemia: Platelet, thrombin, and plasmin activity. Arch Neurol 1990;47:10751079.
347.Helgason, CH, Bolin, KM, Hoff, JA, et al: Development of aspirin resistance in persons with previous ischemic stroke. Stroke 1994;25:23312336.
348.Yeh, RW, Everett, BM, Foo, SY, et al: Predictors for the development of elevated anti-heparin/platelet factor 4 antibody titers in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Am J Cardiol 2006;98:419421.
349.Qizilbash, N, Duffy, S, Prentice, CRM, et al: von Willebrand factor and risk of ischemic stroke. Neurology 1997;49:15521556.
350.Blann, AD: Plasma von Willebrand factor, thrombosis, and the endothelium: The first 30 years. Thromb Haemost 2006;95:4955.
351.Bowen, DJ, Collins, PW: Insights into von Willebrand factor proteolysis: Clinical implications. Br J Haematol 2006;133:457467.
352.Weiss, EJ, Bray, PF, Tayback, M, et al: A polymorphism of a platelet glycoprotein receptor as an inherited risk factor for coronary thrombosis. N Engl J Med 1996;334:10901094.
353.Kannel, WB, Wolf, PA, Castelli, WP, et al: Fibrinogen and risk of cardiovascular disease. JAMA 1987;258:11831186.
354.Coull, BM, Beamer, NB, deGarmo, PL, et al: Chronic blood hyperviscosity in subjects with acute stroke, transient ischemic attack, and risk factors for stroke. Stroke 1991;22:162168.
355.Beamer, N, Coull, BM, Sexton, G, et al: Fibrinogen and the albumin-globulin ratio in recurrent stroke. Stroke 1993;24:11331139.
356.Ernst, E, Resch, KL: Fibrinogen as a cardiovascular risk factor: A meta-analysis and review of the literature. Ann Intern Med 1993;118:956963.
357.Danesh, J, Lewington, S, Thompson, SG, et al: Plasma fibrinogen level and the risk of major cardiovascular diseases and nonvascular mortality: An individual participant meta-analysis. JAMA 2005;294:17991809.
358.Rothwell, PM, Howard, SC, Power, DA, et al: Fibrinogen concentration and risk of ischemic stroke and acute coronary events in 5113 patients with transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke. Stroke 2004;35:23002305.
359.Mora, S, Rifai, N, Buring, JE, Ridker, PM: Additive value of immunoassay-measured fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels for predicting incident cardiovascular events. Circulation 2006;114:381387.
360.The Ancrod Stroke Study Investigators: Ancrod for the treatment of acute ischemic brain infarction. Stroke 1994;25:17551759.
361.Atkinson, RP: Ancrod in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. a review of clinical data. Cerebrovasc Dis 1998;8(Suppl 1):2328.
362.Gonzales-Conejero, R, Fernandez-Cadenas, I, Iniesta, JA, et al: Role of fibrinogen levels and factor XIII V34L polymorphism in thrombolytic therapy in stroke patients. Stroke 2006;37:22882293.
363.Radack, K, Deck, C, Huster, G: Dietary supplementation with low-dose fish oils lowers fibrinogen levels: A randomized double-blind controlled study. Ann Intern Med 1989;111:757758.
364.Dashe, J: Hyperviscosity and stroke. In Bogousslavsky, J, Caplan, LR (eds): Uncommon Causes of Stroke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp 100109.
365.Rosenson, RS, Lowe, GD: Effects of lipids and lipoproteins on thrombosis and rheology. Atherosclerosis 1998;140:271280.
366.Ariyo, A, Thach, C, Tracy, R; for the Cardiovascular Health Study Investigators: Lp (a) lipoprotein, vascular disease, and mortality in the elderly. N Engl J Med 2003;349:21082115.
367.Ohira, T, Schreiner, P, Morrisett, JD, et al: Lipoprotein (a) and incident ischemic stroke. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Stroke 2006;37:14071412.
368.Arenillas, JF, Molina, CA, Chacon, P, et al: High lipoprotein (a), diabetes, and the extent of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis. Neurology 2004;63:2732.
369.Dahlback, B, Carlsson, M, Svensson, PJ: Familial thrombophilia due to a previously unrecognized mechanism characterized by poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C: Prediction of a cofactor to activated protein C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993;90:10041008.
370.Zoller, B, Dahlback, B: Linkage between inherited resistance to activated protein C and factor V gene mutation in venous thrombosis. Lancet 1994;343:15361538.
371.Coull, BM, Skaff, PT: Disorders of coagulation. In Bogousslavsky, J, Caplan, LR (eds): Uncommon Causes of Stroke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp 8695.
372.Ridker, PM, Miletich, JP, Stampfer, MJ, et al: Factor V Leiden and risks of recurrent idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Circulation 1997;95:17771782.
373.Poort, SR, Rosendaal, FR, Reitsma, PH, et al: A common genetic variation in the 3’ untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated prothrombin levels and an increase in venous thrombosis. Blood 1996;88:36983703.
374.Martinelli, I, Sacchi, E, Landi, G, et al: High risk of cerebral-vein thrombosis in carriers of a prothrombin-gene mutation and in users of oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med 1998;338:17931797.
375.Kosik, KS, Furie, B: Thrombotic stroke associated with elevated plasma factor VIII. Arch Neurol 1980;8:435437.
376.Bhopale, GM, Nanda, RK: Blood coagulation factor VIII: An overview. J Biosci 2003;28:783789.
377.Estol, C, Pessin, MS, DeWitt, LD, et al: Stroke and increased factor VIII activity. Neurology 1989;39:225.
378.Pan, W-H, Bai, C-H, Chen, J-R, Chiu, H-C: Associations between carotid atherosclerosis and high factor VIII activity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Stroke 1997;28:8894.
379.Anadure, RK, Nagaraja, D, Christopher, R: Plasma factor VIII in non-puerperal cerebral venous thrombosis: a prospective case-control study. J Neurol Sci 2014;339:140143.
380.Lip, GYH, Lane, D, Van Walraven, C, Hart, RG: Additive role of plasma von Willebrand factor levels to clinical factors for risk stratification of patients with atrial fibrillation. Stroke 2006;37:22942300.
381.Bongers, TN, de Maat, MP, van Goor, ML, et al: High von Willebrand factor levels increase the risk of first ischemic stroke: Influence of ADAMTS 13, inflammation, and genetic variability. Stroke 2006;37:26722677.
382.Markus, HS, Hambley, H: Neurology and the blood: haematological abnormalities in ischaemic stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;64:150159.
383.Feinberg, WM, Bruck, DC, Ring, ME, et al: Hemostatic markers in acute stroke. Stroke 1989;20:592597.
384.Feinberg, WM, Cornell, ES, Nightingale, SD, et al: Relationship between prothrombin activation fragment F1.2 and international normalized ratio in patients with atrial fibrillation. Stroke 1997;28:11011106.
385.Toghi, H, Kawashima, M, Tamura, K, et al: Coagulation–fibrinolysis abnormalities in acute and chronic phases of cerebral thrombosis and embolism. Stroke 1990;21:16631667.
386.Jeppeson, LL, Jorgensen, HS, Nakayama, H, et al: Tissue plasminogen activator is elevated in women with ischemic stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 1998;7:187191.
387.Feinberg, WM: Coagulation. In Caplan, LR (ed): Brain Ischemia: Basic Concepts and Clinical Relevance. London: Springer, 1995, pp 8596.
388.Palareti, G, Cosmi, B, Legnani, C, et al: D-dimer testing to determine the duration of anticoagulant therapy. N Engl J Med 2006;355:17801789.
389.Stallworth, C, Brey, R: Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. In Bogousslavsky, J, Caplan, LR (eds): Uncommon Causes of Stroke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp 6377.
390.Coull, BM, Goodnight, SH: Antiphospholipid antibodies, prothrombotic states, and stroke. Stroke 1990;21:13701374.
391.Levine, SR, Welch, KMA: The spectrum of neurologic disease associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: Lupus anticoagulants, and anticardiolipin antibodies. Arch Neurol 1987;44:876883.
392.Hess, DC, Sheppard, S, Adams, RJ: Increased immunoglobulin binding to cerebral endothelium in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. Stroke 1993;24:994999.
393.Levine, SR, Salowich-Palm, L, Sawaya, K, et al: IgG anticardiolipin antibody titer ϒ40GPL and the risk of subsequent thrombo-occlusive events and death. A prospective cohort study. Stroke 1997;28:16601665.
394.Ortel, TL: The antiphospholipid syndrome: What are we really measuring? How do we measure it? And how do we treat it? J Thromb Thrombolysis 2006;21:7983.
395.Tuhrim, S, Rand, JH, Horowitz, DR, et al: Antiphosphatidyl serine antibodies are independently associated with ischemic stroke. Neurology 1999;53:15231527.
396.Toschi, V, Motta, A, Castelli, C, et al: High prevalence of antiphosphatidylinositol antibodies in young patients with cerebral ischemia of undetermined cause. Stroke 1998;29:17591764.
397.Tanne, D, Triplett, D, Levine, SR: Antiphospholipid-protein antibodies and ischemic stroke: Not just cardiolipin anymore. Stroke 1998;29:17551758.
398.Francès, C, Papo, T, Wechsler, B, et al: Sneddon syndrome with or without antiphospholipid antibodies. A comparative study in 46 patients. Medicine 1999;78:209219.
399.Myers, R, Yamaguchi, S: Nervous system effects of cardiac arrest in monkeys. Arch Neurol 1977;34:6574.
400.Pulsinelli, W, Waldman, S, Rawlinson, D, et al: Hyperglycemia converts ischemic neuronal damage into brain infarction. Neurology 1982;32:12391246.
401.Plum, F: What causes infarction in ischemic brain? Neurology 1983;33:222233.
402.Pulsinelli, W, Levy, D, Sigsbel, B, et al: Increased damage after ischemic stroke in patients with hyperglycemia with or without established diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 1983;74:540544.
403.Bellolio, MF, Gilmore, RM, Stead, LG: Insulin for glycaemic control in acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011 Sep 7;(9):CD005346. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005346.pub3.
404.Walker, G, Williamson, P, Ravich, R, et al: Hypercalcemia associated with cerebral vasospasm causing infarction. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980;43:464467.
405.Gorelick, PB, Caplan, LR: Calcium, hypercalcemia, and stroke. Current concepts of cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 1985;20:1317.
406.Siesjo, B, Kristian, T: Cell calcium homeostasis and calcium-related ischemic damage. In Welch, KMA, Caplan, LR, Reis, DJ, et al. (eds): Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases. San Diego: Academic Press, 1997, pp 172178.
407.Henderson, GV, Caplan, LR: Calcium, hypercalcemia, magnesium, and brain ischemia. In Bogousslavsky, J, Caplan, LR (eds): Uncommon Causes of Stroke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp 110113.
408.Ovbiagele, B, Saver, J, Fredieu, A, et al: In-hospital initiation of secondary stroke prevention therapies yields high rates of adherence at follow-up. Stroke 2004;35:28792883.
409.Ovbiagele, B, Saver, J, Fredieu, A, et al: PROTECT. A coordinated stroke treatment program to prevent recurrent thromboembolic events. Neurology 2004;63:12171222.
410.Ridker, PM, Stampfer, MJ, Rifai, N: Novel risk factors for systemic atherosclerosis: A comparison of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, homcysteine, lipoprotein (a), and standard cholesterol screening as predictors of peripheral arterial disease. JAMA 2001;285:24812485.
411.Sacco, RL, Anand, K, Lee, H-S, et al: Homocysteine and the risk of ischemic stroke in a triethnic cohort. The Northern Manhattan Study. Stroke 2004;35:22632269.
412.Tanne, D, Haim, M, Goldbourt, U, et al: Prospective study of serum homocysteine and risk of ischemic stroke among patients with preexisting coronary heart disease. Stroke 2003;34:632636.
413.Eikelboom, JW, Hankey, GJ, Anand, SS, et al: Association between high homocyst(e)ine and ischemic stroke due to large and small-artery disease but not other etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke. Stroke 2000;31:10691075.
414.Bova, I, Chapman, J, Sylantiev, C, et al: The A677V methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism and carotid atherosclerosis. Stroke 1999;30:21802182.
415.Selhub, J, Jacques, PF, Rosenberg, IH, et al: Serum total homocysteine concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1991–1994): Population reference ranges and contribution of vitamin status to high serum concentrations. Ann Intern Med 1999;331339.
416.den Heijer, , Rosendaal, FR, Blom, HJ, Gerrits, WB, Bos, GM: Hyperhomocysteinemia and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis. Thromb Haemost 1998;80:874877.
417.Ridker, PM, Rifai, N, Rose, L, et al: Comparison of C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediction of first cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2002;347:15571565.
418.Eikelboom, JW, Hankey, GJ, Baker, RI, et al: C-reactive protein in ischemic stroke and its etiologic subtypes. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2003;12:7481.
419.Arenillas, JF, Alvarez-Sabin, J, Molina, CA, et al: C-reactive protein predicts further ischemic events in first-ever transient ischemic attack or stroke patients with intracranial large-artery occlusive disease. Stroke 2003;34:24632470.
420.Wakugawa, Y, Kiyohara, Y, Tanizaki, Y, et al: C-reactive protein and risk of first-ever ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in general Japanese population. The Hisayama Study. Stroke 2006;37:2732.
421.Schlager, O, Exner, M, Miekusch, W, et al: C-reactive protein predicts future cardiovascular events in patients with carotid stenosis. Stroke 2007;38:12631268.
422.Salvarani, C, Canini, F, Boiardi, L, Hunder, GG: Laboratory investigations useful in giant cell arteritis and Takayasu’s arteritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2003;21(Suppl 32):523528.
423.Lavigne-Lissalde, G, Schved, JF, Granier, C, Villard, S: Anti-factor VIII antibodies: A 2005 update. Thromb Haemost 2005;94:760769.
424.Franchini, M: Acquired hemophilia A. Hematology 2006;11:119125.
425.Saposnik, G, Caplan, LR: Convulsive-like movements in brainstem stroke. Arch Neurol 2001;54:654657.
426.Ropper, AH: “Convulsions” in basilar artery occlusions. Neurology 1988;38:15001501.
427.Carrera, E, Michel, P, Despland, PA, et al: Continuous assessment of electrical epileptic activity in acute stroke. Neurology 2006 11;67:99104.
428.Bladin, CF, Alexandrov, A, Bellavance, A, et al: Seizures after stroke: A prospective multicenter study. Arch Neurol 2000;57:16171622.
429.Wilber, DJ, Garan, H, Finkelstein, D, et al: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: Use of electrophysiologic testing in the prediction of long-term outcome. N Engl J Med 1988;318:1924.
430.Madl, C, Kramer, L, Domanovits, H, et al: Improved outcome prediction in unconscious cardiac arrest survivors with sensory evoked potentials compared with clinical assessment. Crit Care Med 2000;28:721726.
431.Wijdicks, EF, Hijdra, A, Young, GB, et al; For the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology Practice Parameter: Prediction of outcome in comatose survivors after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (an evidence-based review). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2006;67:203210.
432.Marx, J, Thoömke, F, Urban, PP, Bense, S, Dieterich, M: Electrophysiologic diagnostics. In Urban, PP, Caplan, LR (eds): Brainstem Disorders, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2011, pp 61101.
433.Alberts, MJ: Genetics of cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 2004;35:342344.
434.Meschia, JF, Worrall, BB: New advances in identifying genetic anomalies in stroke-prone probands. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2004;4:420426.
435.Dichgans, M, Hegele, RA: Update on the genetics of stroke and cerebrovascular disease – 2006. Stroke 2007;38:216218.
436.Dichgans, M: Genetics of ischaemic stroke. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:149161.
437.Sims, KB, Alberts, MJ, Caplan, LR. New Insights into the Diagnosis of Single-gene Disorders Associated with Cryptogenic Ischemic Stroke. CME Monograph. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky College of Medicine and CE Health Sciences Inc, 2010.
438.Debette, S, Bis, JC, Fornage, M, et al: Genome-wide association studies of MRI-defined brain infarcts: Meta-analysis from the CHARGE Consortium. Stroke 2010;41:210217.
439.Caplan, LR, Arenillas, J, Cramer, SC, et al: Stroke-related translational research (review). Arch Neurol 2011;68:11101123.
440.Falcone, GJ, Malik, R, Dichgans, M, Rosand, J: Current concepts and clinical applications of stroke genetics. Lancet Neurol 2014;13:405418.
441.Gretarsdottir, S, Thorleifsson, G, Reynisdottir, ST, et al: The gene encoding phosphodiesterase 4D confers risk of ischemic stroke. Nat Genet 2003;35:131138.
442.Yee, RYL, Brophy, VH, Cheng, S, et al: Polymorphisms of the phosphodiesterase 4D, camp-specific (PDE4D) gene and risk of ischemic stroke: A prospective, nested case-control evaluation. Stroke 2006;37:20122017.